ALBANIA . Histcry.—Greek colonization on the Illyrian seaboard probably began
See also:late in the 7th century B.C . Or early in the 6th century . The most important settlements appear to have been at Epidamnus (Durazzo), Tragurium (Trail), Rhizon (near
See also:Cattaro), Salona (near SpaLato), Epidaurum (Ragusavecchia),
See also:Zara and on the islands of Curzola,
See also:Lesina and Lissa . There is a collection of Greek coins from
See also:Illyria in the museum at Agram, and the researches of
See also:Professor F . Bulie and others at Salona (see SPALATO) have brought to
See also:light Greek inscriptions, Greek pottery, &c. dating from 600 B.C . But Greek influence seems never to have penetrated far into the interior, and even on the
See also:coast it was rapidly superseded by Latin
See also:civilization after the 3rd century B.C . Until then the Illyrian tribes appear to have lived in a state of intermittent warfare with their neighbours and one another . They are said by
See also:Herodotus (ix . 43) to have attacked the
See also:temple of
See also:Delphi .
See also:Brasidas with his small army of Spartans was assaulted by them on his
See also:march (424 B..c.) across
See also:Thessaly and
See also:Macedonia to attack the Athenian colonies in
See also:Thrace . The earlier
See also:history of the Macedonian
See also:kings is one
See also:constant. struggle against the Illyrian tribes .
The migrations of the . Celts at the beginning of the 4th century disturbed the
See also:country between the
See also:Danube and the Adriatic . The
See also:Scordisci and other
See also:Celtic tribes settled there, and forced the Illyrians towards the south . The necessities of defence seem to have
See also:united the Illyrians under a chief Bardylis (about 383 s.c.) and his son Clitus . Bardylis nearly succeeded in destroying the rising
See also:kingdom of Macedonia;
See also:King Amyntas II. was defeated, and a few years later
See also:Perdiccas was defeated and slain (359) . But the
See also:Philip crushed the Illyrians completely, and annexed
See also:part of their country . During the next century we hear of them as pirates . Issuing from the secluded harbours of the coast, they ravaged the shores of Italy and
See also:Greece, and preyed on thecommerce of the Adriatic . The Greeks applied to Rome for help . Teuta, the Illyrian
See also:queen, rejected the
See also:Roman demands for redress, and murdered the ambassadors; but the two IIlyrian
See also:Wars (229 and 219 s.c.) ended in the submission of the Illyrians, a considerable part of their territory being annexed by the conquerors . Illyria, however, remained a powerful kingdom with its capital at Scodra (
See also:Scutari in Albania), until 18o B.C., when the Dalmatians declared themselves
See also:independent of Gentius or Genthius, the king of Illyria, and founded a republic with its capital at Delminium (see DALMATIA: History, on the site of Delminium) .. In 168 Gentius came into conflict with the Romans, who conquered and annexed his country .
Dalmatia was invaded by a Roman army under
See also:Gaius Marcius Figulus in 156, but Figulus was driven back to the Roman frontier, and in Dalmatia the Illyrians were not finally subdued until 165 years afterwards . Publius Scipio Nasica, who succeeded Figulus, captured Delminium, and in 119 L .
See also:Metellus overran the country and received a
See also:triumph and the surname Dalmaticus . But in 51 a Dalmatian
See also:raid on Liburnia led to a renewal of hostilities; the Roman armies were often worsted, and although in 39 Asinius Pollio gained some successes (see Horace, Odes ii. r . 15) these appear to have been exaggerated, and it was not until Octavian took the
See also:field in
See also:person that the Dalmatians submitted in 33 . (For an account of the war see
See also:Appian, Illyrica, 24-28; Dio Cassius xlix . 38;
See also:Livy, Epit . 131, 132) . They again revolted in 16 and 1 r, and in A.D . 6–9 joined the
See also:rebel Pannonians . Suetonius (Tiberius, 16) declares that they were the most formidable enemies with whom the Romans had had to contend since the Punic Wars . In A.D .
9, however, Tiberius entirely subjugated them, for which he was awarded a triumph in 12 (Dio
See also:Cass. lv . 23-29, lvi . 11-19; Vell . Pat. ii. l lo-115) . Thence-forward Dalmatia, Iapydia and Liburnia were united as the province of Illyricum . Latin civilization spread rapidly, the cultivation of the
See also:vine was introduced, gold-
See also:mining was carried on in Bosnia, and flourishing commercial cities arose along the coast . Illyria became one of the best recruiting grounds for the Roman legions; and in troubled times many Illyrian soldiers fought their way up from the ranks to the imperial
See also:purple .
See also:Claudius, Aurelian, Probus,
See also:Diocletian and Maximian were all sons of Illyrian peasants . It is probable, however, that most of the highland tribes now represented by the Albanians remained almost unaffected by Roman influence . The importance of Illyricum caused its name to be extended to many neighbouring districts; in the and century A.D. the Illyricus Limes included
See also:Dacia and Thrace . In the reorganization of the
See also:empire by Diocletian (285) the
See also:diocese of Illyricum was created; it comprised Pannonia, Noricum and Dalmatia, while Dacia and Macedonia, together called Eastern Illyricum, were added later . Either Diocletian or after him
See also:Constantine made Illyricum one of the four prefectures, each governed by a praefectus praetorio, into which the empire was divided .
This prefecture included Pannonia, Noricum,Crete and the entire
See also:Balkan peninsula except Thrace, which was attached by Constantine to the prefecture of the East . From the
See also:partition of the empire in 285 until 37g Illyricum was included in the Western Empire, but thenceforward Eastern Illyricum was annexed to the Eastern Empire; its frontier was almost identical with the
See also:line of demarcation between Latin-speaking and Greek-speaking peoples, and roughly corresponded to the boundary which now severs Latin from Greek
See also:Christianity in the Balkan peninsula . The whole peninsula except Thrace was still known as Illyricur; but was subdivided into Illyris
See also:Barbara or
See also:Romana and Illyris Graeca (Eastern IlIyricum with Greece and Crete) . The Via Egnatia, the great line of road which connected Rome with Constantinople and the East, led across Illyricum from . Dyrrachium to Thessalonica . In the 5th century began a series of invasions which profoundly modified the ethnical character and the civilization of the Illyrians . In 441 and 447 their country was ravaged by the
See also:Huns . In 481 Dalmatia was added to the Ostrogothic kingdom, which already included the more northerly parts of Illyricum, Le, Pannonia and Noricum . Dalmatia was partially reconquered by Justinian in 536, but after 565 it was devastated by the
See also:Avars, and throughout the. century bands. of
See also:Slavonic invaders had been gradually establishing themselves in Illyria, where, unlike the earlier
See also:barbarian conquerors, they formed permanent settlements . Between 600 and 65o the
See also:body of the immigrants occupied Illyria (see
See also:SERVIA: History; and
See also:SLAVS) . It consisted of Croats and Serbs, two groups of tribes who spoke a single language and were so closely related that the origin of the distinction between them is obscure . The Croats settled in the western
See also:half of Illyria, the Serbs in the eastern; thus the former came gradually under the influence of Italy and Roman Catholicism, the latter under the influence of
See also:Byzantium and the Greek
See also:Church .
Hence the distinction between them became a marked difference of civilization and creed, which has always tended to keep the Illyrian Slays politically disunited . The Croats and Serbs rapidly absorbed most of the Latinized Illyrians . But the wealthy and powerfulcity-states on the coast were strong enough to maintain their independence and their distinctively
See also:Italian character . Other Roman provincials took
See also:refuge in the mountains of the interior; these Mavrovlachi, as they were called (see DALMATIA: Population; and
See also:VLACHS), preserved their language and
See also:nationality for many centuries . The Illyrian tribes which had withstood the attraction of Roman civilization remained unconquered among the mountains of Albania and were never Slavonized . With these exceptions Illyria became entirely Serbo-Croatian in population, language and culture . The name of Illyria had by this
See also:time disappeared from history . In literature it was preserved, and the scene of
See also:comedy, Twelfth
See also:Night, is laid in Illyria . Politically the name was revived in 1809, when the name Illyrian Provinces was given to
See also:Carniola, Dalmatia,
See also:Istria, Fiume, Gorz and
See also:Gradisca, and Trieste, with parts of
See also:Carinthia and Croatia; these territories were ceded by
See also:Austria to Italy at the peace of Schonnbrun (14th Oct . 1809) . The Illyrian Provinces were occupied by French troops and governed in the
See also:interest of
See also:Napoleon; the republic of Ragusa was annexed to them in 1811, but about the end of 1813 the French occupation ceased to be effective and the provinces reverted to Austria . The kingdom of Illyria, which was constituted in 1816 out of the
See also:crown-lands of Carinthia, Carniola, Istria, Gorz and Gradisca, and Trieste, formed until 1849 a kingdom of the
See also:Austrian crown .
See also:political propaganda known as Illyrism, see CROATIA-SLAVONIA: History .
ALBANI, or ALBANO, FRANCESCO
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