AMICE (earlier forms: amyl, amyl, O . Fr. amit,
See also:Lat. amictus, from amicire, to throw or wrap
See also:round, the
See also:change of t to s being probably due to an early confusion with the aumuce: see ALMLCE), a liturgical vestment of the Western
See also:Church . It is a rectangular piece of
See also:cloth which is wrapped round the
See also:neck, shoulders and
See also:breast . Sometimes, more particularly in Germany, it is called the humerale (from humerus,
See also:shoulder) . According to
See also:Roman use, laid down by the decree of the
See also:Congregation of
See also:Rites in 1819, the amice must be of
See also:linen or of a hempen material, not wool; and, as directed by the new Roman
See also:Missal (1570), a small
See also:cross must be sewn or embroidered in the
See also:middle of it . In putting it on it is first laid on the
See also:head, then allowed to fall on the shoulders, and finally folded round the chest and tied with the strings attached for that purpose (see fig . I) . The amice is now worn under the
See also:alb, except at Milan and
See also:Lyons, where it is put on over it . The vest- ment was at first a perfectly plain
See also:white cloth, but in the 12th century the
See also:custom arose of decorating the upper border with a
See also:band of embroidery, the parure (parura) or "
See also:apparel." This was abandoned at Rome about the end of the 15th century and is not prescribed in the Missal; it survived, however, in many parts of
See also:Europe till much later . This apparel, when the vestment has been adjusted, forms a sort of stiff
See also:collar which appears above the
See also:chasuble or dalmatic (see fig . 2) . In Redrawn from Braun, Liturgiuhe Gewandung .
some exceptional cases, as at Milan, it has become detached from the amice and is fixed like a collar to the chasuble . The Latin word amictus was applied to any wrap-like garment, and, according to
See also:Father Braun, the liturgical amice originated in the ordinary neck-cloth worn by all classes of Romans . It had at the outset no liturgical significance whatever, and was simply adopted by the
See also:clergy for the same reason that the clergy of the 18th century wore wigs—because it was
See also:part of the full
See also:dress of ordinary
See also:life . The first record of its ecclesiastical use is at Rome in the 8th century, when it was worn only with the dalmatic and was known as the anabolagium (anagolaium, anagolagium, from Gr . 1wa(3bXatov), a name it continued to bear at Rome till the 13th century . In the 9th century it spread to the other countries that adopted the Roman use: it is mentioned in an inventory of
See also:vestments given by
See also:Angilbert (d . 814) to the
See also:AMICIS monastery at Centula (St Riguier) and in the de clericorum ins stutione of Hrabanus Maurus (c . 82o) . The amice was worn firms. simply as a shoulder-loth, but at the end of the 9th century the custom
See also:grew up of putting it on over the head and of wearing It as a
See also:hood, either while the other vestments were being put on or. according to the various uses of
See also:local churches, during part of the Mass, though never during the
See also:canon . This ceased at Rome at the same
See also:time as the apparel disappeared; but two
See also:relics of it survive—(t) in the directions of the Missal for putting on the amice, (2) in the ordination of subdeacons, when the
See also:lays the vestment on the ordinand's head with the words, " Take the amice, which symbolizes discipline over the
See also:tongue, &c." The
See also:priest too in putting it on prays, " Place on my head the
See also:helmet of salvation, &c." The amice, whatever its origin or symbolism, became specific-ally a vestment associated with the sacrifice of the Mass, and as such it was rejected with the other " Mass vestments " in England at the Reformation . Its use has, however, been revived in many
See also:Anglican churches, the favourite
See also:form being the
See also:medieval apparelled amice . (See VESTMENTS.) A vestment akin to the amice is also worn in the Armenian and some other
See also:oriental churches, but it is unknown to the Orthodox Eastern Church .
Akin to the amice is a vestment pee'uliar to the popes, the fanone (Med . Lat.lane, " cloth," Goth. fana, " cloth," Mod . Ger . Fahne, " a
See also:flag "), also called the orale (from ora, an edge, border) . This is at
See also:present a circular broad collar of two thicknesses of
See also:silk, ornamented with gold stripes and a gold-embroidered cross (see fig . 3) . It is put on after the alb, &c., and under the
See also:tunicle, dalmatic and chasuble, but then
See also:drawn up so as to fall over the latter like a collar . The fanone was originally a cloth like the amice and was wrapped round neck and From Braun, LiturgischeGewandung. shoulders; until the 15th FIG . 3.—The Papal Fanone. century, moreover, it was not worn with the amice . Since then, however, both vestments have been worn, one under, the other over, the alb . It is worn by the popes only on certain
See also:special days or occasions, and forms part of the vestments in which they are buried . See
See also:Joseph Braun, S .
J.,Die liturgische Gewandung, pp . 21-56 (
See also:Breisgau, 1907), and bibliography to the article VESTMENTS .
GIOVANNI BATTISTA AMICI (1786-1863)
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