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ANDREOSSY

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Originally appearing in Volume V01, Page 972 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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ANDREOSSY, ANTOINE-FRANCOIS, COUNT (1761-1828), French soldier and diplomatist, was born at Castelnaudary, in Languedoc, on the 6th of March 1761. He was of Italian extraction, and his ancestor Francois Andreossy (1633-1688) had been concerned with Riquet in the construction of the Languedoc Canal in 1669. He had a brilliant career at the school of artillery at Metz, obtained his commission in 1781, and became captain in 1788. On the outbreak of the Revolution he adopted its principles. He, saw active service on the Rhine in 1794 and in Italy in 1795, and in the campaign of 1796-97 was employed in engineer duties with the Army of Italy. He became chef de brigade in December 1796 and general of brigade in 1798, in which year he accompanies Bonaparte to Egypt. He served in the Egyptian campaign with distinction, and was selected as one of Napoleon's companions on his return to Europe. Andreossy took part in the coup d'etat of the 18th of Brumaire, and on the 6th of January 1800 was made general of division. Of particular importance was his term of office as ambassador to England during the short peace which followed the treaties of Amiens and Luneville. It had been shown (Coquille, Napoleon and England, 1904) that Andreossy repeatedly warned Napoleon that the British government desired to maintain peace but must be treated with consideration. His advice, however, was disregarded. When Napoleon became emperor he made Andreossy inspector-general of artillery and a count of the empire. In the war of 18o5 Andreossy was employed on the headquarters staff of Napoleon. From 18o8 to 1809 he was French ambassador at Vienna, where he displayed a hostility to Austria which was in marked contrast to his friendliness to England in 1802-1803. In the war of 1809, Andreossy was military governor of Vienna during the French occupation. In 1812 he was sent by Napoleon as ambassador to Constantinople, where he carried on the policy initiated by Sebastian. In 1814 he was recalled by Louis XVIII. Andreossy now retired into private life, till the escape of his former master from Elba once again called him forth. In 1826 he was elected to the Academic des Sciences, and in the following year was deputy for the department of the Aude. His numerous works included the following:—on artillery (with which arm he was most intimately connected throughout his military career), Quelques idees relatives a l'usage de l'artillerie clans l'attaque et . . . la defense des places (Metz) ; Essai sur le tir des projectiles creux (Paris, 1826); and on military history, Campagne sur le Main et la Rednitz de l'armee gallo-batave (Paris, 18o2); Operations des pontonniers en Italic . . . 1795-1796 (Paris, 1843). He also wrote scientific memoirs on the mouth of the Black Sea (1818-1819); on certain Egyptian lakes (during his stay in Egypt); and in particular the history of the Languedoc Canal (Histoire du canal du Midi, 2nd ed., Paris, 1804), the chief credit of which he claimed for his ancestor. Andreossy died at Montauban in 1828. See Marion, Notice necrologique sur le Lt.-General Comte Andreossy.
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