ANCONA , a seaport and episcopal see of the
See also:Marches, Italy, capital of the province of Ancona, situated on the N.E.
See also:coast of Italy, 185 m . N.E. of Rome by
See also:rail and 132 M.
See also:direct, and 127 M . S.E. of Bologna . Pop . (1901) 56,835 . The
See also:town is finely situated on and between the slopes of the two extremities of the promontory of
See also:Monte Conero, Monte Astagno to the S., occupied by the citadel, and Monte Guasco to the N., on which the
See also:cathedral stands (300 ft.) . The latter, dedicated to S . Ciriaco, is said to occupy the site of a
See also:temple of
See also:Venus, who is mentioned by Catullus and Juvenal as the tutelary deity of the place . It was consecrated in 1128 and completed in 1189 . Some writers suppose that the
See also:church was in the
See also:form of a Latin
See also:cross and belonged to the 8th century . An early restoration was completed in 1234 . It is a
See also:fine Romanesque
See also:building in
See also:stone, built in the form of a Greek cross, with a dodecagonal dome over the centre slightly altered by Malgaritone d'
See also:Arezzo in 1270 .
See also:facade has a
See also:Gothic portal, ascribed to Giorgio da Corso (1228). which was intended rn have a lateral arch on each side . The interior, which has a crypt in each
See also:transept, in the
See also:main preserves its original character . It has ten columns which are attributed to the temple of Venus, and there are
See also:good screens of the 12th century, and other sculptures . In the dilapidated episcopal palace
See also:Pius II. died in 1464 . An interesting church is S . Maria della Piazza, with an elaborate arcaded facade (1210) . The Palazzo del Comune, with its lofty arched sub-structures at the back, was the
See also:work of Margaritone d' Arezzo, but has been since twice restored . There are also several fine
See also:late Gothic buildings, among them the churches of S . Francesco and S . Agostino, the Palazzo Benincasa, and the Loggia dei Mercanti, all by Giorgio Orsini, usually called da
See also:Sebenico (who worked much at Sebenico, though he was not a native of it), and the prefecture, which has
See also:Renaissance additions . The portal of S . Maria della Misericordia is an ornate example of early Renaissance work .
The archaeological museum contains interesting pre-
See also:objects from tombs in the
See also:district, and two Roman beds with fine decorations in ivory (E . Brizio, in Notizie-degli scavi, 1902, 437, 478) . To the east of the town is the
See also:harbour, now an
See also:basin of 990 by 88o yards, the finest harbour on the S . W. coast of the Adriatic, and one of the best in Italy . It was originally protected only by the promontory on the N., from the
See also:elbow-like shape of which (Gk. iyKwv) the
See also:ancient town, founded by Syracusan refugees about 390 B.C., took the name which it still holds . Greek merchants established a
See also:purple factory here (Sil . Ital. viii . 438) . Even in Roman times it kept its own coinage with the punning
See also:device of the bent
See also:arm holding a palm branch, and the
See also:head of
See also:Aphrodite on the
See also:reverse, and continued the use of the Greek language . When it became a Roman colony is doubtful.' It was occupied as a
See also:naval station in the Illyrian war of 178 B.c . (Liv. xli . I) .
Caesar took possession of it immediately after
See also:crossing the
See also:Rubicon . Its harbour was of considerable importance in imperial times, as the nearest to Dalmatia,2 and was enlarged by Trajan, who constructed the
See also:north quay, his architect being
See also:Apollodorus of
See also:Damascus . At the beginning of it stands the marble triumphal arch with a single opening, and without bas-reliefs, erected in his
See also:honour in A.D . 115 by the
See also:senate and
See also:people . Pope
See also:Clement II. prolonged the quay, and an inferior imitation of Trajan's arch was set up; he also erected a
See also:lazaretto at the south end of the harbour, now a
See also:sugar refinery, Vanvitelli being the architect-in-chief . The
See also:southern quay was built in 1880, and the harbour is now protected by forts on the heights, while the place is the seat of the 7th army
See also:corps . The
See also:port of Ancona was entered in 1904 by 869 steamships and 600 sailing vessels, with a
See also:tonnage of 961,612 tons . The main imports were
See also:timber, metals, jute . The main exports were
See also:asphalt and calcium
See also:carbide . Sugar refining and
See also:ship-building are carried on . Ancona is situated on the railway between Bologna and
See also:Brindisi, and is also connected by rail with Rome, via
See also:Foligno and Orte . After the fall of the Roman
See also:empire Ancona was successively attacked by the Goths,
See also:Lombards and
See also:Saracens, but recovered its strength and importance .
It was one of the cities of the Pentapolis under the exarchate ofRavenna, the other four being
See also:Pesaro, Senigallia and
See also:Rimini, and eventually became a semi-
See also:independent republic under the
See also:protection of the popes, until Gonzaga took possession of it for Clement VII. in 1532 . From 1797 onwards, when the French took it, it frequently appears in
See also:history as an important fortress, until Lamoriciere capitulated here on the 29th of
See also:September 1860, eleven days after his defeat at Castelfidardo . (T .
ANCON (from the Gr. ayi ww)
ALESSANDRO ANCONA (1835– )
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