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ANCONA

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Originally appearing in Volume V01, Page 952 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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ANCONA  , a seaport and episcopal see of the

Marches, Italy, capital of the province of Ancona, situated on the N.E. coast of Italy, 185 m . N.E. of Rome by
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rail and 132 M.
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direct, and 127 M . S.E. of Bologna . Pop . (1901) 56,835 . The
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town is finely situated on and between the slopes of the two extremities of the promontory of
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Monte Conero, Monte Astagno to the S., occupied by the citadel, and Monte Guasco to the N., on which the
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cathedral stands (300 ft.) . The latter, dedicated to S . Ciriaco, is said to occupy the site of a temple of
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Venus, who is mentioned by Catullus and Juvenal as the tutelary deity of the place . It was consecrated in 1128 and completed in 1189 . Some writers suppose that the
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original church was in the form of a Latin
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cross and belonged to the 8th century . An early restoration was completed in 1234 . It is a
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fine Romanesque
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building in grey stone, built in the form of a Greek cross, with a dodecagonal dome over the centre slightly altered by Malgaritone d' Arezzo in 1270 .

The

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facade has a
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Gothic portal, ascribed to Giorgio da Corso (1228). which was intended rn have a lateral arch on each side . The interior, which has a crypt in each transept, in the main preserves its original character . It has ten columns which are attributed to the temple of Venus, and there are good screens of the 12th century, and other sculptures . In the dilapidated episcopal palace Pope
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Pius II. died in 1464 . An interesting church is S . Maria della Piazza, with an elaborate arcaded facade (1210) . The Palazzo del Comune, with its lofty arched sub-structures at the back, was the
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work of Margaritone d' Arezzo, but has been since twice restored . There are also several fine
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late Gothic buildings, among them the churches of S . Francesco and S . Agostino, the Palazzo Benincasa, and the Loggia dei Mercanti, all by Giorgio Orsini, usually called da Sebenico (who worked much at Sebenico, though he was not a native of it), and the prefecture, which has Renaissance additions . The portal of S . Maria della Misericordia is an ornate example of early Renaissance work .

The archaeological museum contains interesting pre-

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Roman
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objects from tombs in the
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district, and two Roman beds with fine decorations in ivory (E . Brizio, in Notizie-degli scavi, 1902, 437, 478) . To the east of the town is the harbour, now an oval basin of 990 by 88o yards, the finest harbour on the S . W. coast of the Adriatic, and one of the best in Italy . It was originally protected only by the promontory on the N., from the
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elbow-like shape of which (Gk. iyKwv) the ancient town, founded by Syracusan refugees about 390 B.C., took the name which it still holds . Greek merchants established a
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purple factory here (Sil . Ital. viii . 438) . Even in Roman times it kept its own coinage with the punning
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device of the bent arm holding a palm branch, and the head of
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Aphrodite on the
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reverse, and continued the use of the Greek language . When it became a Roman colony is doubtful.' It was occupied as a
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naval station in the Illyrian war of 178 B.c . (Liv. xli . I) .

Caesar took possession of it immediately after
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crossing the
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Rubicon . Its harbour was of considerable importance in imperial times, as the nearest to Dalmatia,2 and was enlarged by Trajan, who constructed the north quay, his architect being
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Apollodorus of
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Damascus . At the beginning of it stands the marble triumphal arch with a single opening, and without bas-reliefs, erected in his honour in A.D . 115 by the senate and
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people . Pope Clement II. prolonged the quay, and an inferior imitation of Trajan's arch was set up; he also erected a
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lazaretto at the south end of the harbour, now a
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sugar refinery, Vanvitelli being the architect-in-chief . The
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southern quay was built in 1880, and the harbour is now protected by forts on the heights, while the place is the seat of the 7th army corps . The
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port of Ancona was entered in 1904 by 869 steamships and 600 sailing vessels, with a
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total
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tonnage of 961,612 tons . The main imports were
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coal,
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timber, metals, jute . The main exports were asphalt and calcium
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carbide . Sugar refining and
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ship-building are carried on . Ancona is situated on the railway between Bologna and Brindisi, and is also connected by rail with Rome, via Foligno and Orte . After the fall of the Roman
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empire Ancona was successively attacked by the Goths, Lombards and
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Saracens, but recovered its strength and importance .

It was one of the cities of the Pentapolis under the exarchate of

Ravenna, the other four being Fano, Pesaro, Senigallia and
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Rimini, and eventually became a semi-
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independent republic under the
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protection of the popes, until Gonzaga took possession of it for Clement VII. in 1532 . From 1797 onwards, when the French took it, it frequently appears in
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history as an important fortress, until Lamoriciere capitulated here on the 29th of September 1860, eleven days after his defeat at Castelfidardo . (T .

End of Article: ANCONA
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ANCON (from the Gr. ayi ww)
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ALESSANDRO ANCONA (1835– )

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