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AGA KHAN I

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Originally appearing in Volume V01, Page 363 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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AGA KHAN I., HIs HIGHNESS THE (1800-1881), the title accorded by general consent to HASAN Am SHAH (born in Persia, 1800), when, in early life, he first settled in Bombay under the protection of the British government. He was believed to have descended in direct line from AU by his wife Fatima, the danghte,r AFTERGLOW •of the Prophet Mahomet. Ali's son, Hosain, having married a daughter of one of the rulers of Persia before the time of Mahomet, the Aga Khan traced his descent from the royal house of Persia from the most remote, almost prehistoric, times. His ancestors had also ruled in Egypt as caliphs of the Beni-Fatimites for a number of years, at a period coeval with the Crusades. Before the Aga Khan emigrated from Persia, he was appointed by the emperor Fateh All Shah to be governor-general of the extensive and important province of Kerman. His rule was noted for firmness, moderation and high political sagacity, and he succeeded for a long time in retaining the friendship and confidence of his master the shah, although his career was beset with political intrigues and jealousy on the part of rival and court favourites, and with internal turbulence. At last, however, the fate usual to statesmen in oriental countries overtook him, and he incurred the mortal displeasure of Fateh Ali Shah. He fled from Persia and sought protection in British territory, preferring to settle down eventually in India, making Bombay his headquarters. At that period the first Afghan War was at its height, and in crossing over from Persia through Afghanistan the Aga Khan found opportunities of rendering valuable services to the British army, and thus cast in his lot for ever with the British. A few years later he rendered similar conspicuous services in the course of the Sind campaign, when his help was utilized by Napier in the process of subduing the frontier tribes, a large number 'of whom acknowledged the Aga's authority as their spiritual head. Napier held his Moslem ally in great esteem, and entertained a very high opinion of his political acumen and chivalry as a leader and soldier. The Aga Khan reciprocated the British commander's confidence and friendship by giving repeated proofs of his devotion and attachment to the British government, and when he finally settled down i,n India, his position as the leader of the large IsmaiIiah section of Mahommedan British subjects was recognized by the government, and the title of His Highness was conferred on him, with a large pension. From that time until his death in 1881 the Aga Khan, while leading the life of a peaceful and peacemaking citizen, under the protection of British rule, continued to discharge his sacerdotal functions, not only among his followers in India, but towards the more numerous communities which acknowledged his religious sway in distant countries, such as Afghanistan, Khorasan, Persia, Arabia, Central Asia, and even distant Syria and Morocco. He remained throughout unflinchingly loyal to the British Raj, and by his vast and unquestioned influence among the frontier tribes on the northern borders of India he exercised a control over their unruly passions in times of trouble, which proved of invaluable service in the several expeditions led by British arms on the north-west frontier of India. He was also the means of checking the fanaticism of the more turbulent Mahommedans in British India, which in times of internal troubles and misunderstandings finds vent in the shape of religious or political riots. He was succeeded by his eldest son, AGA KHAN II. This prince continued the traditions and work of his father in a manner that won the approbation of the local government, and earned for him the distinction of a knighthood of the Order of the Indian Empire and a seat in the legislative council of Bombay.
End of Article: AGA KHAN I
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