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SAMUEL ALLPORT (1816–1897)

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Originally appearing in Volume V01, Page 709 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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SAMUEL ALLPORT (1816–1897), English petrologist, brother of the above, was born in Birmingham on the 23rd of January 1816, and educated in that city. Although occupied in business during the greater portion of his life, his leisure was given to geological studies, and when residing for a short period in Bahia, S. America, he made observations on the geology, published by the Geological Society in 186o. His chief work was in microscopic petrology, to the study of which he was attracted by the investigations of Dr H. C. Sorby; and he became one of the pioneers of this branch of geology, preparing his own rock-sections with remarkable skill. The basalts of S. Staffordshire, the diorites of Warwickshire, the phonolite of the Wolf Rock (to which he first directed attention), the pitchstones of Arran and the altered igneous rocks near the Land's End wercinvestigated and described by him during the years 1869–1879 in the Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society and in the Geological Magazine. In 188o he was appointed librarian in Mason College, a post which he relinquished on account of ill-health in 1887. In that year the Lyell medal was awarded to him by the Geological Society. A few years later he retired to Cheltenham, where he died on the 7th of July 1897. ALL-ROUND ATHLETICS. Specialization in athletic sports, although always existent, is to a great extent a modern product. In ancient times athletes were encouraged to excel in several branches of sport, often quite opposite in character. Thus the athlete held in highest honour at the Olympic Games (see GAMES, CLASSICAL) was the winner of the pentathlon, which consisted of running, jumping, throwing the javelin and the discus, and wrestling. All-round championships have existed for many years both in Scotland and Ireland, and in America there are both national and sectional championships. The American national championship was instituted in 1884, the winner being the athlete who succeeds in obtaining the highest marks in the following eleven events; 10o yards run; putting 16 lb shot; running high jump; half-mile walk; throwing 16 lb hammer; 120 yards hurdle race; pole vault; throwing 56 lb weight; one mile run; running broad jump; quarter-mile run. In each event l000 points are allowed for equalling the " record," and an increasing number of points is taken off for performances below " record," down to a certain "standard," below which the competitor scores nothing. For example, in the too yards run the time of 9A seconds represents l000 points; that of lo seconds scores 958, or 42 points less; log seconds scores 916, &c.; and below 14 seconds the competitor scores nothing. Should the record be broken 42 points are added for each second. (See also ATHLETIC SPORTS.)
End of Article: SAMUEL ALLPORT (1816–1897)
ALLOYS (through the Fr. aloyer, from Lat. alligare,...

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