Online Encyclopedia


Online Encyclopedia
Originally appearing in Volume V01, Page 148 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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JOHANN CHRISTIAN GOTTLIEB ACKERMANN (1756–1801), German physician, was born at Zeulenroda, in Upper Saxony, on the 17th of February 1756, and died at Altdorf on the 9th of March 18o1. At the age of fifteen he became a student of medicine at Jena under E. G. Baldinger, whom he followed to Gottingen in 1773, and afterwards he studied for two years at Halle. A. few years' practice at Stendal (1778–1799), where there were numerous factories, enabled him to add many valuable original observations to his translation (1780–1783) of Bernardino Ramazzini's (1633–1714) treatise on diseases of artificers. In 1786 he became professor of medicine at the university of Altdorf, in Franconia, occupying first the chair of chemistry, and then, from 1794 till his death in 18o1, that of pathology and therapeutics. He wrote 11,144 bones Historiae Medicinae (Nuremberg, x792)and Institutions Therapiae Generalis (Nuremberg and Altdorf, 1784–1795), besides various handbooks and translations. ACKERMANN, LOUISE VICTORINE CHOQUET (1813–189o), French poet, was born in Paris on the 3oth of November 1813. Educated by her father in the philosophy of the Encyclopaedists, Victorine Choquet went to Berlin in 1838 to study German, and there married in 1843 Paul Ackermann, an Alsatian philologist. After little more than two years of happy married life her husband died, and Madame Ackermann went to live at Nice with a favourite sister. In 1855 she published Conies en vers, and in 1862 Conies et poesies. Very different from these simple and charming conies is the work on which Madame Ackermann's real reputation rests. She published in 1874 Fairies, premieres poesies, poesies philosophiques, a volume of sombre and powerful verse, expressing her revolt against human suffering. The volume was enthusiastically reviewed in the Revue des deux mondes for May 1871 by E. Caro, who, though he deprecated the impiete desesperee of the verses, did full justice to their vigour and the excellence of their form. Soon after the publication of this volume Madame Ackermann removed to Paris,where she gathered round her a circle of friends, but published nothing further except a pose volume, the Pensees d'un solitaire (1883), to which she prefixed a short autobiography. She died at Nice on the 2nd of August 189o. See also Anatole France, La vie litte'raire, 4th series (1892) ; the comte d'Haussonville, Mme. Ackermann (1882) ; M. Citoleux, La poesie philosophique au XIXe. siecle (vol. i., Mme. Ackermann d'apres de nombreux documents inidits, Paris, 1906).
FRANCIS ACKERMAN (c. 1335–1387)

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