See also:north of the firths of
See also:Clyde and Forth . The title of duke of Albany was first bestowed in 1398 by
See also:King Robert III. on his
See also:brother, Robert
See also:earl of Fife (see I. below); but in 1425 it became
See also:extinct . The dukedom was re-created, c . 1458, in favour of
See also:Alexander Stewart, "
See also:lord of Annandale and earl of
See also:March " (see II. below), whose son and successor (see III. below)
See also:left no legitimate
See also:heir . The title of duke of Albany was next bestowed upon
See also:Stuart, commonly known as Lord
See also:Darnley, by Mary,
See also:queen of Scots, in 1565 . From him the title passed to his son,
See also:James VI. of Scotland and I. of England . The title was by him given, at his
See also:birth, to
See also:Charles, his second son, after-wards King Charles I . By Charles II. it was again bestowed, in '66o, on James, duke of
See also:York, afterwards King James II . On the 5th of
See also:July 1716 Ernest
See also:bishop of Osnaburgh [Osnabriick] (1715-1728), youngest brother of King
See also:George I., was created duke of York and Albany, the title becoming extinct on his
See also:death without heirs in 1728 . On the 1st of
See also:April 176o
See also:Edward Augustus, younger brother of King George III., was created duke of York and Albany; he died without heirs on the 17th of
See also:September 1767 . On the 29th of
See also:November 1784 the title of duke of York and Albany was again created in favour of
See also:Frederick, second son of George III., who died without heirs on the 5th of
See also:January x827 .
The title of duke of Albany was bestowed on the 24th of May 1881 on Prince
See also:Leopold, youngest son of Queen
See also:Victoria (see IV. below) . I . ROBERT STEWART, duke of Albany (c . 1345-1420),
See also:regent of Scotland, was a son of King Robert II. by his
See also:Elizabeth Mure, and was legitimatized when his parents were married about 1349 . In 1361 he married
See also:Margaret, countess of
See also:Menteith, and after his widowed
See also:Isabel, countess of Fife, had recognized him as her heir, he was known as the earl of Fife and Menteith . Taking an active
See also:part in the
See also:government of the
See also:kingdom, the earl was made high
See also:chamberlain of Scotland in 1382, and gained military reputation by leading several plundering expeditions into England . In 1389 after his elder brother
See also:John, earl of Carrick, had been incapacitated by an accident, and when his
See also:father the king was old and infirm, he was chosen
See also:governor of Scotland by the estates; and he retained the
See also:control of affairs after his brother.John became king as Robert III, in 1390 . In April 1398 he was created duke of Albany; l See, Th .
See also:Mommsen in Bulletin dell' Istituto (1861), 206; Corpus Inscrip .
See also:Lat . (Berlin, 1887), xiv . 2228 .
but in the following
See also:year his
See also:David, duke of
See also:Rothesay, the heir to the
See also:crown, succeeded him as governor, although the duke himself was a prominent member of the advising council .
See also:Uncle and nephew soon differed, and in March 1402 the latter died in prison at Falkland . It is not certain that Albany was responsible for the imprisonment and death of Rothesay, whom the parliament declared to have died from natural causes; but the scanty evidence points in the direction of his
See also:guilt . Restored to the
See also:office of governor, the duke was chosen regent of the kingdom after the death of Robert III. in 1406, as the new king, James I., was a prisoner in
See also:London; and he took vigorous steps to prosecute the war with England, which had been renewed a few years before . He was unable, or as some say unwilling, to effect the
See also:release of his royal nephew, and was soon faced by a formidable revolt led by Donald
See also:Macdonald, second lord of the Isles, who claimed the earldom of
See also:Ross and was in
See also:alliance with Henry IV. of England; but the defeat of Donald at Harlaw near
See also:Aberdeen in July 1411 freed him from this danger . Continuing alternately to fight and to negotiate with England, the duke died at
See also:Castle in September 1420, and was buried in
See also:Dunfermline Abbey . Albany, who was the ablest prince of his
See also:house, left by his first wife one son, Murdac (or Murdoch) Stewart, who succeeded him as duke of Albany and regent, but at whose execution in 1425 the dukedom became extinct . See Andrew of
See also:Wyntoun, The Orygynale Cronykil of Scotland, edited by D .
See also:Laing (
See also:Edinburgh, 1872–1879); John of
See also:Fordun, Scotichronicon, continued by Walter
See also:Bower, edited by T . Hearne (
See also:Oxford, 1722) ; and P . F .
See also:History of Scotland (Edinburgh, 185o) .
See also:Sir W .
See also:Fair Maid of Perth . IL' ALEXANDER STEWART, duke of Albany (c . 1454–1485), was the second son of James II., king of Scotland, by his wife, Mary, daughter of
See also:Arnold, duke of Gelderland . Created duke of Albany before 1458, he also received the lordship of the Isle of Man, and was afterwards captured by an
See also:ship when journeying to Gelderland in 1468 . He was soon released, and as he
See also:grew to manhood began to take part in the government and defence of Scotland, being appointed in
See also:quick succession high
See also:warden of the
See also:marches, governor of
See also:Berwick and
See also:lieutenant of the kingdom . Soon, however, he quarrelled with his brother, King James III . Some of his actions on the marches aroused suspicion, and in 1479 he was seized and imprisoned in Edinburgh Castle; but he soon made his
See also:escape, and reaching
See also:Paris in September 1499 was welcomed by King
See also:Louis XI . Louis, however, would not assist him to attack his brother the king, and
See also:crossing to England he made a treaty with King Edward IV. at
See also:Fotheringhay in
See also:June 1482 . Like Edward Baliol, he promised to hold Scotland under English
See also:suzerainty in return for Edward's assistance, and with
See also:Richard, duke of
See also:Gloucester, afterwards King Richard III., he marched at the
See also:head of the English forces to Edinburgh . Meanwhile his sup-porters in Scotland had seized James, and professed their readiness to recognize Albany, declaring at the same
See also:time their distrust of Gloucester . A compromise, however, was arranged, and the restoration of his lands and offices was promised to Albany, who in turn agreed to be faithful to James; but about the same time the duke with remarkable duplicity had sworn he would keep the treaty with Edward .
Again he was appointed lieutenant of the kingdom, a truce was made with the English, and James, released from custody, restored his brother and created him earl of
See also:Mar and Garioch . The fraternal peace was soon disturbed . Failing to obtain possession of the king's
See also:person, Albany renewed negotiations with Edward, and in
See also:February 1483 made a new treaty at
See also:Westminster on the lines of that of Fotheringhay . A fresh reconciliation followed between the
See also:brothers, but in July 1483, during Albany's
See also:absence in England; he was sentenced to death for treason . After making a
See also:raid on Lochmaben he went to France, where in 1485 he was accidentally killed . Albany's first wife was Catherine, daughter of
See also:William, third earl of
See also:Orkney and first earl of
See also:Caithness, who
See also:bore 'him three sons and a daughter . This
See also:marriage was dissolved in 1478, and as its issue was regarded as illegitimate the title of duke of Albany descended to John (see below), his only son byhis second wife; Anne de la Tour d'
See also:Auvergne, daughter of Bertrand II., count of Auvergne and of
See also:Bouillon, whom he married in 1480 . The regent Albany was a singularly unfortunate
See also:commander in the
See also:field, but a successful ruler and
See also:administrator, and the Scottish
See also:court of session owed to him its institution . But he regarded himself more the subject of the king of France than of the king of Scotland, subordinated the interests of the latter state to the former, and disliked his official duties in Scotland, where the benefits of his administration were largely diminished by his want of perseverance and frequent absence . He appears to have been a man of honourable and straightforward conduct, whose character must be deared from the aspersions of
See also:Wolsey and the English authorities . He married his '
See also:cousin Anne de la Tour d'Auvergne, but left no legal issue, and all his
See also:honour became extinct at his death . IV .
See also:ALBERT, duke of ` Albxty, eighth
See also:child and youngest son of Queen Victoria, was
See also:born on 'the 7th of April 1853 . The delicacy of his
See also:health seemed to matk him out for a
See also:life of retirement, and as he grew older he evinced much of the love of knowledge, the capacity for study and the
See also:interest in philanthropic and ecclesiastical movements which had characterized his father, the prince
See also:consort . He matriculated at Christ
See also:Church, Oxford, in November 1872,` living bath his tutor at Wykeham House,, St
See also:Giles's, and diligently pursued his favourite studies of science,
See also:art and the
See also:languages . In 1876 he left the university with the honorary degree of D.C.L., and resided at Boyton House,
See also:Wiltshire, and afterwards at
See also:Claremont . On coming of age in 18741 he had been made a privy councillor and granted an
See also:annuity of f ts,000 . He travelled on the continent, and in 188o visited the
See also:United States and
See also:Canada . He was a trustee of the
See also:British Museum, abencher' of Lincoln's
See also:Inn, and continued to take an active part in the promotion of
See also:education and knowledge generally . Like his father and other members of his
See also:family he was an excellent public
See also:speaker . On the 24th of May 1881 he was created duke of Albany, earl of
See also:Clarence and Baron
See also:Arklow . On the 27th of April 1882 he married Helene Frederica
See also:Augusta, princess of Waldeck-Pyrmont, and his income was raised by parliament to ,£25,000 . Having gone to the south of France for his health in the
See also:spring of 1884, he was attacked by a
See also:fit, the cause or the consequence of a fall in a
See also:club-house at
See also:Cannes, on the 27th of March, and died very unexpectedly on the fallowing
See also:morning . His death was universally regretted, from the gentleness and graciousness of his character, and the
See also:desire and ability he had shown to promote intellectual interests of every kind .
He left a daughter, born in February 1883, and a
See also:posthumous son, Arthur Charles Edward, born on the ,9th of July 1884, who succeeded to the dukedom of Albany, and who on the 3oth of July two became duke of Saxe-
See also:Coburg on the death of his uncle .
COUNTESS OF LOUISE MAXIMILIENNE CAROLINE ALBANY (17...
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