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Originally appearing in Volume V01, Page 749 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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ALPS, the collective name for one of the great mountain systems of Europe. 1. Position and Name.—The continent of Europe is no more than a great peninsula extending westwards from the much vaster continent of Asia, while it is itself broken up by two inland seas into several smaller peninsulas—the Mediterranean forming the Iberian, the Italian and the Greek peninsulas, while the Baltic forms that of Scandinavia and the much smaller one of Denmark. Save the last-named, all these peninsulas of Europe are essentially mountain ranges. But in height and importance the ranges that rise therein are much surpassed by a great mountain-chain, stretching from south-eastern France to the borders of Hungary, as well as between the plains of northern Italy and of southern Germany. This chain is collectively known as the Alps, and is the most important physical feature of the European continent. The Alps, however, do not present so continuous a barrier as the Himalayas, the Andes or even the Pyrenees. They are formed of numerous ranges, divided by comparatively deep valleys, which, with many local exceptions, tend towards parallelism with the general direction of the whole mass. This, between the Dauphine and the borders of Hungary, forms a broad band convex towards the north, while most of the , valleys lie between the directions west to east and south-west to north-east. But in many parts deep transverse valleys intersect the prevailing direction of the ridges, and facilitate the passage of man, plants and animals, as well as of currents of air which mitigate the contrast that would otherwise be found between the climates of the opposite slopes. The derivation of the name Alps is still very uncertain, some writers connecting it with a Celtic root alb, said to mean height, while others suggest the Latin adjective albus (white), referring to the colour of the snowy peaks. But in all parts of the great chain itself, the term Alp (or Alm in the Eastern Alps) is exclusively applied to the high mountain pastures (see ALP), and not to the peaks and ridges of the chain. 2. Limits.—These will depend on the meaning we attach to the word Alps as referring to the great mountain-chain of central Europe. If we merely desire to distinguish it from certain minor ranges (e.g. the Cevennes, the Jura, the hills of central Germany, the Carpathians, the Apennines), which are really independent ranges rather than offshoots of the main chain, the I. 24best limits are on the west (strictly speaking south), the Col d'Altare or di Cadibona (1624 ft.), leading from Turin to Savona and Genoa, and on the east the line of the railway over the Semmering Pass (3215 ft.) from Vienna to Marburg in the Mur valley, and on by Laibach to Trieste. But if we confine the meaning of the term Alps to those parts of the chain that are what is commonly called " Alpine," where the height is sufficient to support a considerable mass of perpetual snow, our boundaries to the west and to the east must be placed at spots other than those mentioned above. To the west the limit will then be the Col de Tenda (6145 ft.), leading from Cuneo (Coni) to Ventimiglia, while on the east our line will be the route over the Radstadter Tauern (5702 ft.) and the Katschberg (5384 ft.) from Salzburg to Villach in Carinthia, and thence by Klagenfurt to Marburg and so past Laibach in Carniola on to Trieste; from Villach the direct route to Trieste would be over the Predil Pass (3813 ft.) or the Pontebba or Saifnitz Pass (2615 ft.), more to the west, but in either case this would exclude the Terglou (9400 ft.), the highest summit of the entire South-Eastern Alps, as well as its lower neighbours. On the northern side the Alps (in whichever sense we take this term) are definitely bounded by the course of the Rhine from Basel to the Lake of Constance, the plain of Bavaria, and the low region of foot-hills that extend from Salzburg to the neighbourhood of Vienna. One result of this limit, marked out by Nature herself, is that the waters which flow down the northern slope of the Alps find their way either into the North Sea through the Rhine, or into the Black Sea by means of the Danube, not a drop reaching the Baltic Sea. On the southern side the mountains extending from near Turin to near Trieste subside into the great plain of Piedmont, Lombardy and Venetia. But what properly forms the western bit of the Alps runs, from near Turin to the Col de Tenda, in a southerly direction, then bending eastwards' to the Col d'Altare that divides it from the Apennines. It should be borne in mind that the limits adopted above refer purely to the topographical aspect of the Alps as they exist at the present day. Naturalists will of course prefer other limits according as they are geologists, botanists or zoologists. 3. Climate.—It is well known that as we rise from the sea.-level into the upper regions of the atmosphere the temperature decreases. The effect of mountain-chains on prevailing winds is to carry warm air belonging to the lower region into an upper zone, where it expands in volume at the cost of a proportionate loss of heat, often accompanied by the precipitation of moisture in the form of snow or rain. The position'of the Alps about the centre of the European continent has profoundly modified the climate of all the surrounding regions. The accumulation of vast masses of snow, which have gradually been converted into permanent glaciers, maintains a gradation of very different climates within the narrow space that intervenes between the foot of the mountains and their upper ridges; it cools the breezes that are wafted to the plains on either side, but its most important function is to regulate the water-supply of that large region which is traversed by the streams of the Alps. Nearly all the moisture that is precipitated during six or seven months is stored up in the form of snow, and is gradually diffused in the course of the succeeding summer; even in the hottest and driest seasons the reserves accumulated during a long preceding period of years in the form of glaciers are available to maintain the regular flow of the greater streams. Nor is this all; the lakes that fill several of the main valleys on the southern side of the Alps are somewhat above the level of the plains of Lombardy and Venetia, and afford an inexhaustible supply of water, which, from a remote period, has been used for that system of irrigation to which they owe their proverbial fertility. Six regions or zones, which are best distinguished by their characteristic vegetation, are found in the Alps. It is an error to suppose that these are indicated by absolute height above the sea-level. Local conditions of exposure to the sun, protection from cold winds, or the reverse, are of primary importance in determining the climate and the corresponding vegetation. The great plain of Upper Italy has a winter climate colder than that of the British Islands. The olive and the characteristic Olive shrubs of the northern coasts of the Mediterranean do region. not thrive in the open air, but the former valuable tree ripens its fruit in sheltered places at the foot of the mountains, and penetrates along the deeper valleys and the shores of the Italian lakes. The evergreen oak is wild on the rocks about the Lake of Garda, and lemons are cultivated on a large scale, with partial protection in winter. The olive has been known to survive severe cold when of short duration, but it can-not be cultivated with success where frosts are prolonged, or where the mean winter temperature falls below 42° F.; and to produce fruit it requires a heat of at least 75° F. during the day, continued through four or five months of the summer and autumn. The vine is far more tolerant of cold than the olive, but to produce tolerable wine it demands, at the season of ripening, vine a degree of heat not much less than that needed by the region. more delicate tree. These conditions are satisfied in the deeper valleys of the Alps, even in the interior of the chain, and up to a considerable height on slopes exposed to the sun. The protection afforded by winter snow enables the plant to resist severe and prolonged frosts, such as would be fatal in more exposed situations. Many wild plants characteristic of the warmer parts of middle Europe are seen to flourish along with the vine. A mean summer temperature of at least 68° F. is considered necessary to produce tolerable wine, but in ordinary seasons this is much exceeded in many of the great valleys of the Alps. Many writers take the growth of grain as the characteristic of the mountain region; but so many varieties of all the common Mountain species are in cultivation, and these have such different region, or climatal requirements, that they do not afford a satisregion of factory criterion. A more natural limit is afforded by deciduous the presence of the chief deciduous trees—oak, beech, trees. ash and sycamore. These do not reach exactly to the same elevation, nor are they often found growing together; but their upper limit corresponds accurately enough to the change from a temperate to a colder climate that is further proved by a change in the wild herbaceous vegetation. This limit usually lies about 4000 ft. above the sea on the north side of the Alps, but on the southern slopes it often rises to 5000 ft., sometimes even to 5500 ft. It must not be supposed that this region is always marked by the presence of the characteristic trees. The interference of man has in many districts almost extirpated them, and, excepting the beech forests of the Austrian Alps, a considerable wood of deciduous trees is scarcely anywhere to be found. In many districts where such woods once existed, their place has been occupied by the Scottish pine and spruce, which suffer less from the ravages of goats, the worst enemies of tree vegetation. The mean annual temperature of this region differs little from that of the British Islands; but the climatal conditions are widely different. Here snow usually lies for several months, till it gives place to a spring and summer considerably warmer than the average of British seasons. The Subalpine is the region which mainly determines the manner of life of the population of the Alps. On a rough estimate Subalpine we may reckon that, of the space lying between the region, or summits of the Alps and the low country on either region of side, one-quarter is available for cultivation, of which coniferous about one-half may be vineyards and corn-fields, while trees. the remainder produces forage and grass. About another quarter is utterly barren, consisting of snow-fields, glaciers, bare rock, lakes and the beds of streams. There remains about one-half, which is divided between forest and pasture, and it is the produce of this half which mainly supports the relatively large population. For a quarter of the year the flocks and herds are fed on the upper pastures; but the true limit of the wealth of a district is the number of animals that can be supported during the long winter, and while one part of the population is engaged in tending the beasts and in making cheese and butter, the remainder is busy cutting hay and storing up winter food for the cattle. The larger villages are mostlyin the mountain region, but in many parts of the Alps the villages stand in the subalpine region at heights varying from 4000 ft.,to 5500 ft. above the sea, more rarely extending to about 60oo ft. The most characteristic feature of this region is the prevalence of coniferous trees, which, where they have not been artificially kept down, form vast forests that cover a large part of the surface. These play a most important part in the natural economy of the country. They protect the valleys from destructive avalanches, and, retaining the superficial soil by their roots, they mitigate the destructive effects of heavy rains. In valleys where they have been rashly cut away, and the waters pour down the slopes unchecked, every tiny rivulet becomes a raging torrent, that carries off the grassy slopes and devastates the floor of the valley, covering the soil with gravel and debris. 'In the pine forests of the Alps the prevailing species are the common spruce and the silver fir; on siliceous soil the larch flourishes, and surpasses every other European species in height. The Scottish pine is chiefly found at a lower level and rarely forms forests. The Siberian fir is found scattered at intervals throughout the Alps but is not common. The mughus, creeping pine, or Krummholz of the Germans, is common in the Eastern Alps, and sometimes forms on the higher mountains a distinct zone above the -level of its congeners. In the Northern Alps the pine forests rarely surpass the limit of 6000 ft. above the sea, but on the south side they commonly attain 7000 ft., while the larch, Siberian fir- and mughus often extend above that elevation. Throughout the Teutonic region of the Alps the word Alp is used specifically for the upper pastures where cattle are fed in summer, but this region is held to include the whole Alpine space between the uppermost limit of trees and the first region. appearance of permanent masses of snow. It is here that the characteristic vegetation of the Alps is developed in its full beauty and variety. Shrubs are not wanting. Three species of rhododendron vie with each other in the brilliancy of their masses of red or pink flowers; the common juniper rises higher still, along with three species of -bilberry; and several dwarf willows attain nearly to the utmost limit of vegetation. The upper limit of this region coincides with the so-called limit of perpetual snow. On the higher parts of lofty mountains more snow falls in each year than is melted on the spot. A portion of this is carried away by the wind before it is consolidated; a larger Glacial portion accumulates in hollows and depressions of the - region. surface, and is gradually converted into -glacier-ice, which descends by a slow secular motion into the deeper valleys; where it goes to swell perennial streams. As on a mountain the snow does not lie in beds of uniform thickness, and some parts are more exposed to the sun and warm winds than others, we commonly find beds of snow alternating with exposed slopes covered with brilliant vegetation; and to the observer near at hand there is no appearance in the least corresponding to the term limit of perpetual snow, though the case is otherwise when a high mountain-chain is viewed from a distance. Similar conditions are repeated at many different points, so that the level at which large snow-beds show themselves along its flanks is approximately horizontal. But this holds good only so far as the conditions are similar. On the opposite sides of the same. chain the exposure to the sun or to warm winds may cause a wide difference in the level of permanent snow; but in some cases the increased fall of snow on the side exposed to moist winds may more than compensate the increased influence of the sun's rays. Still, even with these reservations, the so-called line of perpetual snow is not fixed. The occurrence of favourable meteorological conditions during several successive seasons may and does increase the extent of the snow-fields, and lower the limit of seemingly permanent snow; while an opposite state of things may cause the limit to rise higher on the flanks of the mountains, Hence all attempts to fix accurately the level of perpetual snow in the Alps are fallacious, and can at the best approach only to local accuracy for a particular district. In some parts of the Alps the limit may be set at about 8000 ft. above the sea, while in others it cannot be placed much below 9500 ft. As very little snow can rest on rocks that lie at an angle exceeding 60°, and this is soon removed by the wind, some steep masses of rock remain bare even near the summits of the highest peaks, but as almost every spot offering the least hold for vegetation is covered with snow, few flowering plants are seen above 1r,000 ft. There is reason to think, however, that it is the want of soil rather than climatal conditions that checks the upward extension of the alpine flora. Increased direct effect of solar radiation compensates for the cold of the nights, and in the few spots where plants have been found in flower up to a height of 12,000 ft., nothing has indicated that the processes of vegetation were arrested by the severe cold which they must sometimes endure. The climate of the glacial region has often been compared to that of the polar regions, but they are widely different. Here, intense solar radiation by day, which raises the surface when dry to a temperature approaching 8o° F., alternates with severe frost by night. There, a sun which never sets sends feeble rays that maintain a low equable temperature, rarely rising more than a few degrees above the freezing-point. Hence the upper region of the Alps sustains a far more varied and brilliant vegetation. 4. Hain Chain.—In the case of every mountain system geographers are disposed to regard, as a general rule, the water-shed (or boundary dividing the waters flowing towards opposite slopes of the range) as marking the main chain, and this usage is justified in that the highest peaks often rise on or very near the watershed. Yet, as a matter of fact, several important mountain groups are situated on one or other side of the watershed of the Alps, and form almost independent ranges, being only connected with the main chain by a kind of peninsula: such are the Dauphine Alps, the Eastern and Western Graians, the entire Bernese Oberland, the Todi, Albula and Silvretta groups, the Ortler and Adamello ranges, and the Dolomites of south Tirol, not to speak of the lower Alps of the Vorarlberg, Bavaria and Salzburg. Of course each of these semi-detached ranges has a watershed of its own, like the lateral ridges that branch off from the main watershed. Thus there are lofty ranges parallel to that which forms the main watershed. The Alps, therefore, are not English Miles 0 10 zo 30 40 30 0.0 70 Oo (too Peaks x Passes WIP Glaciers Land above 1500 feet left white EmeryWelker aG composed of a single range (as shown on the old maps) but of a great " divide," flanked on either side by other important ranges, which, however, do not comprise such lofty peaks as the main watershed. In the following remarks we propose to follow the main watershed from one end of the Alps to the other. Starting from the Col d'Altare or di Cadibona (west of Savona), the main chain extends first south-west, then north-west to the Col de Tenda, though nowhere rising much beyond the zone of coniferous trees. Beyond the Col de Tenda the direction is first roughly west, then north-west to the Rocher des Trois Eveques (9390 ft.), just south of the Mont Enchastraye (9695 ft.), several peaks of about io,000 ft., rising on the watershed, though the highest of all, the Punta dell' Argentera (10,794 ft.) stands a little way to its north. From the Rocher des Trois Eveques the watershed runs due north for a long distance, though of the two loftiest peaks of this region one, the Aiguille de Chambeyron (11,155 ft.), is just to the west, and the other, the Monte Viso (12,609 ft.), is just to the east of the watershed. From the head of the Val Pellice the main chain runs north-west, and diminishes much in average height till it reaches the Mont Thabor (10,440 ft.), which forms the apex of a salient angle which the main chain here presents towards the west. Hence the main watershed extends eastwards, culminating in the Aiguille de Scolette (11,500 ft.), but makes a great curve to the north-west and back to the south-east before rising in the Rochemelon (11,605 ft.), which may be considered as a re-entering angle in the great rampart by which Italy is guarded from its neighbours. Thence the direction taken is north as far as the eastern summit (11,693 ft.) of the Levanna, the watershed rising in a series of snowy peaks, though the loftiest point of the region, the Pointe de Charbonel (12,336 ft.), stands a little to the west. Once more the chain bends to the north-west, rising in several lofty peaks (the highest is the Aiguille de la Grande Sassiere, 12,323 ft.), before attaining the considerable depression of the Little St Bernard Pass. Thence for a short way the direction is north to the Col de la Seigne, and then north-east along the crest of the Mont Blanc chain, which culminates in the peak of Mont Blanc (15,782 ft.), the loftiest in the Alps. A number of high peaks crown our watershed before it attains the Mont Dolent (12,543 ft.). Thence after a short dip to the south-east, our chain takes near the Great St Bernard Pass the generally eastern direction that it maintains till it reaches Monte Rosa,whence it bends northwards, making one small dip to the east as far as the Simplon Pass. It is in the portion of the watershed between the Great St Bernard and the Simplon that the main chain maintains a greater average height than in any other part. But, though it rises in a number of loftypeaks, such as the Mont Velan (r 2,353 ft.), the Matterhorn (14,782 ft.), the Lyskamm (14,889 ft.), the Nord End of Monte Rosa (15,132 ft.), and the Weissmies (13,226 ft.), yet many of the highest points of the region, such as the Grand Combin (14,164 ft.), the Dent Blanche (14,318 ft.), the Weisshorn (14,804 ft.), the true summit or Dufourspitze (15,217 ft.) of Monte Rosa itself, and the Dom (14,942 ft.), all rise on its northern slope and not on the main watershed. On the other hand the chain between the Great St Bernard and the Simplon sinks at barely half a dozen points below a level of ro,000 ft. The Simplon Pass corresponds to what may be called a dislocation of the main chain. Thence to the St Gotthard the divide runs north-east, all the higher summits (including the Monte Leone, 11,684 ft., and the Pizzo Rotondo, 10,489 ft.) rising on it, a curious contrast to the long stretch just described. From the St Gotthard to the Maloja the watershed between the basins of the Rhine and Po runs in an easterly direction as a whole, though making two great dips towards the south, first to near the Vogelberg (10,565 ft.) and again to near the Pizzo Gallegione (ro,2o1 ft.), so that it presents a broken and irregular appearance. But all the loftiest peaks rise on it: Scopi (10,499 ft.), Piz Medel (10,509 ft.), the Rheinwaldhorn (11,149 ft.), the Tambohorn (10,749 ft.) and Piz Timun (10,502 ft.). From the Maloja Pass the main watershed dips to the south-east for a short distance, and then runs eastwards and nearly over the highest summit of the Bernina group, the Piz Bernina (13,304 ft.), to the Bernina Pass. Thence to the Reschen Scheideck Pass the main chain is ill-defined, though on it rises the Corno di Campo (10,844 ft.), beyond which it runs slightly north-east past the sources of the Adda and the Fraele Pass, sinks to form the depression of the Ofen Pass, soon bends north and rises once more in the Piz Sesvenna (1o,568 ft.). The break in the continuity of the Alpine chain marked by the deep valley, the Vintschgau, of the upper Adige (Etsch) is one of the most remarkable features in the orography of the Alps. The little Reschen lake which forms the chief source of the Adige is only 13 ft. below the Reschen Scheideck Pass (4902 ft.), and by it is but 5 M. from the Inn valley. Eastward of this pass, the main chain runs north-east to the Brenner Pass along the snowy crest of the Oetzthal and Stubai Alps, the loftiest point on it being the Weisskugel (12,291 ft., Oetzthal), for the highest summits both of the Oetzthal and of the Stubai districts, the Wildspitze (12,382 ft.) and the Zuckerhutl (11,520 ft.) stand a little to the north. The Brenner (4495 ft.) is almost the lowest of all the great carriage-road passes across the main chain, and has always been the chief means of communication between Germany and Italy. For some way beyond it the watershed runs eastwards over the highest crest of the Zillerthal Alps, which attains 11,559 ft. in the Hochfeiler. But, a little farther, at the Dreiherrenspitze (11,500 ft.) we have to choose between following the watershed south-wards, or keeping due east along the highest crest of the Greater Tauern Alps. (a) The latter course is adopted by many geographers and has much in its favour. The eastward direction is maintained and the watershed (though not the chief Alpine watershed) continues through the Greater Tauern Alps, culminating in the Gross Venediger (12,008 ft.), for the Gross Glockner (12,461 ft.) rises to the south. Our chain bends north-east near the Radstadter Tauern Pass, and preserves that direction through the Lesser Tauern Alps to the Semmering Pass. (b) On the other hand, if from the Dreiherrenspitze we cleave to the true main watershed of the Alpine chain, we find that it dips south, passes over the Hochgall (11,287 ft.), the culminating point of the Rieserferner group, and then sinks to the Toblach Pass, but at a point a little east of the great Dolomite peak ofthe Drei Zinnen it bends east again, and rises in the Monte Coglians (9128 ft., the monarch of the Carnic Alps). Soon after our watershed makes a last bend to the south-east and culminates in the Terglou (9400 ft.), the highest point of the Julie Alps, though the Grintovc (8429 ft., the culminating point of the Karawankas Alps) stands more to the east. Finally our water= shed turns south and ends near the great limestone plateau of the Birnbaumerwald, between Laibach and Gorz. As might be expected, the main chain boasts of more glaciers and eternal snow than the independent or external ranges. Yet it is a curious fact that the three longest glaciers in the Alps (the Great Aletsch, 162 m., and the Unteraar and the Fiescher, each To m.) are all in the Bernese Oberland. In the main chain the two longest are both 94 m., the Mer de Glace at Chamonix and the Gorner at Zermatt. In the Eastern Alps the longest glacier is the Pasterze (rather over 6; m.), which is not near the true main watershed, though it, clings to the slope of the Greater Tauern range, east of the Dreiherrenspitze. But the next two longest glaciers in the Eastern Alps (the Hintereis, 6 m., and the Gepatsch, 6 m.) are both in the Oetzthal Alps, and so close to the true main watershed. The so-called alpine lakes arc the sheets of water found at the foot of the Alps, on either slope, just where the rivers that form them issue into the plains. There are, however, alpine lakes higher up (e.g. the lake of Thtin, and those in the Upper Engadine, in the heart of the mountains, though these are naturally smaller in extent, while the true lakes of the High Alps are represented by the glacier lakes of the Marjelensee (near the Great Aletsch glacier) and those on the northern slope of the Col de Fenetre, between Aosta and the Val de Bagnes. The most singular, and probably the loftiest, lake in the Alps is the ever-frozen tarn that forms the summit of the Roccia Viva (11,976 ft.) in the Eastern Graians. Among the great alpine rivers we may distinguish two classes: those which spring directly from glaciers and those which rise in lakes, these being fed by eternal snows or glaciers. In the former class are the Isere, the Rhone, the Aar, the Ticino, the Tosa, the Hinter (or main) Rhine and the Linth; while in the latter class we have the Durance, the Po, the Reuss, the Vorder and middle branches of the Rhine, the Inn, the Adda, the Oglio and the Adige. The Piave and the Drave seem to be outside either class. 5. Principal Passes.—Though the Alps form a barrier they have never formed an impassable barrier, since, from the earliest days onwards, they have been traversed first, perhaps, for purposes of war or commerce, and later by pilgrims, students and tourists. The spots at which they were crossed are called passes (this word is sometimes though rarely applied to gorges only), and are the points at which the great chain sinks to form depressions, up to which deep-cut valleys lead from the plains: Hence the oldest name for such passes is Mont (still retained in cases of the Mont Cenis and the Monte Moro), for it was many ages before this term was especially applied to the peaks of the Alps, which with a few very rare exceptions (e.g. the Monte Viso was known to the Romans as Vesulus) were long simply disregarded. The native inhabitants of the Alps were naturally the first to use the alpine passes. But to the outer world these passes first became known when the Romans traversed them in order to conquer the world beyond. In the one case we have no direct knowledge (though the Romans probably selected the passes pointed out to them by the natives as the easiest), while in the other we hear almost exclusively of the passes across the main chain or the principal passes of the Alps. For obvious reasons the Romans, having once found an easy direct pass across the main chain, did not trouble to seek for harder and more devious routes. Hence the passes that can be shown tb have been certainly known to them are comparatively few in number: they are, in topographical order from west to east, the Col de 1'Argentiere, the Mont Genevre, the two St Bernards, the Spliigen, the Septimer, the Brenner, the Radstadter Tauern, the Solkscharte, the Plocken and the Pontebba (or Saifnitz). Of these the Mont Genevre and the Brenner were the most frequented, while it will be noticed that in the Central Alps only two passes (the Spliigen and the Septimer) were certainly known to the Romans. In fact the central portion of the Alps was by far the least Romanised and least known till the early middle ages. Thus the Simplon is first certainly mentioned in 1235, the St Gotthard (without name) in 1236, the Lukmanier in 965, the San Bernardino in 941; of course they may have been known before, but authentic history is silent as regards them till the dates specified. Even the Mont Cenis (from the 15th to the 19th century the favourite pass for travellers going from France to Italy) is first heard of in 756 only. In the 13th century many hitherto unknown passes came into prominence, even some of the easy glacier passes. It should always be borne in mind that in the Western and Central Alps there is but one ridge to cross, to which access is gained by a deep-cut valley, though often it would be shorter to cross a second pass in order to gain the plains, e.g. the Mont Genevre, that is most directly reached by the Col du Lautaret; and the Simplon, which is best gained by one of the lower passes over the western portion of the Bernese Oberland chain. On the other hand, in the Eastern Alps, it is generally necessary to cross three distinct ridges between the northern and southern plains, the central ridge being the highest and most difficult. Thus the passes which crossed a single ridge, and did not involve too great a detour through a long valley of approach, became the most important and the most popular, e.g. the Mont Cenis, the Great St Bernard, the St Gotthard, the Septimer and the Brenner. As time went on the travellers (with whatever object) who used the great alpine passes could not put up any longer with the bad old mule paths. A few passes (e.g. the Semmering, the Brenner, the Tenda and the Arlberg) can boast of carriage roads constructed before 1800, while those over the Umbrail and the Great St Bernard were not completed till the early years of the loth century. Most of the carriage roads across the great alpine passes were thus constructed in the 19th century (particularly its first half), largely owing to the impetus given by Napoleon. As late as 1905, the highest pass over the main chain that had a carriage road was the Great St Bernard (8111 ft.), but three still higher passes over side ridges have roads-the Stelvio (9055 ft.), the Col du Galibier (8721 ft.), in the Dauphine Alps, and the Umbrail Pass (8242 ft.). Still more recently the main alpine chain has been subjected to the further indignity of having railway lines carried over it or through it-the Brenner and the Pontebba lines being cases of the former, and the Col de Tenda, the Mont Cenis (though the tunnel is really 17 M. to the west), the Simplon and the St Gotthard, not to speak of the side passes of the Arlberg, Albula and Pyhrn of the latter. There are also schemes (more or less advanced) for piercing the Splugen and the Hohe Tauern, both on the main ridge, and the L6tschen Pass, on one of the external ranges. The numerous mountain railways, chiefly in Switzerland, up various peaks (e.g. the Rigi and Pilatus) and over various side passes (e.g. the Briinig and the Little Scheidegg) do not concern us here. 6. Divisions.-The Alps, within the limits indicated under (2) above, form a great range, consisting of a main chain, with ramifications, and of several parallel minor chains. They thus form a single connected whole as contrasted with the plains at their base, and nature has made no breaks therein, save at the spots where they sink to comparatively low depressions or passes. But for the sake of practical convenience it has long been usual to select certain of the best marked of these passes to serve as limits within the range, whether to distinguish several great divisions from each other, or to further break up each of these great divisions into smaller groups. As these divisions, great or small, are so to speak artificiai, several systems have been proposed according to which the Alps may be divided. We give below that which seems to us to be the most satisfactory (based very largely on personal acquaintance with most parts of the range), considering, as in the case of the limits of the chain, only its topographical aspect, as it exists at the present day, while leaving it to geologists, botanists and zoologists to elaborate special divisions as required by these various sciences. Our selected divisions relate only to the High Alps between the Col de Tenda and theroute over the Radstadter Tauern, while in each of the 18 sub-divisions the less elevated outlying peaks are regarded as append-ages of the higher group within the topographical limits of which they rise. No attempt, of course, has been made to give a complete catalogue of the peaks and passes of the Alps, while in the case of the peaks the culminating point of a lower half-detached group has been included rather than the loftier spurs of the higher and main group; in the case of the passes, the villages or valleys they connect have been indicated, and also the general character of the route over each pass. As regards the main divisions, three are generally distinguished; the Western Alps (chiefly French and Italian, with a small bit of the Swiss Valais) being held to extend from the Col de Tenda to the Simplon Pass, the Central Alps (all but wholly Swiss and Italian) thence to the Reschen Scheideck Pass, and the Eastern Alps (wholly Austrian and Italian, save the small Bavarian bit at the north-west angle) thence to the Radstadter Tauern route, with a bend outwards towards the south-east, as explained under (2) in order to include the higher summits of the South-Eastern Alps. Strictly speaking, we should follow the Reschen Scheideck route down the Adige valley, but as this would include in the Central Alps the Ortler and some other of the highest Tirolese summits, it is best (remembering the artificial character of the division) to draw a line from Nlals southwards either over the Umbrail Pass (the old historical pass) or the Stelvio (well-known only since the carriage road was built over it in the first quarter of the 19th century) to the head of the Valtellina, and then over the Aprica Pass (as the Bergamasque Alps properly belong to the Central Alps) to the Oglio valley or the Val Camonica, and down that valley to the Lake of Iseo and Brescid. Assuming these three main divisions, we must now consider in detail the 18 sub-divisions which we distinguish; the first 5 forming the Western Alps, the next 7 the Central Alps, and the rest the Eastern Alps, the heights throughout being, of course, given in English feet and representing the latest measurements. I. WESTERN ALPS 1. Maritime Alps (from the Col de Tenda to the Col de l'Argen- tiere). Chief Peaks of the Maritime Alps. Punta dell' Argentera . 10,794 Mont Tinibras . 9,948 Cima dei Gelas . . 10,286 Mont Enchastraye . 9,695 Monte Matto . . 1o,128 Monte Bego 9,426 Mont Pelat . . 10,017 Mont Moonier 9,246 Mont Clapier . . 9,994 Rocca dell' Abisso 9,039 Chief Passes of the. Maritime Alps. 9,236 Passo del Pagarin (Vesubie Valley to Valdieri), snow. Col di Fremamorta (Tinee Valley to the Baths of Valdieri), 8,688 bridle path . . Bassa di Druos (same to same), bridle path 8,629 Passo di Collalunga (Tinee Valley to Vinadio), bridle path. 8,531 Coll dell' Agnel (Tenda to Valdieri), foot path . 8,426 Col della Ciriegia (St Martin Vesubie to the Baths of Valdieri), 8,370 bridle path . Col des Granges Communes (St Etienne de Tinee to Barce- 8,242 lonnette), bridle path Col de Pourriac (Tinee Valley to Argentera), foot path 8,222 Col delta Finestre (St Martin de Vesubie to Valdieri), bridle 8,107 path Col di Guercia (Tinee Valley to Vinadio), foot path . 8,o42 Col della Lombarda (same to same), bridle path . 7,858 Col de la Cayolle (Vat- Valley to Barcelonnette), carriage 7,717 road Col di Santa Anna (Tinee Valley to Vinadio), bridle path 7,605 Col del Sabbione (Tenda to Valdieri), bridle 7,428 path . Col d'Allos or de Valgelaye (Verdon Valley to Barcelonnette), carriage road 7,382 Col de l'Argentiere (Barcelonnette to Cuneo), carriage road . 6,545 Col de Tenda (Tenda to Cuneo), carriage road, railway 6,145 beneath . . . . 2. Cottian Alps. (from the Col de l'Argentiere to the Mont Cenis and westwards to the Col du Galibier). Chief Peaks of the Cottian Alps. 11,096 Monte Viso . . . . 12,609 Dents d'Ambin . . . Viso di Vallante . . . 12,048 Mont d'Ambin . . 11,080 Aiguille de Scolette . 1 r,5o0 Pointe de la Font Sancte 11,057 Aiguille de Chambeyron. 11,155 Punta Ferrant . . 11,037 Grand Rubren . . x1,142 Visolotto . 11,o01 Brec de Chambeyron . 11,116 Rochebrune . . 10,906 Rognosa d'Etache . . i1,1o6 PuntaSommeiller . 10,896 742 Bric Froid . Grand Glayza . Rognosa di Sestrieres Panestrel . . Roche du Grand Galibier Peou Roc Pic du Pelvat . Pointe Haute de Mary Pic du Thabor . Mont Thabor . Pointe des Cerces Chief Passes in the Cottian Alps. Col Sommeiller (Bardonneche to Bramans), snow 9,718 Col de la Traversette (Crissolo to Abries), mainly bridle path beneath pass tunnel made in 1478–1480 . Col d'Ambin (Exilles to Bramans), snow . Col de St Veran (Val Varaita to the Queyras Valley), foot path . Col d'Etache (Bardonneche to Bramans), bridle path Col dell' Agnello (Val Varaita to the Queyras Valley), bridle path . Col Girardin (Ubaye Valley to the Queyras Valley), bridle 8,708 Col d'Abries or de Prali (Perosa to Abries), bridle path 8,695 Col de la Roue (Bardonneche to Modane), bridle path 8,419 Col de Frejus (same to same), carriage road, beneath which is the so-called Mont Cenis railway tunnel. 8,294 Col de Clapier (Bramans to Susa), bridle path . 8,173 Col d'Izouard (Briancon to the Queyras Valley), carriage road . Col de la Croix (Torre Pellicc to Abries), bridle path Petit Mont Cenis (Bramans to the Mont Cenis Plateau), bridle path . Col de Vars (Ubaye Valley to the Queyras Valley), carriage road 6,939 Mont Cenis (Lanslebourg to Susa), carriage road 6,893 Col de Sestrieres (Pignerol to Cesanne), carriage road 6,631 Mont Genevre (Briancon to Cesanne), carriage road . 6,083 Col des Echelles de Planpinet (Briancon to Bardonneche), partly carriage road . 5,774 3. Dauphine Alps (from the Col du Galibier, westwards and southwards). Chief Peaks of the Dauphine Alps. Pointe des Ecrins . 13,462 Pie Felix Neff . . .. 10,571 Meije ... . 13,081 Vieux Chaillol . . 10,378 Ailefroide . . 12,989 The de Vautisse 10,375 Mont Pelvoux . 12,973 Grand Pinier . . 10,237 Pic Sans Nom 12,845 Pie de Parieres . 10,007 Pic Gaspard 12,730 Mourre Froid 9,830 Pic Coolidge . . 12,323 Belledonne (highest) 9,781 Grande Ruine . 12,317 Rocher Blanc (Sept Laux) 9,617 Rateau . . . 12,317 Taillefer 9,387 Montagne des Agneaux . 12,008 Pic du Frene . . 9,219 Les Bans . . 11,979 -Fete de 1'Obiou . .. 9,164 Sommet des Rouies . 11,923 Grand Ferrand . . 9,059 Aiguille du Plat . . 11,818 Pic de Bure (Aurouse) 8,898 Pic d'Olan. . . I1,735 Grand Veymont 7,697 Pic Bonvoisin. . 11,680 Mont Aiguille . 6,88o Aiguilles d'Arves (highest Chamechaude . 6,847 point) 11,529 Dent de Crolles. 6,779 Grandes Rousses . 11,395 Grand Som . . 6,67o Roche de la Muzelle . 11,349 Mont Granier . 6,358 Sirac 11,28o Dent du Chat . Chief Passes of the Dauphine Alps. Col de la Lauze (St Christophe to La Grave), snow . 11.625 Col des Avalanches (La Berarde to Vallouise), snow . 11,520 Col de la Casse Deserte (La Berarde to La Grave), snow 11,516 Col Emile Pic (La Grave to Vallouise), snow . 11,490 Col des Ecrins (La Berarde to Vallouise), snow 11,205 Col du Glacier Blanc (La Grave to Vallouise), snow . 10,854 Col du Sete (La Berarde to Vallouise), snow 10,834 Breche de la Meije (La Berarde to la Grave), snow . 10,827 Col de la Temple (La Berarde to Vallouise), snow . . 10,772 Col des Aiguilles d'Arves (Valloire to St Jean d'Arves),snow 10,335 Col du Says (La Berarde to the Val Gaudemar), snow . 10,289 Col du Clot des Cavales (La Berarde to La Grave), snow . 10,263 Col du Loup du Valgaudemar (Vallouise to the Val Gaude- mar), snow . . . . 10,210 Col Lombard (La Grave to St Jean d'Arves), snow . . 10,171 Breche des Grandes Rousses (Altemont to Clavans), snow . 10,171 Col du Sellar (Vallouise to the Val Gaudemar), snow . Io,o63 Col de la Muande (St Christophe to the Val Gaudemar), snow 10,037 Col des Quirlies (St Jean d'Arves to Clavans), snow . . 9,679 [PEAKS AND PASSES Col du Goleon (La Grave to Valloire), foot path . . 9,449 Pas de la Cavale (Vallouise to Champoleon), carriage road . 8,990 Col d'Orcieres (Dormillouse to Orcieres), bridle path. 8,859 Col de 1'Infernet (La Grave to St jean d'Arves), foot path 8,826 Col du Galibier (Lautaret Hospice to St Michel de Maurienne), carriage road . . . 8,721 I3reche de Valsenestre (Bourg d'Oisans to Valsenestre), foot 8,642 path 8,642 Col de Vallonpierre (Val Gaudemar to Champoleon), foot 8,596 path 8,596 Col de Val Estrete (same to same), foot path . . 8,596 Col de Vaurze (Val Gaudemar to Val Jouffrey), foot path . 8,531 Col de Martignare (La Grave to St Jean d'Arves), foot path 8,531 Col des Tourettes (Orcieres to Chateauroux), bridle path . 8,465 Col de la Muzelle (St Christophe to Valsenestre), foot path 8,202 Col de l'Eychauda (Vallouise to Monestier), bridle path . 7,970 Col d'Arsine (La Grave to Monestier), bridle path 7,874 Col des Pres Nouveaux (Le Freney to St Jean d'Arves), bridle path . Col des Sept Laux (Allevard to Bourg d'Oisans), bridle path Col du Lautaret (Briancon to Bourg d'Oisans), carriage road . Col do la Croix de Fer (Bourg d'Oisans to St Jean d'Arves), carriage road . . 6,765 Col du G Landon (Bourg d'Oisans to La Chambre), carriage 6,401 5,446 4,462 4,088 Col de 1'Alpe de Venosc (Venosc to Le Freney), bridle path Col d'Ornon (Bourg d'Oisans to La Mure), carriage road . Col Bayard (La Mure to Gap), carriage road . Col de la Croix Haute (Grenoble to Veynes and Gap), rail- way line over . 4. Graian Alps (from the Mont Cenis to the Little St Bernard Pass). These are usually divided into three groups, the Central (the watershed between the two passes named), the Western or French, and the Eastern or Italian; in the following lists the initials " C," W," and " E " show to which group each peak and pass belongs. Chief Peaks of the Graian Alps. Grand Paradis (E) . . 13,324 Grande Aiguille Rousse Grivola (E) . . . 13,022 (C). . . . 11,424 Grande Casse (W) . . 12,668 Granta Parey (C) . 11,395 Mont Pourri (W) . . 12,428 Roc du Mulinet (C) . 11,382 Mont Herbetet (E) . . 12,396 Aiguille Pers (C) . 11,323 Pointe de Charbonel (C) 12,336 Pointe de la Sana (W) 11,319 Aiguille de la Grande Cima dell' Auille (C) . 11,306 Sassiere (C) . 12,323 Pointe de I'Echelle (W) 11,260 Dent Parrachee (W) . 12,179 Punta Foura (E) . 11,188 Tour du Grand St Pierre Pointe des Sengies (E) 11,182 (E) . . . 12,113 Pointe de la Gliere (W) 11,109 Uja di Ciamare?la (C) . 12,061 Pointe de la Galise (C) 10,975 Cima di Charforon (E) . 12,025 Pointe de la Traversiere Grande Motte (W) . . 12,018 (C) .. 10,962 Albaron (C) . . . . 12,015 Pointe de Mean Martin Roccia Viva (E) . . . 11,976 (W) . . . 10,949 Levanna (C) . . 11,943 Punta Laving (E) . . 10,854 Bessanese (C). . . I1,917 Ormelune (C) . 10,771 Punta di Gaij (E) . 11,887 Roche Chevriere (W) 10,768 Dome de I'Arpont (W) . 11,874 Signal du Mont Iseran (C) 10,634 Pointe de Ponce (C) 11,871 Pointe de la Rechasse (W) 10,575 Bee de 1'Invergnan (C) . 11,838 Grand Assaly (C) . . 10,414 Tsanteleina (C) 11,831 Roisebanque (E) . 10,381 Dome de Chasseforet (W) 11,802 Becca di Nona (E) . . 10,309 Croce Rossa (C) . . . 11,703 Torre d'Ovarda (C) . 10,089 Aiguille de Peclet (\V) . 11,700 Pointe du Pousset (E) 9,994 Mont Emilius (E) . . 11,677 Dome de Val d'Isere (C) 9,951 11,615 Uja di Mondrone (C) . 9,725 11,608 Bellagarda (C) . . . . 9,643 9,023 Chief Passes of the Graian Alps. Col de la Grande Rousse (Rhemes Valley to the Val Grisanche), snow (C) . Col de Gebroulaz (Arc Valley to Moutiers Tarentaise), snow (W) . Col de Monei (Cogne to Locana), snow (E) . Col du Grand Paradis (Ceresole to the Val Savaranche), snow (E) . . . Col du Charforon (same to same), snow (E) Col de Teleccio (Cogne to Locana), snow (E) Col de Lauzon (Cogne to the Val Savaranche), bridle path (E) Col du Bouquetin (Bonneval to Val d'Isere), snow (C) . Col de St Grat (Val Grisanche to La Thilille), snow (C) Col de I'Herbetet (Cogne to the Val Savaranche), snow (E) Col du Collerin (Bessans to Balme), snow (C) . Col du Grand Etret (Ceresole to the Val Savaranche), snow Io,860 T"ete des Toillies 10,781 Monte Granero 10,758 Mont Chaberton 10,673 The de Moyse . 10,637 Monte Meidassa io,6or Pelvo d'Elva . 10,558 Mont Politri 10,539 Mont Albergian Io,516 Bric Bouchet . 10,440 Punta Cournour 10,434 10,430 10,401 . 10,286 10,204 I0,187 10,053 10,009 • 9,974 9,853 • 9,410 9,679 9,364 9,331 9,144 9,003 8,855 Col de Sautron (Val Maira to Barcelonnette), bridle path . 8,823 Col de Longet (Ubaye Valley to Val Varaita), bridle path . 8,767 Col de Mary or de Maurin (Ubaye Valley to Val Maira), bridle 7,835 7,576 7,166 4,593 7,523 7,166 6,8o8 Punta d'Arnas (C) . Aiguille de Polset (W) Rochemelon (C) . . Mont Cbalanson(C) . Tersiva (E) . . Grande Traversiere (C) . Tete du Rutor (C) . . 11,605 Monte Marzo (E) 11,582 Petit Mont Blanc de 11,526 Pralognan (W) . . 8,809 11,467 Mont Jouvet (W) . . 8,409 11,438 Monte Civrari (C) . . 7,553 11,483 11,385 11',247 Io,988 10,929 10,913 Io,831 10,827 10,827 10,686 Io,5o6 10,361 Tagliaferro . . . . 9,725 Riffelhorn 9,617 Pointe Percee du Reposoir 9,029 Crammont . . . . 8,98o Pointe des Fours . . 8,921 8,832 8,527 8,386 8,291 8,284 8,183 8,163 7,687 6,132 4,528 10,693 10,693 10,630 Io,588 10,552 10,525 10,512 10,289 10,260 I0,20I 10,099 10,073 9,935 9,784 M61e 9,731 Saleve (highest point) Pointe du Colloney Catogne . Monte BO Mont Joly Brevent . Pointe de Salles Aiguille de Varens Mont Chetif . . Col dg Bassac (Rhemes Valley to the Val Grisanche), snow(C) 10,345 Col du Carro (Bonneval to Ceresole), snow (C) . . . 10,302 Col d'Arbole (Comboe to Brissogne), snow (E) 10,292 Col de la Goletta(Va Id'Isere to the Rhemes Valley), snow (C) 10,237 Col de Rhemes (same to same), snow (C) . Io,174 Col de la Grande Casse (Pralognan to the Premou Glen), snow (\V) Col de Sea (Bonneval to Forno Alpi Graie), snow (C) . Col de I'Autaret (Bessans to Usseglio), foot path (C). . Col de Girard (Bonneval to Forno Alpi Grate), snow (C) . Col Rosset (Val Savaranche to the Rhemes Valley), bridle path (C) . . 9,922 Col d'Arnas (Bessans to Balme), snow (C) . 9,889 Col de la Galise (Ceresole to Val d'Isere), snow (C) 9,836 Col de Sort (Val Savaranche to the Rhemes Valley), partly bridle path (C) 9,735 Quecees de Tignes (Val d'Isere to Termignon), snow (W) . 9,646 Col della Nouva (Cogne to Pont Canavese), partly bridle path (E) Col de Garin (Aosta to Cogne), foot path (E) . Collarin d'Arnas (Balme to Usseglio), snow (C) Finestra del Torrent (Rhemes Valley to the Val Grisanche), foot path (C) . . . . 9,341 Fenetre de Champorcher (Cogne to Champorcher), bridle path (E) Col de Vaudet (Isere Valley to the Val Grisanche), foot path (C) 9,305 Col de Bardoney (Cogne to Pont Canavese), snow (E) . 9,295 Col de Chaviere (Modane to Pralognan), foot path (W) 9,206 Col de la Leisse (Tignes to Termignon), snow (W) 9,121 Col du Mont Iseran (Bonneval to Val d'Isere), bridle path (C) 9,085 Ghicet di Sea (Balme to Forno Alpi Graie), foot path (C) . 8,973 Col de la Sachette (Tignes to Bourg St Maurice), foot path (\V) . . 8,954 Col du Pa!et (Tignes to Moil tiers Tarentaise or Bourg St Maurice), bridle path (W) . 8,721 Col du Mont (Ste Foy to the Val Grisanche), bridle path (C) 8,681 Col de la Croix de Nivolet (Ceresole to the Val Savaranche), bridle path (E) . . 8,665 Col della Crocetta (Ceresole to Forno Alpi Graie), bridle path (C) . 8,649 Col de la Platiere (St Jean de Maurienne to MoQtiers Taren- taise), partly bridle path (W) 8,531 Col de la Va noise (Pralognan to Termignon), bridle path (W) 8,291 Col des Encombres (St Michel de Maurienne to MoQtiers Tarentaise), bridle path (W) . . 7,668 Little St Bernard (Aosta to Moutiers Tarentaise), carriage road (C) . 7,179 Col de la Madeleine (La Chambre to MoQtiers Tarentaise), bridle path (W) . 6,509 5. Pennine Alps (from the Little St Bernard to the Simplon Pass). This range contains all the highest peaks in the Alps, save the Finstcraarhorn (14,026) in the Bernese Oberland. Chief Peaks of the Pennine Alps. Mont Blanc . . 15,782 Mont Blanc de Seilon Monte Rosa (Dufour- Aiguille du Midi spitze) . . 15,217 Tour Noir Nord End (Monte Rosa) 15,132 Aiguille des Glaciers Dom (Mischabelhorner) 14,942 Mont Dolent . Lvskamm 14,889 Aiguille du Chardonnet \Veisshorn 14,804 Cima di Jazzi Matterhorn 14,782 Balfrin . . . Taschhorn. . . 14,758 Pigne d'Arolla Mont Maudit 14,669 Mont Velan Dent Blanche 14,318 Aiguille du Dru Dome du touter 14,210 Tate Blanche Grand Combin 14,164 L'Ev2que Castor ... . 1.3,879 Mont Pleureur Zinal Rothhorn 13,856 D"ome de Miage. Alphubel .. 13,803 Lo Besso Grandes Jorasses 13,797 Aiguille de la Za Rimpfischhorn 13,790 Mont Collon Strahlhorn 13,751 Diablons Dent d'Herens 13,715 Aiguille de Tour Zermatt Breithorn 13,685 Mont Gele . . 13,541 Bec de Luseney 13,364 Aiguille de Grepon . 13,341 Chateau des Dames 13,236 Aiguille des Charmoz 13,226 Aiguille du Tacul . 13,170 Grand Tournalin . Pointe de Rosa Blanche Mont Avril . Grande Rochere Corno Bianco Grauhaupt . . Pointe d'Orny Dent du MidiMont Favre Sasseneire . Grand Golliaz Tour Sallieres . Pizzo Bianco Latelhorn . Schwarzhorn (Augstbord) Gornergrat . Pointe de Lechaud Buet . . . . Mont Ruan . Mont Ned . Bella Tola . Pointe de Tanneverge Belvedere (Aigs. Rouges) Chief Passes of the Pennine Alps. Sesiajoch (Zermatt to Alagna), snow . . 14,515 Col de la Brenva (Courmayeur to Chamonix), snow . . 14,217 Domjoch (Randa to Saas), snow . 14,062 Lysjoch (Zermatt to Gressoney), snow . 14,033 Mischabeljoch (Zermatt to Saas), snow . . 12,651 Alphubel Pass (same to same), snow . 12,474 Adler Pass (same to same), snow . 12,461 Morning Pass (Zermatt to Zinal), snow . . 12,287 Schwarzthor (Zermatt to Ayas), snow . 12,274 Col de Triolet (Chamonix to Courmayeur), snow . 12,110 Ried Pass (St Niklaus to Saas), snow . 11,800 New Weissthor (Zermatt to Macugnaga), snow . 11,746 Allalin Pass (Zermatt to Saas), snow . 11,713 Col de Valpelline (Zermatt to Aosta), snow . 11,687 Biesjoch (Randa to Turtmann), snow . 11,644 Triftjoch (Zermatt to Zinal), snow . . 11,615 Col d'Argentiere (Chamonix to Orsieres), snow . 11,536 Col du Sonadon (Bourg St Pierre to the Val de Bagnes), snow . Col de Talefre (Chamonix to Courmayeur), snow Col d'Herens (Zermatt to Evolena), snow Col Durand (Zermatt to Zinal), snow . Col des Maisons Blanches (Bourg St Pierre to the Val de Bagnes), snow . . . . 11,241 Col de Bertol (Arolla to the Col d'Herens), snow . 11,200 Col de Miage (Contamines to Courmayeur), snow 11,077 Col du Geant (Chamonix to Courmayeur), snow 11,o6o Col du Mont Rouge (Val de Bagnes to the Val d'Heremence), snow . . . . 10,962 Col du Chardonnet (Chamonix to Orsieres), snow . 10,909 Col de St Theodule (Zermatt to Chatillon), snow . 10,899 Col du Tour (Chamonix to Orsieres), snow . 10,762 Fenetre de Saleinaz (Saleinaz Glacier to Trient Glacier) ,snow 10,709 Col de Tracuit (Zinal to Turtmann), snow . 1o,67o Zwischbergen Pass (Saas to Gondo), snow . . 10,657 Col d'Oren (Val de Bagnes to the Valpelline), snow . . 10,637 Col de Seilon (Val de Bagnes to the Val d'Heremence), snow 10,499 Col du Cret (Val de Bagnes to the Val d'Heremence), snow 10,329 Col de Valcournera (Val Tournanche to the Valpelline), Col de Collon (Arolla to Aosta), snow . Col de Valsorey (Bourg St Pierre to Aosta), snow . Col de Chermontane (Val de Bagnes to Arolla), snow Cimes Blanches (Val Tournanche to Ayas), bridle path Col de Torrent (Evolena to the Val de Torrent), bridle path Augstbord Pass (St Niklaus to Turtmann), bridle path . Col de Crete Seche (Val de Bagnes to the Valpelline), snow Col de Breuil (Bourg St Maurice to La Thuille), snow Col d'Olen (Alagna to Gressoney), bridle path . Monte Moro (Saas to Macugnaga), partly bridle path Pas de Chevres (Arolla to the Val d'Heremence), foot path Antrona Pass (Saas to Antrona), partly bridle path . . Col de Sorebois (Zinal to the Val de Torrent), bridle path . Col de Vessona (Valpelline to the St Barthelemy Glen), foot Col de Fenetre (Val de Bagnes to Aosta), bridle path Z'Meiden Pass (Zinal to Turtmann), bridle path Turlo Pass (Alagna to Macugnaga), foot path . Col de Fenetre (Great St Bernard to the Swiss Val Ferret), bridle path . . . 8,855 Bettafurka (Ayas to Gressoney), bridle path . 8,78o Col du Mont Tondu (Contamines to Courmayeur), snow . 8,498 Col Serena (Great St Bernard to Courmayeur), foot path . 8,327 Col Ferret (Courmayeur to Orsieres), carriage road in progress . 8,311 Col de la Seigne (Chapieux to Courmayeur) bridle path 8,242 Col de Susanfe (Champery to Salvan), foot path 8,202 Col du Bonhomme (Contamines to Chapieux), bridle path. 8,147 Col de Valdobbia (Gressoney to the Val Sesia), bridle path 8,134 Great St Bernard (Martigny to Aosta), carriage road 8,111 Col de Sagerou (Sixt to Champery), foot path . . 7,917 Col de Moud (Alagna to Rima and Varallo), bridle path . 7,622 Col d'Anterne (Sixt to Servos), bridle path . 2.125 I0,171 10,115 10,073 9,987 9,623 9,411 9,351 9,31I Aiguille Verte . Ober Gabelhorn . Aiguille de Bionnassay Allalinhorn . \Veissmies Aiguille du Grant Laquinhorn . Rossbodcnhorn Grand Cornier Aiguille de Trelatete Aiguille d'Argentiere Ruinette . Aiguille de Triolet 13,140 13,128 13,022 12,832 12,819 12,727 I2,717 12,700 12,609 12,586 12,579 12,543 12,540 12,527 12,474 12,471 12,353 12,320 12,304 12,264 12,159 I2,100 12,058 12,051 11,956 11,828 11,615 11,539 11,503 11,489 11,447 11,293 11,280 11,086 10,985 10,962 10,913 10,893 Io,876 10,742 10,696 11,447 11,430 11,418 11,398 10,325 10,270 10,214 10,119 9,777 9,593 9,492 9,475 9,446 9,420 9,390 9,354 9,331 9,269 9,167 9,141 9,095 8,977 Col d'Egua (Rima to the Val Anzasca), bridle path . . 7,336 Col de Balme (Chamonix to the Trient Valley), bridle path . 7,221 Simplon Pass (Brieg to Domo d'Ossola), carriage road over, railway tunnel beneath 6,592 Col de Checouri (Courmayeur to the Lac de Combal), bridle path . . 6,431 Baranca Pass (Varallo to the Val Anzasca), bridle path 5,971 Col de Voza (Chamonix to Contamines), bridle path . 5,496 Col de la Forclaz (Chamonix to St Gervais), bridle path 5,105 Col de la Forclaz (Trient Valley to Martigny), carriage road 4,987 II. CENTRAL ALPS 6. Bernese Oberland (from the Lake of Geneva to the Furka, the Reuss Valley and the Lake of Lucerne). This general name seems best to describe the range in question, though, of course, portions of it are in Cantons other than that of Berne, viz. Vaud, Fribourg, the Valais, Lucerne, Uri and Unterwalden. Chief Peaks of the Bernese Oberland. Wellhorn. . Mettenberg . Ldffelhorn . Grand Muveran Gross Wendenstock Sparrhorn .. . . 9,928 Torrenthorn 9,853 Grande Dent de Morcles 9,777 Schilthorn . . . . 9,754 Eggishorn 9,626 Uri Rothstock . 9,620 Schwarzhorn (Grindelwald) 9, 613 Gross Siedelhorn 9,452 Albristhorn 9,069 Ri thihorn 9,052 Faulhorn 8,803 Gummfluh 8,074 Sulegg .. 7,914 Vani Noir 7,858 Niesen . 7,763 Brienzer Rothhorn . . 7,714 Tour d'Ai . . 7,658 Hohgant 7,225 Stockhorn . 7,192 Kaiseregg 7,182 Pilatus (Tomlishorn) 6,995 6,943 6,772 6,710 6,582 6,165 4,629 Chief Passes of the Bernese Oberland. Lauithor (Lauterbrunnen to the Eggishorn), snow 12,140 Monchjoch (Grindelwald to the Eggishorn), snow . 11,68o Jungfraujoch (Wengern Alp to the Eggishorn), snow . . 11,385 Strahlegg Pass (Grindelwald to the Grimsel), snow . . 10,995 Griinhornliicke (Great Aletsch Glacier to the Fiescher Glacier), snow . . . . 10,844 Oberaarjoch (Grimsel to the Eggishorn), snow . . 10,607 Gauli Pass (Grimsel to Meiringen), snow . . 10,519 Petersgrat (Lauterbrunnen to the Lotschenthal), snow . 10,516 Lotschenlucke (Lotschenthal to the Eggishorn), snow . 10,512 Lauteraarsattel (Grindelwald to the Grimsel), snow . . 10,355 Beichgrat (Li tschenthal to the Bel Alp), snow . . 10,289 Lammernjoch (Lenk to the Gemmi), snow . 10,276 Triftlimmi (Rhone Glacier to the Gadmen Valley), snow . 10,200 Sustenlimmi (Stein Alp to Goeschenen), snow . . . io,i8i Gamchilucke (Kien Valley to Lauterbrunnen), snow 9,295 Tschingel Pass (Lauterbrunnen to Kandersteg), snow 9,265 Hohthi.irli Pass (Kandersteg to the Kien Valley), foot path 8,882 Lotschen Pass (Kandersteg to the Lotschenthal), snow 8,842 Sefinenfurka(Lauterbrunnen to the Kien Valley), foot path 8,583 Wendenjoch (Engelberg to the Gadmen Valley), snow . 8,544 Furtwangsattel(Guttannen to the Gadmen Valley), foot 8,393 Furka Pass (Rhone Glacier to Andermatt), carriage road . 7,992 Rawil Pass (Sion to Leak), bridle path 7,924 Gemmi Pass (Kandersteg to Leukerbad), bridle path 7,641 Surenen Pass (Engelberg to Altdorf), foot path 7,563 Susten Pass (Meiringen to Wassen), partly carriage road . 7,422 Sanetsch Pass (Sion to Saanen), bridle path . 7,331 Joch Pass (Meiringen to Engelberg), bridle path 7,267 Grimsel Pass (Meiringen to the Rhone Glacier), carriage road 7,100 Kleine Scheidegg (Grindelwald to Lauterbrunnen), railway over 6,772 Col de Cheville (Sion to Bex), bridle path 6,723 Grosse Scheidegg (Grindelwald to Meiringen), bridle path 6,434 Col de Jaman (Montreux to Montbovon), mule path over, railway tunnel beneath . . . 4,974 Brunig Pass (Meiringen to Lucerne), railway over 3,396 7. Lepontine Alps (from the Simplon to the Splugen and south of the Furka and Oberalp Passes). The eastern portion of this range, from the St Gotthard Pass to the Splugen, is sometimes Monte Leone . 11,684. Rheinwaldhorn 1I,149 Giiferhorn I1,132 Blindenhorn I1,103 Basodino . 10,749 Tambohorn 10,749 Helsenhorn 10,742 Wasenhorn Io,68o Ofenhorn . 10,637 Cherbadung 10,542 Piz Medel 10,509 Scopi 10,499 Pizzo Rotondo 10,489 Pizzo dei Piani 10,361 Piz Terri . 10,338 Piz Aul . 10,250 Pizzo di Pesciora 10,247 Wyttenwasserstock I0,I19 Campo Tencia 10,089 Leckihorn . 10,069 Bruschghorn . I0,020 9,777 9,692 9,603 9,554 9,449 9,351 9,088 9,082 8,832 Cavanna Pass (Realp to the Val Bedretto), snow . . 8,566 Scatta Minoja (Devero to the Val Formazza), bridle path . 8,521 Bocca di Cadlimo (Airolo to the Lukmanier Pass), foot path 8,340 Valserberg (Hinterrhein to Vals Platz), bridle: path . 8,225 Safierberg (Splugen to Safien Platz), bridle path Geisspfad Pass (Binn to Devero), foot path Gries Pass (Ulrichen to Tosa Falls), bridle path Passo di Naret (Fusio to Airolo), bridle path . Nufenen Pass (Ulrichen to Airolo), bridle path Diesrut Pass (Vrin to the Somvix Glen), bad bridle path Albrun Pass (Binn to Devero and Baceno), bridle path Greina Pass (Olivone to the Somvix Glen), bridle path San Giacomo Pass (Airolo to Tosa Falls), bridle path 7,573 Passo di Buffalora(Val Mesocco to the Val Calanca),foot path 7,431 Passo dell' Uomo (Airolo to the Lukmanier Pass),b.-idle path 7,258 Spliigen Pass (Thusis to Chiavenna), carriage road . 6,946 St Gotthard Pass (Andermatt to Airolo), carriage road over, railway tunnel beneath . 6,936 San Bernardino Pass (Thusis to Bellinzona), carriage road 6,769 Lukmanier Pass (Disentis to Olivone), carriage road . . 6,289 8. The Range of the Todi (from the Oberalp Pass to the Klausen Pass). Chief Peaks of the Range of the Todi. Todi . . . . 11,887 Piz Segnes . Bifertenstock . . 11,241 Piz Giuf Crispalt Bristenstock Selbsanft .. . Vorab . Tschingelhorner (Elm) Piz Sol (Grauehorner) Calanda.. . . Karpfstock Mageren Murtschenstock. Chief Passes of the Range of the Todi. Clariden Pass (Amsteg to Linththal), snow Planura Pass (same to same), snow Kammliliicke or Scheerjoch (Maderanerthal to Unter- schachen), snow . 9,344 Sardona Pass (Flims to Ragaz), snow 9,318 Sand Alp Pass (Disentis to Linththal), snow 9,I21 Brunni Pass (Disentis to Amsteg), snow . 8,977 Segnes Pass (Elm to Flims), foot path 8,613 Kisten Pass (Linththal to Ilanz), bad bridle path 8,203 Panixer Pass (Elm to Ilanz), bad bridle path . . 7,897 Kruzli Pass (Amsteg to Sedrun), foot path 7,710 Foo or Ramin Pass (Elm to Weisstannen), bridle path 7,290 Oberalp Pass (Andermatt to Disentis), carriage road 6,719 Klausen Pass (Altdorf to Linththal), carriage road 6,404 Finsteraarhorn Aletsch horn . ungfrau .. finch Gross Schreckhorn Gross Fiescherhorn Eiger . . . . Bietschhorn Gross Wannehorn Gross Nesthorn . Lauterbrunnen Breithorn Balmhorn Wetterhorn (Mittelhorn) Wetterhorn (Hasli Jung- frau) . Wetterhorn (Rosenhorn ) Blumlisalphorn . Gross Doldenhorn Altels . Dammastock . Galenstock Sustenhorn Gspaltenhorn . Fleckistock . Gross Hiihnerstock Ewigschneehorn . Ritzlihorn Wildhorn .. \Vildstrubel Diablerets Titlis ... Gross Spannort 14,026 13,721 13,669 13,468 13,386 13,285 13,042 12,970 12,812 12,533 12,399 I2,176 12,166 12,149 12,110 12,044 11,966 11,930 11,920 11,802 11,523 11,293 11,214 10,985 10,929 10,768 Chamossaire. . 10,709 Gemmenalphorn 10,673 Rochers de Naye 10,650 Moleson . . . 10,627 Dent de Jaman 10,516 Napf . . . . 10,486 10,194 10,165 10,043 9,987 named the Adula Alps. Chief Peaks of the Alperschellihorn 9,991 Chief Passes of the Lepontine Alps. Zhpport Pass (Hinterrhein to Malvaglia and Biasca), snow. 10,105 Giiferliicke (Kanal Glen to the Lenta Glen), snow Lentaliicke (Hinterrhein to Vals Platz), snow . Hohsand Pass (Binn to Tosa Falls), snow Lecki Pass (Wyttenwasser Glen to the Mutten Glen), snow Passo Rotondo (Airolo to Oberwald), snow . Kaltwasser Pass (Simplon Hospice to Veglia Alp), snow Scaradra Pass (Vals Platz to Olivone), foot path Sattelteliicke (Vals Platz to Vrin), foot path Ritter Pass (Binn to Veglia Alp), snow Lepontine Alps. Piz Blas . . . 9,918 Monte Giove 9,876 Pizzo Centrale . 9,853 Pizzas d'Annarosa 9,850 Piz Beverin . 9,843 Weisshorn (Splugen) 9,817 Pizzo Lucendro 9,708 Piz Tomiil 9,676 Piz Cavel 9,659 Barenhorn . 9,620 Six Madun (Badus) 9,619 Piz Muraun . . . 9,512 Zervreilerhorn . Monte Cistella Piz Lukmanier Monte Prosa Pizzo Columbe Monte Camoghe Piz Mundaun . Monte Generoso Monte San Salvatore 9,508 9,353 9,115 8,983 8,363 7,303 6,775 5,591 3,004 8,17o 8,12o 8,098 8,o15 8,006 7,953 7,907 7,743 Piz Urlaun . Oberalpstock . . Gross Scheerhorn. Claridenstock . I I ,o6o 10,926 10,814 10,729 Dussistock . . . . 10,703 Ringelspitz . . 10,667 Brigelserhorner (highest) 10,663 Grosse Windgalle. . . 10,473 Hausstock . . 10,342 Gross Ruchen. . . . 10,289 I0,178 io,165 10,105 16,o86 9,938 9,925 9,351 9,348 . 9,213 9,177 8,294 8,012 9,741 9,646 9. The Alps of North-Eastern Switzerland (north of the Klausen II. Albula Range (from the Splugen Pass to the Fluela Pass, Pass). north and west of the Val Bregaglia and of the Engadine). Chief Peaks of the North-Eastern Swiss Alps. Glarnisch (highest) . . 9,580 Gross Mythen . . . 6,240 Chief Peaks of the Albula Range. Piz Kesch . . . 11,228 Pizzo Stella . .10,375 Boser Faulen . 9,200 Rigikulm . . . 5,906 Piz dellas Calderas . . 11,132 Fluela Schwarzhorn 10,335 Santis . . . 8,216 Hoher Kasten . . . 5,899 Piz Platta . 11,109 Pizzo della Duana 10,279 Altmann .. 7,999 Rossberg . 5,194 Piz Julier .. . 11,106 Pizzo Gallegione I0,20I Faulfirst .. • 7,925 Zugerberg (Hochwacht) 3,255 Piz d'Err II,093 Gietscherhorn I0,191 Alvier 7,753 Albis Hochwacht . . 2,887 .. . Piz d'Aela 10,959 Cima di Lago 10,1I2 Kurfiirsten (highest) 7,576 Uetliberg . . . . 2,864 Cima da Flex 10,785 Hoch Ducan io,o6o Speer 6,411 Piz Uertsch . 10,739 Piz Grisch I0,000 Chief Passes of the North-Eastern Swiss Alps. Piz Forbisch 10,689 Averser Weissberg 9,987 Piz Ot . . 10,667 Surettahorn . 9,971 Ruosalperkulm (Schachen Valley to the Muota Valley), foot Gross Piz Vadret 10,584 Arosa Rothhorn 9,794 7,126 Piz Timun or Emet 10,502 Piz Curver 9,761 Karren Alp Pass (Muota Valley to Linththal), foot path . 6;877 Tinzenhorn 10,430 Pizzo Lunghino 9,121 Kinzigkulm Pass (Schachen Valley to the Muota Valley), Piz Michel . 10,378 Statzerhorn 8,450 6,811 foot path 6,227 Chief Passes of the Albula Range. Saasberg Pass Glarus), foot (Einsiedeln to path . Kamor Pass (Appenzell to Ruti), bridle path . 5,512 Fuorcla Calderas (Molins to Bevers), snow . . 10,270 Saxerliicke (Appenzell to Sax), foot path . 5,417 Fuorcla d'Eschia (Madulein to Bergun), snow . . 9,869 Schwein Alp Pass (Waggithal to the Klon Glen), bridle path. 5,158 Passo della Duana (Avers Valley to the Val Bregaglia), snow 9,187 Pragel Pass (Muotathal to Glarus), carriage road in progress 5,099 Sertig Pass (Davos to Scanfs), foot path 9,062 4,649 Forcella di Prassignola (Avers Valley to Soglio), old paved Hacken Pass (Schwyz to Einsiedeln), foot path . . Holzegg Pass (same to same), bridle path . . 4,616 cattle path . 8,924 Ibergeregg Pass (Schwyz to Iberg and Einsiedeln), carriage Tinzenthor (Bergun to Savognino), foot path . 8,918 4,613 Forcella di Lago or Madris Pass (Avers Valley to Chia- road . . venna), footpath . . . 8,793 Forcellina (Avers Valley to the Septimer Pass), foot path 8,770 Krazeren Pass (Nesslau to Urnasch), bridle path 3,993 1o. Bernina Alps (from the Maloja to the Reschen Scheideck and the Stelvio, south and east of the Val Bregaglia and of the Engadine Ducan Pass (Davos to Bergun), foot path . . 8,763 and north of the Valtellina). Passo di Lei (Avers Valley to Chiavenna), foot path . 8,724 Chief Peaks of the Bernina Alps. Forcella di Lunghino (Maloja to the Septimer Pass), foot path 8,645 Piz Bernina 13,304 Piz Languard 10,716 Scaletta Pass (Davos to Scanfs), bridle path 8,593 Piz Zupo . 13,131 Piz Sesvenna . 10,568 Suvretta Pass (St Moritz to Bevers), bridle path. 8,590 Monte di Scerscen 13,116 Piz Pisoc. . 10,427 Fuorcla d'Alp Fontauna (Bergun to Scanfs), foot path. 8,580 Piz Roseg .. 12,934 Piz Murtarol 10,424 Stallerberg (Avers Valley to Bivio-Stalla), foot path . 8,478 Piz Pala . 12,835 Piz Quatervals . . 10,358 Grialetsch Pass (Davos to Sus), foot path. 8,353 Crast' Aguzza 12,704 Pizzo della Marna. 10,355 Fluela Pass (Davos to Sus), carriage road. 7,838 Piz Morteratsch . 12,317 Cima di Redasco 10,299 Strela Pass (Davos to' Langwies), bridle path . 7,799 Monte delta Disgrazia 12,067 Piz Lischanna . 10,204 Albula Pass (Bergun to Ponte), carriage road over, rail- Pizzo di Verona . 11,359 Pizzo di Sena . 10,099 way tunnel beneath . . 7,595 Cima di Piazzi . 11,283 Piz Casana . . 10,079 Septimer Pass (Bivio-Stalla to Casaccia), bridle path. 7,582 Cima di Castello . 11,155 Monte Foscagno I0,010 Tulier Pass (Thusis to Silvaplana), carriage road 7,504 Cima Viola . 11,103 Pizzo del Teo . 10,007 Passo di Madesimo or d'Emet (Avers Valley to Madesimo), Pizzo Cengalo II,070 Pizzo del Ferro . I0,007 foot path 7,481 Cima di Rosso II,oho Piz Umbrail . 9,955 12. Silvretta and Rhatikon Ranges (from the Fluela Pass to the Pizzo Scalino . 10,903 Zwei Schwestern 9,784 Reschen Scheideck and the Arlberg Pass). Pizzo Badile . 10,863 Monte Braulio . 9,777 Chief Peaks of the Silvretta and Rhatikon Ranges. Corno di Campo . 10,844 Monte Spluga . 9,321 Piz Linard . 11,201 Vesulspitze . 10,145 Pizzo di Dosde . 10,762 Monte Massuccio 9,239 Fluchthorn 11,165 Fluela Weisshorn 10,132 Cima di Saoseo 10,752 Mont la Schera 8,494 Gross Piz Buhr I o, 88o Piz Minschun 10,079 Chief Passes of the Bernina Alps. . Verstanklahorn Io,831 Patteriol . 10,037 Fuorcla Bellavista (Pontresina to Chiesa, in Val Malenco), Muttler . I0,82I Piz Faschalba I0,010 I2,087 Piz Fliana 10,775 Hexenkopf . . 9,968 snow . . . . Fuorcla Crast' Aguzza (same to same), snow . 11,805 Stammerspitze 10,689 Gemsbleiskopf 9,899 11,572 Silvrettahorn . 10,657 Pischahorn 9,784 Fuorcla Tschierva (same to same), snow . Fuorcla Sella (same to same), snow 10,840 Augstenberg . I0,61 I Scesaplana . 9,741 Passo di Bondo (Bondo to the Baths of Masino), snow 10,227 Plattenhorn 19,568 Rotlbleiskopf 9,6.0 Passo di Castello (Maloja to Morbegno), snow . 10,171 Dreilanderspitze 10,539 Hohes Rad . . 9,554 Passo Tremoggia (Sils to Chiesa), snow . 9,912 Piz Tasna .. 10,443 Schiltfluh . . 9,482 Passo di Mello (Chiareggio to Val Masino), snow 9,813 Kuchenspitze . 10,401 Plattenpspitze 9,449 Diavolezza Pass(Bernina road to the Morteratsch Glen), snow 9,767 Hoher Riffler . 10,368 Madrishorn . . 9,285 Passo di Dosde (Val Grosina to Val Viola Bormina), foot Piz Mondin . 10,325 Drusenfluh 9,282 9,351 Kuchelspitze . 10,315 Sulzfluh . . 9,252 path Passo di Sacco (Bernina road to Grosio), foot path . 9,026 Gross Seehorn 10,247 Zimbaspitze 8,678 Passo di Zocca (Vicosoprano to Val Masino), snow . 9,000 Vesilspitze.... 10,220 Naafkopf . 8,445 Casana Pass (Scanfs to Livigno), bridle path . . 8,832 Gross Litzner . 10,207 Falknis . . . 8,419 Muretto Pass (Maloja to Chiesa), partly snow . . . 8,389 Chief Passes of the Silvretta and Rhatikon Ranges. Umbrail Pass or Wormserjoch (Munster Valley to the Jamjoch (Guarda to Galtur), snow . . . 10,112 Stelvio road), carriage road . 8,242 Fuorcla del Confin (Silvretta Pass to the Vermunt Glacier), Passo di Val Viola (Bernina road to Bormio), bridle path 7,976 10,033 Giufplan Pass (Ofen road to Fragile), bridle path . 7,723 Buinlucke (Guarda to Patenen), show . I0,020 Bernina Pass (Pontresina to Tirano), carriage road 7,645 Silvretta Pass (Klosters to Lavin), snow . 9,886 Forcola di Livigno (Bernina Pass to Livigno), small Zahnlucke (Jam Glen to the Fimber Glen), snow 9,712 carriage road . 7,638 Verstanklathor (Klosters to Lavin), snow 9,682 Cruschetta Pass (Schuls by Scarf to Taufers), bridle path 7 599 Fuorcla d'Urezzas (Ardez to Galtur), snow 9,564 Passo di Verva (Bormio to Grosio), foot path . . 7,592 Fuorcla Tasna (Ardez to Ischgl), snow . 9,374 Sursass or Schlinig Pass (Remus to Mals) foot path 7,540 Fuorcla Maisas (Remus to the Samnaun Glen), snow 9,357 Foscagno Pass (Bormio to Trepalle), bridle path . 7,517 Vermunt or Fermunt Pass (Guarda to Patenen), snow 9,193 7,497 Futschol Pass (Ardez to Galtur), foot path . . 9,098 Alpisella Pass (Livigno to Fragile), bridle path . . Scarf Pass (Scarf to Santa Maria Munster), carriage road . 7,386 Fuorcla Zadrell or Vernela Pass (Klosters to Lavin), snow . 9,033 Dossradond Pass (Santa Maria Munster to Fragile), bridle Cuolm d'Alp bella or Vignitz Pass (Samnaun Glen to Kappl), path . 7,349 foot path . . 8,852 Passo Dheira (Livigno to Trepalle) bridle path. 7,248 Schafbucheljoch (Mathon to St Anton), foot path 8,685 Ofen Pass (Zernez to Mals), carriage road . . 7,071 Fimber Pass (Remus to Ischgl), bridle path . 8,570 Fragile Pass (Bormio to the Ofen road), partly bridle path 6,398 Scheien Pass (Klosters to the See Glen), foot path 8,557 Scale di Fragile (Bormio to Fragile), bridle path. . 6,372 Vereina Pass or Pass da Val Torta (Klosters to Lavin), foot Maloja Pass (St Moritz to Chiavenna), carriage road 5,935 8,540 746 Zebles Pass (Ischgl to the Samnaun Glen), bridle path 8,350 Garnerajoch (Klosters to Gaschurn), foot path 8,153 Fless Pass (Klosters to Sus), foot path 8,045 St Antonien or Gargellenjoch (St Antonien to St Gallen-. kirch), foot path Drusenthor (Schiers to Schruns), foot path Verrajochl (Liinersee to the Schweizerthor), foot path Ofen Pass (Schweizerthor to Schruns), foot path Cavelljoch (Bludenz and the Lunersee to Semis), foot path Gruben Pass (St Antonien to Schruns), foot path . Schlappinerjoch (Klosters to St Gallenkirch), bridle path Schweizerthor (Schiers to Schruns), foot path . Bielerhohe (Patenen to Galtur), bridle path Zeinisjoch (Patenen to Galtiir), bridle path . Arlberg Pass (Landeck to Bludenz), carriage road over, railway tunnel beneath 5,912 13. The Alps of Bavaria, the Vorarlberg and Salzburg (north of the Arlberg Pass, Innsbruck, the Pinzgau, and the Enns valley). Chief Peaks of the Alps of Bavaria, the Vorarlberg and Salzburg. Parseierspitze 9,968 Watzmann . . . 8,901 Dachstein 9,830 Rothewandspitze 8,878 Zugspitze . . . 9,738 Gross Krottenkopf(Allgau)8,718 Hochkonig . 9,639 Selbhorn . . . . 8,711 Valluga . . . 9,223 Hohes Licht , . . . 8,701 Rockspitze 9,059 Madelegabel. . . . 8,681 E. Hohe Griesspitze 9,052 Hochvogel . . 8,511 Stanskogel 9,052 Elmauer Haltsspitze (Kaiser- Birkkarspitze (Karwendel) 9,042 gebirge) . . . . 7,691 Chief Passes of the Alps of Bavaria, the Vorarlberg and Salzburg. Gentschel Pass (Oberstdorf to Schrocken), bridle path Schrofen Pass (Oberstdorf to Warth), foot path Gerlos Pass (Zell to Mittersill), bridle path . Pass Thurn (Kitzbuhel to Mittersill), carriage road Fern Pass (Reutte to Nassereit), carriage road Scharnitz or Seefeld Pass (Partenkirchen to Zirl), carriage road Hirschbuhel Pass (Berchtesgaden to Saalfelden), carriage Hochfilzen Pass (Saalfelden to Kitzbuhel), railway over . Pyhrn Pass (Linz to Liezen), carriage road over, railway tunnel beneath Wagreinstattel (Radstadt to St Johann in Pongau), carriage road . 2,743 14. Central Tirol Alps (from the Brenner Pass to the Radstadter Tauern Pass, north of the Drave Valley and south of the Pinzgau and the Enns Valley). This division takes in the Zillerthal and Tauern Ranges. Chief Peaks of the. Central Tirol Alps. Gross Glockner . . 12,461 Ruthnerhorn (Rieser- Gross Venediger . 12,008 ferner) . . . 11,024 Gross Wiesbachhorn 11,713 Hochalmspitze 11,008 Hochfeiler (Zillerthal) 11,559 Reichenspitze (Z) . 10,844 Dreiherrenspitze . 11,500 Gross Rotherknopf Mosele (Z) . . . . 11,438 (Schober) . . Io,814 Olpperer (Z) . . II,418 Gross Morchner(Z). 10,785 Johannisberg . 11,375 Hochnarr (Goldberg) 10,689 Hochgall (Rieserferner) . 11,287 Ankogel . . . . 10,673 Thurnerkamp (Z) 11,228 Hochschober 10,663 Gross Loffier (Z) . 11,096 Kitzstcinhorn 10,512 Fussstein (Z) . 11,090 Sonnblick 10,196 Schwarzenstein (Z) 11,057 Zsigmondyspitze I0,I22 Gross Geiger . . 11,041 Reckner (Tuxergebirge) Chief Passes of the Central Tirol Alps. Mitterbachjoch (Breitlahner to Taufers), snow (Z) I0,270 Trippachsattel (Floiten Valley to Taufers), snow (Z). 10,020 Riffelthor (Kaprun to Heiligenblut), snow . io,oio Bockkarscharte (Ferleiten to Heiligenblut), snow Sonnblickscharte (Rauris to Heiligenblut), snow Alpeinerscharte (Breitlahner to St Jodok am Brenner), foot path (Z) 9,712 Vorder Umbalthorl (Pragraten to Kasern), snow Ober Sulzbachthorl (Pragraten to Wald), snow 9,600 Keilbachjoch (Mayrhofen to Steinhaus), foot path (Z) Unter Sulzbachthorl (Wald to Gschloss), snow Schwarzkopfscharte (Bramberg to Gschloss), snow . Pragraterthorl (Pragraten to the Defereggen Glen),foot path GlOdisthorl (Lienz to Kals), snow . . Antholzerscharte (Rein Valley to the Antholz Valley), snow (Z) Krimmlerthorl (Krimml Glen to the Obersulzbach Glen) snow . Goldzechscharte (Heiligenblut to Rauris), snow Kalserthorl (Kals to Lienz), snow . . Fuscherthorl (Ferleiten to the Seidlwinkel Glen), foot path Lappacherjoch (Lappach to the Ahrn Valley), foot path (Z). Tuxerjoch or Schmirnjoch (Mayrhofen to St Jodok am Brenner), foot path (Z) Klammljoch (Taufers to the Defereggen Valley), bridle path Arlscharte (St Johann in Pongau to Gmund), foot path Pfitscherjoch (Mayrhofen to Sterzing), foot path (Z). Kals Matreierthorl (Kals to Windisch Matrei), bridle path 7,238 Die Stanz (Gastein to Rauris), foot path 6,900 Stallersattel (Defereggen Glen to the Antholz Glen), bridle path (R) 6,742 Radstadter Tauern (Radstadt to Mautendorf), carriage road 5,702 15. Ortler, Oetzthal and Stubai Ranges (from the Reschen Scheideck and the Stelvio to the Brenner Pass, south of the Inn Valley, and north of the Tonale Pass). Chief Peaks of the Ortler, Oetzthal and Stubai Ranges. Ortler 12,802 Zuckerhutl (Stubai) Konigsspitze . . . . 12,655 Schalfkogel . Monte Cevedale . 12,382 Schrankogel Wildspitze (Oetzthai) 12,382 Hochwildspitze Weisskugel . 12,291 Sonklarspitze Monte Zebru . 12,254 Tuckettspitze Palon della Mare 12,156 Wilder Freiger 11,241 Punta San Matteo I2,113 Veneziaspitze . 11,103 Thurwieserspitze I1,946 Tschengelser Hochwand i1,o83 Hintere Schwarze I1,920 Monte Confinale . . 11,057 Similaun . . 11,821 Glockthurm Pizzo Tresero . 11,818 Fernerkogel . . 10,827 Gross Ramolkogel 11,651 Monte Sobretta . 10,814 Vertainspitze . 11,618 Habicht . . 10,758 Hochvernagtspitze I I,585 Pflerscher Tribulaun . 10,178 Chief Passes of the Ortler, Oetzthal and Stubai Ranges. Hochjoch (Sulden to the Zebru Glen), snow . 11,602 Vioz Pass (Santa Caterina to Pejo), snow . 10,949 Sonklarscharte (Solden to Sterzing), snow . 10,916 Konigsjoch (Sulden to Santa Caterina), snow . io,811 Cevedale Pass (Santa Caterina to the Martell Glen), snow 10,732 Gepatschjoch (Vent to the Kauns Valley), snow . 10,640 Ramoljoch (Vent to Gurgl), snow . 10.479 Langtaufererjoch (Vent to the Reschen Scheideck Pass), snow . . 10,391 Bildstockljoch (SOlden to Ranalt), snow . . 10,296 Gurgler Eisjoch (Gurgl to the Pfossen Glen), snow . 10,292 Eissee Pass (Sulden to the Martell Glen), snow 10,279 Langthalerjoch (Gurgl to Pfelders), snow . 10,033 Passo del Zebru (Santa Caterina to the Zebru Glen), snow . 9,925 Sallentjoch (Martell Glen to Rabbi), snow . 9,913 Niederjoch (Vent to the Schnals Valley), snow 9,899 Sforzellina Pass (Santa Caterina to Pejo), snow 9,859 Pitzthalerjochl (Mittelberg to Sulden), snow 9,826 Eisjochl am Bild (Pfelders to the Pfossen Glen), snow 9,541 Venter Hochjoch (Vent to the Schnals Valley), snow. 9,465 Tabarettascharte (Sulden to Trafoi), foot path 9,459 Stelvio Pass (Trafoi to Bormio), carriage road 9,055 Gavia Pass (Santa Caterina to Ponte di Legno), foot path 8,651 Timmeljoch orTimblerjoch (Sulden to the Passeierthal and Meran), bridle path . . . 8,232 Jaufen Pass (Sterzing to Meran), bridle path . 6,870 Reschen Scheideck Pass (Landeck to Meran), carriage road 4,902 Brenner Pass (Innsbruck to Verona), railway over . . 4,495 16. Lombard Alps (from the Lake of Como to the Adige Valley, south of the Valtellina and the Aprica and Tonale Passes. This 7,792 7,710 7,648 7,523 7,343 7,333 7,218 7,057 6,631 6,076 6,480 5,538 4,876 IS 4,026 3 3 3,874 3,858 3,173 3,100 9,485 9,994 9,774 9,607 9,410 9,400 9,351 9,338 9,292 9,252 9,233 9,220. 9,197 [PEAKS AND PASSES Ober Tramerscharte (Rauris to Dollach), snow 9,193 Kleine Elendscharte (Gastein to Gmund), snow 8,987 Kleine Zirknitzscharte (Dollach to Fragant or Rauris), snow 8,921 Dossener or Mallnitzerscharte (Mallnitz to Gmund), snow 8,783 Grosse Elendscharte (Mallnitz to the Upper Malta Glen), snow 8,770 Unter Pfandlscharte (Ferleiten to Heiligenblut), snow 8,744 Heiliggeistjochl (Mayrhofen to Kasern), foot path (Z) 8,721 Bergerthorl (Kals to Heiligenblut), foot path . 8,695 Kaprunerthorl (upper Kaprun Glen to the upper Stubach Glen), snow 8,645 Krimmler Tauern (Krimml to Kasern), foot path 8,642 Virgner or Defereggerthorl (Defereggen Glen to Virgen and Pragraten), foot path 8,586 Backlenke or Trojerjoch (Pragraten to the Defereggen Glen), foot path . . . . 8,573 Hochthor or Heiligenbluter Tauern (Heiligenblut to Rauris), foot path 8,442 Horndljochl (Mayrhofen to Steinhaus), foot path (Z) 8,383 Velber Tauern (Windisch Matrei to Mittersill), bridle path . 8,334 Kaiser Tauern (Kals to Uttendorf), foot path . 8,242 Hohe or Korn Tauern (Mallnitz to Gastein), bridle path over, railway tunnel beneath . . 8,081 Niedere or Mallnitzer Tauern (Mallnitz to Gastein), bridle 7,920 7,891 7,763 7,697 7,517 7,386 7,376 11,520 11,516 11,483 11,418 11,405 11,346 division includes the Adamello, Presanella, Brenta and Bergamasque ranges. 9,564 9,482 9,475 9,459 8,819 8,596 8,563 8,38o . 8,239 7,907 7,218 7,094 6,939 6,529 6,155 Chief Passes of the Lombard Alps. Passo di Lares (Lares Glacier to the Lobbia Glacier), snow. 10,483 Passo di Cercen (Val di Genova to Fucine), snow . 9,984 Passo della Lobbia Alta (Lobbia Glacier to the Mandron Glacier), snow. . . 9,961 Passo di Presena (Val di Genova to the Tonale Pass), snow. 9,879 Pisgana Pass (Val di Genova to Ponta di Legno), snow 9,626 Bocca di Tuckett (Campiglio to Molveno), snow 8,714 Passo di Val Morta or del Diavolo (Val Seriana to Sondrio), foot path . 8,534 Bocca di Brenta (Pinzolo or Campiglio to Molveno), snow. 8,376 Passo del Groste (Campiglio to Cles), foot path. . . 8,006 Passo di Venina (Val Brembana to Sondrio), foot path 7,983 Passo del Salto (Val Solana to Sondrio), foot path . 7,937 Campo or Ginevrie Pass (Dimaro by Campiglio to Pinzolo), carriage road . . Gampenjoch (Cles to Moran), foot path . Mendel Pass (Botzen to Cles), railway on the E. slope Passo di Castione or Presolana Pass (Clusone to the Val di Scalve), carriage road . . . 4,219 Aprica Pass (Edolo to Tirano), carriage road 3,875 17. The Dolomites of South Tirol (from the Brenner Pass to the Monte Croce Pass, and south of the Pusterthal). Chief Peaks of the Dolomites of South Tirol. Marmolata . 10,972 Pala di San Martino . 9,831 Antelao . . 10,706 Rosengartenspitze 9,781 Tofana di Mezzo . 10,633 Marmarole 9,715 Sorapiss .. . 10,594 Cima di Fradusta 9,649 Monte Civetta . Io,564 Fermedathurm 9,407 Vernal . . . . 10,519 Cima d'Asta 9,344 Monte Cristallo . . 10,}96 Cima di Canali . 9,338 Cima di Vezzana 10,470 Croda Grande 9,315 Cimon Bella Pala . 10,453 Vajoletthurm (highest) 9,256 Langkofel .. . 10,427 Sass Maor . . 9,239 Pclmo . . . . 10,397 Cima di Ball 9,131 Dreischusterspitze . 10,375 Cima della Madonna Bocspitze . . 10,342 (Sass Maor) . 9,026 Croda Rossa (Hoher Rosetta . . . 8,993 Caisl) 10,329 Croda da Lago . 8,911 Piz Popena . 10,312 Central Grasleitenspitze 8,875 Elferkofel . . . 10,220 Schlern 8,406 Grohmannspitze . . 10,207 Sasso di Mur 8,38o Zwolferkofel . 10,142 Cima delle Dodici 7,671 Sass Rigais(Geislerspitzen) 9,932 Monte Pavione . 7,664 Drei Zinnen 9,853 Cima di Posta . 7,333 Kesselkogel (Rosengarten) 9,846 Monte Pasubio . 7,323 Funffingerspitze . 9,833 Chief Passes of the Dolomites of South Tirol. 8,983 Passo d' Ombretta (Campitello to Caprile), foot path . Langkofeljoch (Groden Valley to Campitello), foot path . 8,803 Tschagerjoch (Karersee to the Vajolet Glen), foot path . 8,675 Grasleiten Pass (Vajolet Glen to the Grasleiten Glen), foot path 8,521 Passo di Pravitale (Rosetta Plateau to the Pravitale Glen), foot path 8,465 Passo delle Comelle (same to Cencenihe), foot path 8,462 Martino di 8442 Passo delta Rosetta (San Castrozza to the great limestone Rosetta Plateau), foot path . Vajolet Pass (Tiers to the Vajolet Glen), foot path . 8,363 Passo di Canali (Primiero to Agordo), foot path 8,193 TiersalpljOchl (Campitello to Tiers), foot path 8,055 Passo di Ball (San Martino di Castrozza to the Pravitale Glen), foot path . 8,038 Forcella di Giralba (Sexton to Auronzo), foot path 7.992 Col dei Bos (Falzarego Glen to the Travernanzes Glen), foot patn 7,579 Forcella Grande (San Vito to Auronzo), foot path . 7,422 Pordoi Pass (Caprile to Campitello), carriage road . 7,382 Sellajoch (Groden Glen to Campitello), bridle path . 7,277 Tre Sassi Pass (Cortina to St Cassian), foot path 7,215 Mahlknechtjoch (Upper Duron Glen to the Seiser Alp), foot path 7,II3 Grodenerjoch (Groden Glen to Colfuschg), bridle path 7,011 Falzarego Pass (Caprile to Cortina), small carriage road 6,946 Fedaja Pass (Campiteilo to Caprile), bridle path 6,713 Passo di Valley (Paneveggio to Cencenighe), foot path 6,667 Rolle Pass (Predazzo to San Martino di Castrozza and Primiero), carriage road . . 6,509 Forcella Forada (Caprile to San Vito), bridle path 6,48o Passo di San Pellegrino (Moena to Cencenighe), small carriage 6,267 5,971 5,932 5,715 5,374 5,066 4,501 3,967 18. South-Eastern Alps (east of the Monte Croce Pass). This division includes three small groups, the Julie, Carnic and Karawankas Alps-each peak and pass being distinguished by one of the initial letters " J,' " C " or " K." Chief Peaks of the South-Eastern Alps. Terglou or Triglav (J) . 9,400 Monte Cridola (C) 8,468 Monte Coglians (C) . . 9,128 Grintovc (K) 8,429 Kellerwand (C) . 9,105 Prestrelenik (J) 8,202 Jof del Montasio (J) . . 9,039 Monte Cavallo (C) 7,386 Cima dei Preti (C) . . 8,868 Krn (J) . . 7,369 Monte Paraiba (C) . . 8,829 Stou (K) 7,346 Manhart (J) . . . 8,786 Dobratsch (C) . . 7,110 Jalouc (J) . . . 8,711 Velka Kappa (K) 5,059 Monte Canin (J) , 8,471 Chief Passes of the South-Eastern Alps. Oefnerjoch (Forno Avoltri to St Lorenzen in the Gail Valley), foot path (C) 7,550 Wolayer Pass (same to Mauthen), foot path (C) . 6,506 Loibl Pass (Klagenfurt to Laibach), carriage road (K) 4,495 PtOcken Pass (Tolmezzo to Mauthen), bridle path (C) 4,462 Predil Pass (Villach by Tarvis and Flitsch to GOrz), carriage road (J) 3,813 Birnbaumerwald (Laibach to GOrz), carriage road (J) 2,897 Saifnitz or Pontebba Pass (Villach by Tarvis and Pontebba to Udine), railway . . . 2,615 7. Political History and Modern State of the Inhabitants of the Alps.-We know practically nothing of the early dwellers in the Alps, save from the scanty accounts preserved to us by Roman and Greek historians and geographers. A few details have come down to us of the conquest of many of the Alpine tribes by Augustus, though not much more than their names. The successive emigrations and occupation of the Alpine region by divers Teutonic tribes from the 5th to the 6th centuries are, too, known to us only in outline, while to them, as to the Frankish kings and emperors, the Alps offered a route from one place to another rather than a permanent residence. It is not till the final break up of the Carolingian empire in the loth and iith centuries that it becomes possible to trace out the local history of different parts of the Alps. In the case of the Western Alps (minus the bit from the chain of Mont Blanc to the Simplon, which followed the fortunes of the Valais), a prolonged struggle for the Alpine region took place between the feudal lords of Savoy, the Dauphine and Provence. In 1349 the Dauphine fell to France, while in 1388 the county of Nice passed from Provence to the house of Savoy, which too held Piedmont as well as other lands on the Italian side of the Alps. The struggle henceforth was limited to France and the house of Savoy, but little by little France succeeded in pushing Chief Peaks of the Lombard Alps. Presanella .. 11,694 Pizzo del Diavolo Adamello .. 11,661 Re di Castello Care Alto 11,369 Recastello . Dosson di Genova 11,254 Monte Gleno Crozzon di Lares I1,00.. Monte Tornello Corno di Baitone. 10,929 Corno Stella Busazza . . . 10,922 Monte Legnone Lobbia Alta . ro,486 Pizzo dei Tre Signori Cima Tosa (Brenta) 10,420 Pizzo di Presolana . Cima di Brenta . 10,352 Grigna . Crozzon di Brenta 10,247 Monte Baldo Pizzo di Coca (Bergam- Monte Spinale asque) . . . . 10,014 Monte Roen. Pizzo di Scais 9,974 Monte Gazza Pizzo di Redorta 9,964 Monte Resegone Pietra Grande 9,630 Passo del Vencrocolo (Val di Scalve to the Aprica road), bridle path . Passo della Forcellina or di Campo (Cedegolo to the Val di Fumo), foot path . 7,507 Passo di Dordona (Val Brembana to Sondrio), foot path 6,824 Passo di San Marco (Bergamo to Morbegno), bridle path 6,513 Croce Domini Pass (Breno to Bagolino in Val Caffaro), bridle 7,595 path 6,217 Tonale Pass (Trent to Edolo), carriage road . 6,181 Passo di Zovetto (Val di Scalve to Edolo), bridle path 5,968 Colle Maniva (Val Trompia to Bagolino), bridle path 5,476 5,407 5,051 4,462 Forcella d'Alleghe (Alleghe to the Zoldo Glen), foot path Tre Croci Pass (Cortina to Auronzo), carriage road Karersee or Caressa Pass (Welschenofen to Vigo di Fassa), carriage road . . . Monte Croce Pass (Innichen and Sexton to the Piave Valley and Beltuno), carriage road . Ampezzo Pass (Toblach to Cortina and Beltuno), carriage road . Cereda Pass (Primiero to Agordo), bridle path Toblach Pass (Bruneck to Lienz), railway over. back the house of Savoy across the Alps, thus forcing it to be-come a purely Italian power. One turning-point in the rivalry was the treaty of Utrecht (1713), by which France gave up to Savoy the districts (all forming part of the Dauphine, and lying on the Italian slope of the Alps) of Exilles, Bardonneche, Oulx, Fenestrelles, and Chateau Dauphin, while Savoy handed over to France the valley of Barcelonnette, situated on the western slope of the Alps and forming part of the county of Nice. The final act in the long-continued struggle took place in r86o, when France obtained by cession the rest of the county of Nice and also Savoy, thus remaining sole mistress on the western slope of the Alps. In the Central Alps the chief event, on the northern side of the chain, is the gradual formation from 1291 to 1815 of the Swiss Confederation, at least so far as regards the mountain Cantons, and with especial reference to the independent confederations of the Grisons and the Valais, which only became full members of the Confederation in 1803 and 1815 respectively. The attraction of the south was too strong for both the Forest Cantons and the Grisons, so that both tried to secure, and actually did secure, various bits of the Milanese. The former, in the 15th century, won the Val Leventina (down which the St Gotthard train now thunders) as well as Bellinzona and the Val Blenio (though the Ossola Valley was held for a time only); while the latter added to the Val Bregaglia (which had been given to the bishop of Coire in 96o by the emperor Otto I.) the valleys of Mesocco and of Poschiavo. Further, in 1512, the Swiss Confederation as a whole won the valleys of Locarno with Lugano, which, combined with the 15th century conquests by the Forest Cantons, were formed in 1803 into the new Canton of Ticino or Tessin. On the other hand, the Grisons won in 1512 the Valtellina, with Bormio and Chiavenna, but in 1797 these regions were finally lost to it as well as to the Swiss Con-federation, though the Grisons retained the valleys of Mesocco, Bregaglia and Poschiavo, while in 1762 it had bought the upper bit of the valley of Munster that lies on the southern slope of the Alps. In the Eastern Alps the political history is almost monotonous, for it relates simply to the advance or retreat of the house of Habsburg, which still holds all but the whole of the northern portion (the exception is the small bit in the north-west that belongs to Bavaria) of that region. The Habsburgers, whose original home was in the lower valley of the Aar, where still stand the ruins of their ancestral castle, lost that district to the Swiss in 1415, as they had previously lost various other bits of what is now Switzerland. But they received a rich compensation in the Eastern Alps (not to speak of the imperial crown), for they there gathered in the harvest that numerous minor dynasties had prepared for them, albeit unconsciously. Thus they won the duchy of Austria with Styria in 1282, Carinthia and Carniola in .1335, Tirol in 1363, and the Vorarlberg in bits from 1375 to 1523, not to speak of minor " rectifications " of frontiers on the northern slope of the Alps. But on the other slope their progress was slower, and finally less successful. It is true that they early won Primiero (1373), as well as (1517) the Ampezzo Valley and several towns to the south of Trent. In 1797 they obtained Venetia proper, in 1803 the secularized bishoprics of Trent and Brixen (as well as that of Salzburg, more to the north), besides the Valtellina region, and in 1815 the Bergamasque valleys, while the Milanese had belonged to them since 1535. But, as is well known, in 1859 they lost to the house of Savoy both the Milanese and the Bergamasca, and in 1866 Venetia proper also, so that the Trentino is now their chief possession on the southern slope of the Alps. The gain of the Milanese in 18J9 by the future king of Italy (1861) meant that Italy then won the valley of Livigno (between the Upper Engadine and Bormio), which is the only important bit it holds on the non-Italian slope of the Alps, besides the county of Tenda (obtained in 1575, and not lost in r86o), with the heads of certain glens in the Maritime Alps, reserved in 186o for reasons connected with hunting. Thus the Alpine states (Italy, Switzerland and Austria), other than France and Bavaria, hold bits of territoryon the slope of the Alps where,one would not expect to find them. Roughly speaking, in each of these five lands the Alpine population speaks the tongue of the country, though in Italy there are a few French-speaking districts (the Waldensian valleys as well as the Aosta and Oulx valleys) as well as some German-speaking and Ladin-speaking settlements. In Switzerland there are Italian-speaking regions, as well as some spots (in the Grisons) where the old Romance dialect of Romansch or Ladin survives; while in Austria, besides German, Italian and Ladin, we have a Slavonic-speaking population in the South-Eastern Alps. The highest permanently inhabited village in the Alps is Jul, 6998 ft. (Grisons); while in the French Alps, L'Ecot, 6713 ft. (Savoy), and St Veran, 6726 ft. (Dauphine), are rivals; the Italian Alps boast of Trepalle, 6788 ft. (between Livigno and Bormio), and the Tirolese Alps of Ober Gurgl, 6322 ft., and Fend, 6211 ft. (both in the Oetzthal). 8. Exploration of the High Alps.—The higher region of the Alps were long left to the exclusive attention of the men of the adjoining valleys, even when Alpine travellers (as distinguished from Alpine climbers) began to visit these valleys. It is reckoned that about 20 glacier passes were certainly known before 1600, about 25 more before 1700, and yet another score before 1800 but though the attempt of P. A. Arnod (an official of the duchy of Aosta) in 1689 to " re-open " the Col du Geant may be counted as made by a non-native, we do not come upon another case of the kind till the last quarter of the 18th century. Nor did it fare mach better with the high peaks, though the two earliest recorded ascents were due to non-natives, that of the Rochemelon in 1358 having been undertaken in fulfilment of a vow, and that of the Mont Aiguille in 1492 by order of Charles VIII. of France, in order to destroy its immense reputation for inaccessibility—in 1555 Conrad Gesner did not climb Pilatus proper, but only the grassy mound of the Gnepfstein, the lowest and the most westerly of the seven summits. The two first men who really systematically explored the regions of ice and snow were H. B. de Saussure (1740-1799), as regards the Pennine Alps, and the Benedictine monk of Disentis, Placidus a Spescha (1752–1833, most of whose ascents were made before 18o6), in the valleys at the sources of the Rhine. In the early 19th century the Meyer family of Aarau conquered in person the Jungfrau (1811) and by deputy the Finsteraarhorn (1812), besides opening several glacier passes, their energy being entirely confined to the Bernese Oberland. Their pioneer work was continued in that district, as well as others, by a number of Swiss, pre-eminent among whom were Gottlieb Studer (1804–1890) of Bern, and Edouard Desor (1811–1882) of Neuchatel. The first-known English climber the Alps was Colonel Mark Beaufoy (1764–1827), who in 1787 made an ascent (the fourth) of Mont Blanc, a mountain to which his fellow-countrymen long exclusively devoted themselves, with a few noteworthy exceptions, such as Principal J. D. Forbes (1809-1868), A. T. Malkin (1803–1888), John Ball (1818-1889), and Sir Alfred Wills (b. 1828). Around Monte Rosa the Vincent family, Josef Zumstein (1783–1861), and Giovanni Gnifetti (18or–1867) did good work during the half century between 1778 and 1842, while in the Eastern Alps the Archduke John (1782–1859), Prince F. J. C. von Schwarzenberg, archbishop of Salzburg (1809–1885), Valentine Stanig (1774–1847), Adolf Schaubach (1800-185o), above all, P. J. Thurwieser (1789-1865), deserve to be recalled as pioneers in the first half of the 19th century. In the early fifties of the 19th century the taste for mountaineering rapidly developed for several very different reasons. A great stimulus was given to it by the foundation of the various Alpine clubs, each of which drew together the climbers who dwelt in the same country. The first was the English Alpine Club (founded in the winter of 1857–1858), followed in 1862 by the Austrian Alpine Club (which in 1873 was fused, under the name of the German and Austrian Alpine Club, with the German Alpine Club, founded in 1869), in 1863 by the Italian and Swiss Alpine Clubs, and in 1874 by the French Alpine Ciub, not to mention numerous minor societies of more local character. It was by the members of these clubs (and a few others) that the minute exploration (now all but complete) of the High Alps was carried out, while much has been done in the way of building club huts, organizing and training guides, &c., to smooth the way for later corners, who benefit too by the detailed information published in the periodicals (the first dates from 1863 only) issued by these clubs. Limits of space forbid us to trace out in detail the history of the exploration of the High Alps, but the two sub-joined lists give the dates of the conquest of about fifty of the greater peaks (apart from the two climbed in 1358 and in 1492, see above), achieved before and after 1st January 1858. As a proof of the rapidly-growing activity of Englishmen, it may be pointed out that while before 1858 only four summits (the Miterhorn, or central peak of the Wetterhorner, the highest point of Monte Rosa, Laquinhorn and Pelmo) were first ascended by Englishmen, in the case of the second list only five (Grand Combin,Wildspitze,Marmolata, Langkofel and Meije) were not so conquered (if the present writer, an American, be included among the English pro hac vice). (1) Before 1st January 1858:—Titlis (1744), Ankogel (1762), Mont Velan (1779), Mont Blanc (1786), Rheinwaldhorn (1789), Gross Glockner (1800), Ortler (1804), Jungfrau (1811), Finsteraarhorn (1812), Zumsteinspitze (182o), Todi (1824), Altels (1834), Piz Linard (1835), Gross Venediger (1841), Signalkuppe (1842), Wetterhorner (1844–1845), Mont Pelvoux (1848), Diablerets and Piz Bernina (both in x85o), highest point of Monte Rosa (1855), Laquinhorn (1856) and Pelmo (1857). (2) After 1st January 1858: Dom (1858), Aletschhorn, Bietschhorn and Grand Combin (all in 1859), Grand Paradis and Grande Casse (both in 186o), Weisshorn, Monte Viso, Gross Schreckhorn, Lyskamm and Wildspitze (all in 1861), Dent Blanche, Monte della Disgrazia and Taschhorn (all in 1862), Marmolata, Presanella, Pointe des Ecrins and Zinal Rothhorn (all in 1864), Matterhorn, Ober Gabelhorn, Aiguille Verte and Piz Roseg (all in 1865), Langkofel (1868), Cimon della Pala (1870), Rosengarten (1872), Meije (1877), Aiguille du Dru (1878), Punta dell' Argentera (1879), Aiguille des Charmoz (188o), Aiguille de Grepon (1881) and Aiguille du Geant (1882). 9. GENERAL LIST OF BOOKS AND MAPS.—(I) Books.—For a longer list than we can give see John Ball's Hints and Notes for Travellers in the Alps (new ed., 1899) and also A. Waber's Landes- undReisebeschreibungen der Schweiz (1899, supplement in 1907). In general see J. Ball's The Alpine Guide (3 vols., new ed. of vol. i., 1898; last ed. of vol. ii., 1876, and of vol. iii., 1879); H. A. Berlepsch, Die Al pen in Natur- and Lebensbildern (last ed., 1885, Eng. trans., 1861) ; T. G. Bonney, The Alpine Regions of Switzerland and the Neighbouring Countries (1868); A. Civiale, Les Alpes au point de vue de la geographie physique (1882); Sir Martin Conway, The Alps (1904); W. A. B. Coolidge, Swiss Travel and Swiss Guide-Books (1889) and The Alps (1908) ; R. von Lendenfeld, Aus den Alpen (2 vols., 1896) ; C. Lentheric, L'Homine devant les Alpes (1896); F. Umlauft, Die Alpert (1887, Eng. trans., 1889). On some special subjects see W. A. Baillie-Grohmann, Sport in the Alps (1896) ; A. Mosel!). Fisiologia dell' Uomo sulle Alpi (1897, English trans., 1898) ; N. Zuntz and others, Hohenklima and Bergwanderungen in ihrer Wirkungen auf den Menschen (1906); G. Berndt, Der Fan (1896, the south wind, so important in mountain districts) ; and the article on
End of Article: ALPS
ALPUJARRAS, or ALPUXARRAS, THE (Moorish al Busherat...

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