ANDREW (Gr. 'AvBp4as, manly) , theChristian Apostle,
See also:brother of
See also:Peter, was
See also:born at Bethsaida on the Lake of Galilee . He had been a
See also:disciple of
See also:John the Baptist (John i . 37-40) and was one of the first to follow Jesus . He lived at Capernaum (Mark i . 29) . In the
See also:story he is referred to as being
See also:present on some important occasions as one of the disciples more closely attached to Jesus (Mark xiii . 3; John vi . 8, xii . 22); in Acts there is only a
See also:bare mention of him (i . 13) . Tradition relates that he preached in
See also:Asia Minor and in
See also:Scythia. along the Black
See also:Sea as far as the
See also:Volga . Hence he became a
See also:saint of Russia .
He is said to have suffered crucifixion at
See also:Patras (Patrae) in
See also:Achaea, on a
See also:cross of the
See also:form called Crux decussata (X) and commonly known as " St Andrew's cross." According to tradition his
See also:relics were removed from Patras to Constantinople, and thence to St Andrews (see below) . The apocryphal
See also:book, The Acts of Andrew, mentioned by
See also:Epiphanius and others, is generally attributed to Leucius the Gnostic . It was edited and published by C . Tischendorf in the Ada Apostolorum apocrypha (
See also:Leipzig, 1821) . This book, as well as a Gospel of St Andrew, was declared apocryphal by a decree of
See also:Gelasius . Another version of the Andrew
See also:legend is found in the Passio Andreae, published by Max Bonnet (Supplementum II Codicis apocryphi,
See also:Paris, 1895) . On this was founded an Anglo-Saxon poem (" Andreas and Elene," first published by J .
See also:Grimm, 1841; cf . C . W .
See also:Goodwin, The Anglo-Saxon Legends of S . Andreas and S .
See also:Veronica, 1851) . The festival of St Andrew is held on the 3oth of
See also:November . See APoe RYPHAL LITERATURE; also Lipsius, Die apokryphen Apostelgeschichten vnd Apostellegenden, vol. i . (1883), and Hastings'
See also:Dictionary of the Bible, s.v . Scottish Legends.—About the
See also:middle of the 8th century Andrew became the patron saint of Scotland . Concerning this there are several legends which state that the relics of Andrew were brought under supernatural guidance from Constantinople to the place where the
See also:modern St Andrews stands (Pictish, Muckross; Gaelic, Kilrymont) . The
See also:oldest stories (preserved in the Colbertine
See also:MSS., Paris, and the Harleian MSS. in the
See also:British Museum) state that the relics were brought by one
See also:Regulus to the Pictish
See also:Angus (or Ungus) Macfergus (c . 731-761) . The only
See also:historical Regulus (Riagail or
See also:Rule, whose name is preserved by the tower of St Rule) was an Irish
See also:monk expelled from
See also:Ireland with St
See also:Columba; his date, however, is c . 573–600 . There are
See also:good reasons for supposing that the relics were origin-ally in the collection of Acca,
See also:bishop of
See also:Hexham, who took them into Pictland when he was driven from Hexham (c . 732), and founded a see, not, according to tradition, in Galloway, but on the site of St Andrews .
The connexion with Regulus is, therefore, due in allprobability to the
See also:desire to date the foundation of the
See also:church at St Andrews as early as possible . See A . Lang, St Andrews (
See also:London, 1893), pp . 4 ff . ; W . F .
See also:Celtic Scotland; also the article ST ANDREWS .
JUAN ANDRES (1740-1817)
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