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AFFINITIES

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Originally appearing in Volume V19, Page 368 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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AFFINITIES.—The position of the Nemertines in the animal kingdom is now looked upon as more isolated than was formerly thought, and recent writers have been inclined to treat them as a separate phylum. Whether this view be adopted or not, and whether the urbellaria be regarded as nearly related or only remotely connected, there can be little doubt that the Nemertines resemble the Turbellaria more nearly than they do any other group of animals. Biirer even goes so far as to homologize the proboscis with the Turbellarfan" Einige Bemerkungen zur Metamorphose des Pilidium," Archie fur Naturgeschichte (1873) ; L. von Graff, Monographie der Tut.. bellarien (1882) ; A. A. W. Hubrecht, " Untersuchungen fiber Nemertinen a. d. Golf von Neapel," Niederl. Archiv fur Zoologie, ii.; Id., " The Genera of European Nemerteans critically revised," Notes from the Leyden Museum (1879) ; Id., " Zar Anatomie u. Physiologie Nervensystems d. Nemertinen," Verh. kon. Akad. v. Wetensch. (Amsterdam, 188o), vol. xx.; Id., " The Peripheral Nervous System of the Palaeo- and Schizonemertini, one of the layers of the Body-wall," Quart. Journal of Micr. Science, vol. xx.; Id., " On the Ancestral Forms of the Chordata," lb. (July 1883) ; W. Keferstein, " Untersuchungen fiber niedere Seethiere," Zeitschr. f. wissensch. Zool. vol. xii. (1863); J. von Kennel, " Beitrage zur Kenntniss der Nemertinen," Arbeiten a. d. zool.-zoot. Instil. ii. (Wiirzburg, 1878) ; W. C. Maclntosh, A Monograph of British Annelida: I. Nemerteans (Ray Society, 1873–1874) ; A. F. Marion, " Recherches sur les animaux inferieurs du Golfe de Marseille," Ann. des Sc. Nat. (1873) ; E. Metsch,likoff, " Studien fiber die Entwickelung der Echinodermen and Nemertinen," Mein. de l'Acad. Imp. de St Petersb. xiv. (1869) ; Max Schultze, Beitrage zur Naturgeschichte der Turbellarien (Greifswald, 1851) and Zeitschr. fur wissensch. Zool. iv. (1852), p. 178; W. B. Benham, Quart. Journ. Micr. Sci. xxxix. (1896), p. 19; A Brown, Proc. Roy. Soc. lxi. (1897), p. 28; O. Burger, Zeit. f. wiss. Zool. 1. (189o), p. 1; Id., Mitt. Zool. St Neapel, x. (1891), p. 206; Id., Zeit. f. wiss. Zool. liii. (1892), p. 322 ; Id., Verh. Deutsch. zool. Gesellsch. (1893) ; Id., Fauna u. Flora d. Golfe d. Neapel, Monograph 22 (1895); A. Dendy, Proc. Roy. Soc. Victoria (,i.s.), iv. (1892), p. 85, v. p. 127 (1891–1892); B. Haller, Arb. Zool. Inst. Wien, viii. (1889), p. 276; A. A. W. Hubrecht, " Challenger" Reports, xix. (1887) ; L. Joubin, Arch. Zool. Exper. (2), viii. (189u), p. 461; Id., ` Nemertines," in Blanchard's Traite de zoologie (1894) ; J. N. Lebedinsky, Arch. Mikr. Anat. xlix. (1897), p. 503; T. H. Montgomery, Zool. Anzeig. xvii. (1894), pp. 298, 301; Id., Zeit. f. wiss. Zool. lix. (1895), p. 83; Id., Zool. Jahrb. (Anat.) x. (1897), p. i ; A. E. Verrill, Trans. Connecticut Acad. New Haven, viii. (1892), p. 382; D. Bergendal, Zool. Anzeiger, xxiii. (1900), p. 313; W. R. Coe, Zool. Jahrb. (Anat.) xii. (1899), p. 425; Id., Trans. Connect. Acad. ix. (1895), p. 479; Id., Proc. Wash. Acad. iii. (1901), p. I ; T. H. Montgomery, Journ. Morph., xiii. (1897) p. 381; Id., Zool. Jahrb. (Anat.) x. (1897), p. 265; R. C. Punnett, Quart. Journ. Mic. Sc. xliv. (1900), p. III; Id., Willey's Zool. Results, pt. v. (1900), p. 569; Id., Quart. Journ. Mic. Sc. xliv. (1901), p. 547; Staub, Semon's Forschungsreisen (5 Bd., 1900) ; C. B. Thompson, Zool. Anzeiger, xxiii. (1900), pp. 151, 627; C. B. Wilson, Quart. Journ. Mic. Sc. xliii. (1900), p. 97. (A. A. W. H.; A. E. S.)
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