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AKRON

Online Encyclopedia
Originally appearing in Volume V01, Page 458 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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AKRON, a city and the county-seat of Summit county, Ohio, U.S.A., on the Little Cuyahoga river, about 35 M. S. by E. of Cleveland. Pop. (1890) 27,601; (1900) 42,728, of whom 7127 were foreign-born (3227 being German, 1104 English, and 641 Irish) ; (191o) 69,067. It is served by the Baltimore & Ohio, the Erie, the Northern Ohio, and the Cleveland, Akron & Columbus railways, by inter-urban electric lines and by the Ohio Canal. The city is situated in a region abounding in lakes, springs and hills; it is about woo ft. above sea-level, whence its name (from Gr. &Kpov, height); and attracts many summer visitors. It is the seat of Buchtel College (co-educational; non-sectarian), which was founded by the Ohio Universalist Convention in 187o, was opened in 1872, and was named in honour of its most liberal benefactor, John R. Buchtel (1822-1892), a successful business man who did much to promote the industrial development of Akron. Buchtel College provides three courses leading to the degrees of A.B., Ph.B. and S.B.; it has a school of music, a school of art and an academy; in 19o8 there were 267 students. Coal is mined in the neighbourhood. The river furnishes considerable water-power; and among the city's most important manufactures are rubber and elastic goods (value, 1905, $13,396,974; 83.9 % of the total of this industry in the state and 21.3 % of the total for the United States, Akron ranking first among the cities of the country in this industry), printing and publishing product (value, 1905, $2,834,639), foundry and machine-shop product (value, 1905, $2,367,764), and pottery, terra-cotta and fire-clay (value, 1905, $1,718,033; nearly twice the value of the output in 1900, Akron ranking fourth among the cities of the United States in this industry in 1go5). Other important manufactures are food preparations (especially of oats) and flour and grist mill products. The value of the total manufactured products (under the " factory " system) in 1905 was $34,004,243, an increase in five years of 54.5%. Akron was settled about 1825, was incorporated as a village in 1836, was made the county-seat in 1842, and in 1865 was chartered as a city. See S. A. Lane, Fifty Years and over of Akron and Summit County (Akron, 1892). AK-SHEHR (anc. Philomelion), a town in Asia Minor, in the Konia vilayet, situated at the edge of a fertile plain, on the north side of the Sultan Dagh. Philomelion was probably a Pergamenian foundation on the great Graeco-Roman highway from Ephesus to the east, and to its townsmen the Smyrniotes wrote the letter that describes the martyrdom of Polycarp. Cicero, on his way to Cilicia, dated some of his extant correspondence there; and the place played a considerable part in the frontier wars between the Byzantine emperors and the sultanate of Rum. It became an important Seljuk town, and late in the 14th century passed into Ottoman hands. There Bayezid Yilderim is said by Ali of Yezd to have died after his defeat at Angora. The place still enjoys much repute among Turks, as the burial-place of Nur-ed-din Khoja. The town has a station on the Anatolian railway, about 6o rn. from Afium-Kara-Hissar and 10o m. from Konia.
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