See also:ancient city of
See also:Galatia in
See also:Asia Minor, situated on a tributary of the Sangarius . Originally a large and prosperous Phrygian city on the Persian Royal Road,
See also:Ancyra became the centre of the Tectosages, one of the three Gaulish tribes that settled permanently in Galatia about 232 B.C . The
See also:barbarian occupation dislocated
See also:civilization, and the
See also:town sank to a mere
See also:village inhabited chiefly by the old native population who carried on the arts and crafts of peaceful
See also:life, while the Gauls devoted themselves to war and pastoral life (see GALATIA) . In 189 B.C . Ancyra was occupied by Cn .
See also:Manlius Vulso, who made it his headquarters in his operations against the tribe . In 63 B.C .
See also:Pompey placed it (together with the Tectosagan territory) under one chief, and it continued under native
See also:rule till it became the capital of the
See also:Roman province of Galatia in 25 B.C . By this
See also:time the population included Greeks, Jews, Romans and Romanized Gauls, but the town was not yet Hellenized, though Greek was spoken .
See also:Strabo (c . A.D . 19) calls it not a city, but a fortress, implying that it had none of the institutions of the Graeco-Roman city .
Inscriptions and coins show that its civilization consisted of a layer of Roman ideas and customs super-imposed on
See also:Celtic tribal characteristics, and that it is not until c . A.D . 150 that the true Hellenic spirit begins to appear .
See also:Christianity was introduced (from the N. or N.W.) perhaps as early as the 1st century, but there is no shred of evidence that the Ancyran
See also:Church (first mentioned A.D . 192) was founded by St Paul or that he ever visited
See also:northern Galatia . The real greatness of the town
See also:dates from the time when Constantinople became the metropolis of the Roman
See also:world: then its
See also:geographical situation raised it to a position of importance which it retained throughout the
See also:middle ages . See further
See also:ANGORA (I) . The
See also:modern town contains many remains of the Roman and
See also:Byzantine periods . The most important
See also:monument is the Augusteum, a
See also:temple of
See also:white marble erected to " Rome and
See also:Augustus " during the lifetime of that emperor by the
See also:common council or
See also:diet .of the three Galatian tribes . The temple was afterwards converted into a church, and in the 16th century a
See also:fine mosque was built against its S.
See also:face . On the walls of the temple is engraved the famous Monumentum Ancyranum, a long inscription in Latin and Greek describing the Res gestae divi Augusti; the Latin portion being inscribed on the inner
See also:wall of the pronaos, the Greek on the outside wall of the naos (
See also:cella) . The inscription is a
See also:grave and majestic narrative of the public life and
See also:work of Augustus .
See also:original was written by the emperor in his 76th
See also:year (A.D . 13-14) to be engraved on two
See also:bronze tablets placed in front of his
See also:mausoleum in Rome, and as a mark of respect to his memory a copy was inscribed on the temple walls by the council of the
See also:Galatians . Thus has been preserved an absolutely unique
See also:historical document of
See also:great importance, recounting (I) the numerous public offices and honours conferred on him, (2) his various benefactions to the state, to the plebs and to his soldiers, and (3) his military and administrative services to the
See also:empire .
ANCYLOPODA, or ANCYLODACTYLA
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