Online Encyclopedia

ANNA

Online Encyclopedia
Originally appearing in Volume V13, Page 766 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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ANNA, of the ground. They can be made, too, to cover in any extent of area without sustaining walls. Indeed, it has been proposed to support such roofs to a great extent upon suspension principles, the internal columns of support being utilized for conducting the rain-water off the roof to underground drains or reservoirs. The lean-to is the least desirable form, since it scarcely admits of elegance of design, but it is necessarily adopted in many cases. In glazing, the greater the surface of glass, and the less space occupied by rafters and astragals as well as overlaps, the greater the admission of light. Some prefer that the sash-bars should be grooved instead of rebated, and this plan exposes less putty to the action of the weather. The simple bedding of the glass, without the use of over putty, seems to be widely approved; but the glass may be fixed in a variety of other ways, some of which are patented. The Conservatory is often built in connexion with the mansion, so as to be entered from the drawing-room or boudoir. But when so situated it is apt to suffer from the shade of the building, and is objectionable on account of admitting damp to the drawing-room. Where circumstances will admit, it is better to place it at some distance from the house, and to form a connexion by means of a glass corridor. In order that the conservatory may be kept gay with flowers, there should be a subsidiary structure to receive the plants as they go out of bloom. The conservatory may also with great propriety be placed in the flower garden, where it may occupy an elevated terrace, and form the termination of one of the more important walks. Great variety of design is admissible in the conservatory, but it ought always to be adapted to the style of the mansion of which it is a prominent appendage. Some very pleasing examples are to be met with which have the form of a parallelogram with a lightly rounded roof; others of appropriate character are square or nearly so, with a ridge-and-furrow roof. Whatever the form, there must be light in abundance; and the shade both of buildings and of trees must be avoided. A southern aspect, or one varying to south-east or south-west, is preferable; if these aspects cannot be secured, the plants selected must be adapted to the position. The central part of the house may be devoted to permanent plants; the side stages and open spaces in the permanent beds should be reserved for the temporary plants. The Greenhouse is a structure designed for the growth of such exotic plants as require to be kept during winter in a temperature considerably above the freezing-point. The best form is the span-roofed, a single span being better even than a series of spans such as form the ridge-and-furrow roof. For plant culture, houses at a comparatively low pitch are better than higher ones where the plants have to stand at a greater distance from the glass, and therefore in greater gloom. Fig. 3 represents a convenient form of greenhouse. It is 20 ft. wide and 12 ft. high, and may be of any convenient length. The side walls are surmounted by short upright sashes which open outwards by machinery a, and the roof is provided with sliding upper sashes for top ventilation. The upper sashes may also be made to lift, and are in many respects more convenient to operate. In the centre is a two-tier stage 6 ft. wide, for plants, with a pathway on each side 3 ft. wide, and a side stage 4 ft. wide, the side stages being flat, and the centre stage having the middle portion one-third of the width elevated i ft. above the rest so as to lift up the middle row of plants nearer the light. Span-roofed houses of this character should run north and south so as to secure an equalization of light, and should he warmed by two flow, and one or two return 4-in. hot-water pipes. carried under the side stages along each side and across each end. Where it is desired to cultivate a large number of plants, it is much better to increase the number of such houses than to provide larger structures. The smaller houses are far better for cultural purposes, while the plants can be classified, and the little details of management more conveniently attended to. Pelargoniums, cinerarias, calceolarias, cyclamens, camellias, heaths, roses and other-specialities might thus have to themselves either a whole house or part of a house, the conditions of which could then be more accurately fitted to the wants of the inmates. The lean-to house is in most respects inferior to the span-roofed;one of the latter could be converted into two of the former of opposite aspects by a divisional wall along the centre. Except where space does not permit a span-roofed building to be introduced, a lean-to is not to be recommended; but a house of this class may often be greatly improved by adopting a half-span or hipped roof—that is, one with a short slope behind and a longer in front. Where the cultivation of large specimens has to be carried on, a span-roofed house of greater height and larger dimensions may sometimes prove useful; but space for this class of plants may generally be secured in a house of the smaller elevation, simply by lowering or removing altogether the staging erected for smaller plants, and allowing the larger ones to stand on or nearer the floor. The Plant Stove differs in no respect from the greenhouse except in having a greater extent of hot-water pipes for the purpose of securing a greater degree of heat, although, as the plants in stove houses often attain a larger size, and many of them require a bed of coco-nut fibre, tan or leaf mould to supply them with bottom heat, a somewhat greater elevation may perhaps be occasionally required in some of the houses. For the smaller plants, and for all choicer subjects, the smaller size of house already recom- mended for greenhouses, so o e o namely 20 ft. wide and Q,o – 12 ft. high, with a side table of 4 ft. on each side, a pathway of 3 ft. and a FIG. 4.—Section of Plant Stove. central stage on two levels of 6 ft. wide, will be preferable, because more easily managed as to the supply of heat and moisture. It will be seen (fig. 4) that along the ridge of the roof a raised portion or lantern light b, b is introduced, which permits of the fixing of two continuous ventilators, one along each side, for the egress of heated and foul air, openings a, a being also provided in the side walls opposite the hot-water pipes for the admission of pure cold air. This type of house is also very suitable for greenhouse plants, but would not need so much heating apparatus. Three or four rows of flow and return pipes respectively will be required on each side, according to the heat proposed to be maintained. In their interior fittings plant stoves require more care than green-houses, which are much drier, and in which consequently the staging does not so soon decay. In stoves the stages should be of slate or stone where practicable, and the supports of iron. These should be covered with a layer of 2 or 3 in. of some coarse gritty material, such as pounded spar, or the shell sand obtained on the sea-coast, on which the pots are to stand; its use is to absorb moisture and gradually give it out for the benefit of the plants. The pathways should be paved with tiles, brick or stone, or made of concrete and cement, and the surface should be gently rounded so that the water required for evaporation may drain to the sides while the centre is sufficiently dry to walk upon; they should also have brick or stone edgings to prevent the water so applied soaking away at the sides and thus being wasted. Fruit Houses.—The principal of house, cucumber and melon house times introduced into the centre of the range in order to give effect to the outline of the buildings. When thus associated, the houses are usually of the lean-to class, which have the 3.—Section of Greenhouse. these are the vinery, peach and orchard house. These, or a portion of them, especially the vineries and peacheries, are frequently brought together into a range along the principal interior or south wall of the garden, where they are well exposed to sun and light, an ornamental plant house being some- advantage of being more easily warmed and kept warm than buildings having glass on both sides, a matter of great importance for forcing purposes. The Vinery is a house devoted to the culture of the grape-vine, which is by far the most important exotic fruit cultivated in English gardens. When forming part of a range a vinerT would in most cases he a lean-to structure, with a sharp pitch (45 -50°) if intended for early forcing, and a flatter roof (4o) with longer rafters if designed for the main and late crops. (I) The lean-to (fig. 5) is the simplest form, often erected against some existing wall, and the best for early forcing, being warmer on account of the shelter afforded by the back wall. In this house the principal part of the roof is a fixture, ventila- tion being provided for by small lifting sashes against the back wall, and by the upright front sashes being hung on a pivot so as to swing outwards on the lower side. The necessary heat is pro- vided by four 4-in. hot-water • pipes, which would perhaps be best placed if all laid side by side, while the vines arc planted in front and trained upwards under the roof. A second set of vines may be planted against the back wall, and will thrive there until the shade of the roof becomes too dense. (2) The hip-roofed or three- quarter span (fig. 6) is a combination of the lean-to and the span-roofed, uniting to a great degree the ad- vantages of both, being warmer than the span and lighter than the lean-to. The heating and ventilating arrangements are much the same as in the lean-to, only the top sashes which open are on the back slope, and therefore do not interfere so much with the vines on the front slope. In both this and the lean-to the aspect should be as nearly due south as possible. Houses of this form are excellent for general purposes, and they are well adapted both for muscats, which require a high temperature, and for late-keeping grapes. (3) The span-roofed (fig. 7). the most elegant and ornamental form, is especially adapted for isolated positions; indeed, no other form affords so much roof space for the development of the vines. The amount of light admitted being very great, these houses answer well for general purposes and for the main crop. The large amount of glass or cooling surface, however, makes it more difficult to keep up a high and regular temperature in them, and from this cause they are not so well adapted for very early or very late crops. They are hest, nevertheless, when grapes and ornamental plants are grown in the same house, except, indeed, in very wet and cold districts, where, in consequence of its greater warmth, the lean-to is to be preferred. on piers and arches to allow the roots to pass outwards into a prepared border, the trees being planted just within the house. Abundant means of ventilation should be provided. For more general purposes the house represented in fig. 8 will be found more useful. One set of trees is planted near the front, ant trained to an arched trellis b. Another set is planted at the hack, and trained on a trellis c,which is nearly upright, and leans against the back wall; or the back wall itself may be used for training. There are no upright front sashes, but to facilitate ventilation there are ventilators d in the front wall, and the upper roof sashes arc made to move up and down for the same object. Two or three hot-water pipes are placed near the front wall. The back wall is usually planted with dwarf and standard trees alternately, the latter being temporary, and intended to furnish the upper part of the trellis, while the permanent dwarfs are gradually filling up the trellis from below. In any case the front trellis should stop conveniently short of the top of the sashes if there are trees against the back wall, in order to admit light to them. They would also be better carried up nearly parallel to the roof, and at about I ft. distant from it, supposing there were no trees at the back. A span-roofed house, being lighter than a lean-to, would be so much the better for peach culture, especially for the crop grown just If This type of house, cheaply constructed, is in general use for raising grapes for market. The Peach House is a structure in which the ripening of the fruit is accelerated by the judicious employment of artificial heat. For early forcing, as in vineries, the lean-to form is to be preferred, and the house may have a tolerably sharp pitch. A width of 7 or 8 ft., with the glass slope continued down to within a foot or two of the ground, and without any upright front sashes, will be suitable for such a house, which may also be conveniently divided into compartments of from 30 to 50 ft. in length according to the extent of the building, small houses being preferable to larger ones. As a very high temperature is not required, two or three pipes running the whole length of the house will suffice. The front wall should be built00 O~/72i// /~ j///... / , /i~/;,i//iii ii%~';,'/diLZ.,//,.;,~ii~/,~i~.i~~ %, in anticipation of those from the open walls since a high temperature, is not required. A low span, with dwarf side walls, and a lantern ventilator along the ridge, the height in the centre being 9 it., would be very well adapted for the purpose. The trees should be planted inside and trained up towards the ridge on a trellis about a foot from the glass, the walls being arched to permit the egress of the roots. A trellis path should run along the centre, and movable pieces of trellis should be provided to prevent trampling on the soil while dressing and tying in the young wood. The Forcing House.—Whenever continuous supplies of cucumbers, melons and tomatoes are required, it is most convenient to grow them in properly constructed forcing houses. Span-roofed houses (fig. 9) arc probably the most useful for the purpose. They are usually 12 to 14 ft. wide, by to to 12 ft. high, and of any convenient length. Heating is effected by means of hot-water pipes below the beds, and against the side ventilators. The walls bordering the central paths are arched or clotted to admit heat from the chambers below the beds. Side pipes are occasionally dispensed with, heat being obtained by means of slots at the back of the beds, communicating with the chambers. The beds are also of use for plunging pot plants. Ventilation is provided at sides and top. Pits and frames of various kinds are frequently used for the cultivation of cucumbers and melons, as well as hot beds covered by ordinary garden frames. In these cases the first supply of heat is derived from the hot bed made up within the pit. When the heat of the original bed subsides, linings of fermenting dung must be added, and these must be kept active by occasional turnings and the addition of fresh material as often as required. It is better, however, to effect both top and bottom heating by hot-water pipes. Orchard Houses are span-roofed or lean-to structures, in which various fruits are cultivated without the aid of artificial heat. Peaches, nectarines, apricots, cherries and the more tender varieties of plums and pears succeed well in houses of this kind. The types of houses in general use are substantially as shown in fig. 7, for span-roofed, and as fig. 5, for lean-to; in each case without the heating apparatus. The orchard house is among the most generally useful of all garden structures. These houses require careful management in early summer so as to induce the more delicate varieties of peaches and nectarines to complete and ripen their growth before cold, sunless weather sets in. In commercial establishments where utility is of more importance than ornament, the glass houses and hot water apparatus are not of so elaborate a type as indicated in the foregoing remarks, and in many cases excellent produce is grown in structures more or less dilapidated. In some places movable greenhouses have been erected for market purposes, so that the soil may be exposed to the sweetening effect of the weather, when the glass roof is moved to an adjoining patch. Pits and Frames.—These are used both for the summer growth and winter protection of various kinds of ornamental plants, for the growth of such fruits as cucumbers, melons and strawberries, and for the forcing of vegetables. When heat is required, it is sometimes supplied.by means of fermenting dung, or dung and leaves, or tanner's bark, but it is much more economically provided by hot-water pipes. Pits of many different forms have been designed, but it may be sufficient here to describe one or two which can be recommended for general purposes. An excellent pit for wintering bedding-out plants or young green-house stock is shown at fig. to. It is built upon the pigeon-hole principle as high as the ground level a, a, and above that in 9-in. brickwork. At a distance of 9 in. retaining walls b, b are built up to the ground level, and the spaces between the two are covered by thick boarding, which is to be shut down as shown at c in cold weather to exclude frost, and opened as shown at d in mild weather to promote a free circulation of air through the pit. The height of the pit might be reduced according to the size of the plants; and, to secure the interior against frost, flow and return hot-water pipe e should pass along beneath the staging, which should be a strong wooden trellis supported by projections in the brickwork. The water which drains from the plants or is spilt in watering would fall on the bottom, which should be made porous to carry it away. For many plants this under current of ventilation would be exceedingly beneficial, especially when cold winds prevented the sashes from being opened. A pit of this character may be sunk into the ground deeper than is indicated in the figure if the subsoil is dry and gravelly, but in the case of a damp subsoil it should rather be more elevated, as the soil could easily be sloped up to meet the retaining wall. Frames.—Frames (fig. 1t) should be made of the best red deal, t in. thick. A convenient size is 6 ft. wide, 24 in. high at the back and 15 in front; and they are usually 12 ft. long, which makes three lights and sashes, though they can be made with two lights or one light for particular purposes. Indeed, a one-light frame is often found very convenient for many purposes. The lights should be 2 in. thick, and glazed with 21 oz. sheet glass, in broad panes four or five to the breadth of a light, and of a length which will work in conveniently and economically, very long panes being undesirablefrom the havoc caused by accidents, and very short ones being objectionable as multiplying the chances of drip, and the exclusion of light by the numerous lappings; panes about 12 in. long are of convenient size for garden lights of this character. In all gardens the frames and lights should be of one size so as to be interchangeable, and a good supply of extra lights (sashes) may always be turned to good account for various purposes. Span-roof garden frame (fig. 12) may under some circumstances be useful as a substitute for the three-light frame. It is adapted for storing plants in winter, for nursing small plants in summer and for the culture of melons and other crops requiring glass shelter. These frames are made II in. high in front, 22 at the back and 32 at the ridge, with ends of 12-in. red deal; the sashes, which are 2 in. thick, open by gearing, the front and back separately. The lights are hinged so that they can be turned completely back when necessary. This more direct and ready access to the plants within is one of the principal recommendations of this form of pit. Mushroom House.—Mushrooms may be grown in sheds and cellars, or even in protected ridges in the open ground, but a special structure is usually devoted to them. A lean-to against the north side of the garden wall will be found suitable for the purpose, though a span-roofed form may also be adopted, especially if the building stands apart. The internal arrangement of a lean-to mushroom house is shown in fig. 13. The length may vary from 30 ft. to 6o ft.; a convenient width is to ft., which admits of a 32 ft. central path, and beds 3 ft. wide on each side. The shelves should be of slate a, a, supported by iron uprights b, b, each half having a front ledge of bricks set on edge in cement c, c. The slabs of slate forming the shelves should not be too closely fitted, as a small interval will prevent the accumulation of moisture at the bottom of the bed. They may be supported by iron standards or brick piers, back and front, bearing up a flat bar of iron on which the slates may rest; the use of the bar will give wider intervals between the supports, which will be found convenient for filling and emptying the beds. The roof may be tiled or slated; but, to prevent the injurious influence \ \~\\ c of hot sun, there should be an inner roof or ceiling d, the space between which and the outer roof FIG. 13.—Lean-to Mushroom House. e should be packed with sawdust. A hot-water pipe f should run along both sides of the pathway, close to the front ledge of the lowest beds. The different shelves can be planted in succession; and the lower ones, especially those on the floor level, as being most convenient, can be utilized for forcing sea-kale and rhubarb. The Fruit Room.—This important store should be dark, moderately dry, with a steady, moderately cool atmosphere, diemosu vU i ViIIIIiaonm mao 0 .w flames. The water-tube type, with multiple waterways, consists of a number of separate tubes joined together in various ways. Some of these are built in the form of a blunt cone, and are known as conical tubular boilers. Others are built with the tubes arranged horizontally, and are known as horizontal tubular boilers. The majority of the latter are more or less saddle-shaped. Boilers with a single waterway are of three principal types, the Cornish, the saddle and the conical. The Cornish is cylindrical with the furnace occupying about half the length of the cylinder. The saddle is so named from its supposed resemblance to a saddle. It is set to span the furnace, additional exposure to heat being secured in a variety of ways by flues. Exposure in the conical boiler is direct on its inner surface, and is supplemented by flues. Tubular boilers, especially the horizontal types, are very powerful and economical. The Cornish type is a rather slow and steady boiler, and is much used for providing heat for large areas. The saddle boiler is very commonly employed to provide heat for moderately sized and small areas. Both are powerful and economical. Conical boilers are more ex-pensive to set by reason of their shape, and are not so convenient to manipulate as the horizontal kinds. All the above types require a setting of masonry. Portable boilers are convenient for heating small areas, and are less expensive to instal than those described above. They are less economical, however, owing to loss of heat from their exposed surfaces. What are called sectional boilers as used in America and on the Continent are being introduced to British gardens. Portions can be added or taken away according to the amount of heating surface required. Water Supply.—Wastage of water in the boilers should be made good automatically from a cistern controlled by means of a ball-cock. It should be placed as high above the boiler as practicable. The feed should connect with the return pipe near the point at which it enters the boiler. Stokeholds.—These have usually to be excavated to admit of the boilers being set below the level of the pipes they are intended to serve. In consequence of their depth, the draining of stokeholds often presents difficulties. Care should be taken to allow sufficient room to properly manipulate the fires and to store fuel. It is important that the ventilation should be as efficient as practicable, especially where coke fuel is to be used. Stoking.—The management of the furnaces is relatively easy, and consists in adapting the volume and intensity of the fires to particular needs. It involves the keeping clean of flues, ashpits and especially the fires themselves. Where coke or ordinary hard coal are used, the removal of clinkers should be done systematically, and the fires stirred. Anthracite coal fires should not be stirred more than is absolutely necessary, and should not be fed in driblets. They require more draught than coke fires, but care must be taken not to give too much, as excessive heat is likely to melt or soften the fire-bars. Draught is regulated in the ashpit by opening or closing the bottom door of the furnace and by the damper on the smoke shaft. The latter must be of a fairly good height, according to circumstances, to secure a good draught. Solar Heat.—The importance of sun heat to the general well-being of plant life, its influence on the production of flowers and the ripening of edible fruits, has long been appreciated in horticulture. The practice of " closing up " early in the afternoon, i.e. the closing of ventilators (accompanied by syringing and damping of surfaces to produce a humid atmosphere) has for its object the conservation of as much solar heat as practicable. Ventilation.—This consists in the admission of air for the purpose of preventing stagnation of the atmosphere and for the regulation of temperature. Means of affording ventilation in all plant houses should be provided in at least two places—as near the floor as practicable, and at the top. Mechanical contrivances whereby whole sets of ventilators may be operated simultaneously are now in common use, and are much more convenient and economical than the older method of working each ventilator separately. Efficient ventilating can only be effected by the exercise of common sense and vigilance, and care must be taken to avoid cold draughts through the houses. and with the means of giving sufficient ventilation to keep the air sweet. It should also be sufficiently commodious to permit of the fruit being arranged in single layers on the shelves or trays. A type of building which is becoming increasingly popular for this purpose, and which is in many respects superior to the older, and often more expensive structures, is built of wood, with or without brick foundations, and is thickly thatched with reeds or other non-conducting material externally—on walls and roof—while the interior is matchboarded. Ventilation is afforded at the ends, usually by tilting laths, operated by a cord. Two doors are provided at one end—an inner, and an outer—the inner being glazed at the top to admit light. They are generally span-roofed, about 6 ft. high at the eaves, and 8 or ro ft. high at the ridge, according to width. The length and breadth of these stores should be governed by the amount and character of the storage accommodation to be provided. If intended for storage only, a width of 9 ft. 6 in. would suffice, but if intended to combine display with storage, the internal diameter should be about 13 ft. In the former type, the walls are fitted with four rows of shelves, about 3 ft. wide, and about i ft. 6 in. apart. The shelves are of deal strips, 2 or 3 in. wide, laid about r in. apart for ventilation. These are being superseded, however, by sliding-out trays of convenient lengths and about 9 in. deep, working on fixed framework. By this means the storage accommodation is nearly doubled and the fruit is more easily manipulated. The central gangway is about 3 ft. 6 in. wide. In the latter a central exhibition bench about 3 ft. wide and of convenient height is provided. Gang-ways 2l ft. wide flank this, while the shelves or drawers with which the walls are fitted are about 22 ft. wide. Care of the Fruit Room.—This consists mainly in the storing only of such fruits as are dry and in proper condition; in judicious ventilation, especially in the presence of large quantities of newly-gathered fruit; in the prompt removal of all decaying fruit; and in the exclusion of vermin. It is also advisable to wash all woodwork and gangways annually with a weak solution of formalin, or other inodorous germicide. Heating Apparatus.—Plant houses were formerly heated in a variety of ways—by fermenting organic matter, such as dung, by smoke flues, by steam and by hot water circulating in iron pipes. The last-named method has proved so satisfactory in practice that it is now in general use for all ordinary purposes. The water is heated by a furnace, and is conveyed from the boiler into the houses by a main or " flow " pipe, connected by means of syphon branches with as many pipes as it is intended to serve. When cooled it is returned to the boiler by another main or " return " pipe. Heat is regulated in the structures by means of valves on the various branch pipes. The flow pipe is attached to the boiler at its highest point, to take the heated water as it ascends. The return pipe is connected with the boiler at or near its lowest point. The highest points of the pipes are fitted with small taps, for the removal of air, which would retard circulation if allowed to remain. Heating by hot water may be said to depend, in part, on the influence of gravity on water being to some extent overcome by heating in a boiler. It ascends the flow pipe by convection, where its onward journey would speedily end if it were not for the driving force of other molecules of water following, and the suction set up by the gravitation into the boiler of the cooled water by the return pipe. The power of water to conduct heat is very low. The conducting power of the iron in which it is conveyed is high. It is, however, probable that conduction is to some extent a factor in the process. Pipes.—It is a mistake to stint the quantity of piping, since it is far more economical and better for the plants to have a larger surface heated moderately than a smaller surface heated excessively. In view of the fact that air expands, becomes lighter and rises, under the influence of heat, the pipes should be set near the floor. If intended to raise the temperature of the structure, they should be set on iron or brick supports just clear of walls, earth or other heat-absorbing bodies. Those intended to provide bottom heat, however, are set in (a) water tanks running under the beds, or (b) in enclosed dry chambers under the beds, or are (c) embedded in the soil or plunging material. The first-named method is distinctly superior to the others. Pipes of 2 in., 3 in., 4 in. and 6 in. diameters are mostly used, the 4 in. size being the most convenient for general purposes. The joints a:e packed or caulked with tow, smeared with a mixture of white and red lead. Flanged joints are made to bolt together on washers of vulcanized rubber. Boilers.—There are numerous types of boilers in use, illustrative )f efforts to secure as much exposure as possible to the action of the Soils and Composts.—The principal soils used in gardens, either alone, or mixed to form what are called composts, are—loam, sand, peat, leaf-mould and various mixtures and combinations of these made up to suit the different subjects under cultivation. Loam is the staple soil for the gardener; it is not only used extensively in the pure and simple state, but enters into most of the composts prepared specially for his plants. For garden purposes loam should be rather unctuous or soapy to the touch when moderately dry, not too clinging nor adhesive, and should readily crumble when a compressed handful is thrown on the ground. If it clings together closely it is too heavy and requires amelioration by the admixture of gritty material; if it has little or no cohesion when squeezed tightly in the hand, it is too light, and needs to be improved by the addition of heavier meshes of the sieve along with the earthy particles. Before being or clayey material. Sound friable loam cut one sod deep from the surface of a pasture, and stacked up for twelve months in a heap or ridge, is invaluable to the gardener. When employed for making vine borders, loam of a somewhat heavier nature can be used with advantage, on account of the porous materials which should accompany it. For stone fruits a calcareous loam is best; indeed, for these subjects a rich calcareous loam used in a pure and simple state cannot be surpassed. Somewhat heavy loamy are best for potting pine apples, for melons and strawberries, fruit trees in pots, &c., and may be used with the addition of manures only; but for ornamental plants a loam of a somewhat freer texture is preferable and more pleasant to work. Loam which contains much red matter (iron) should be avoided. Sand is by itself of little value except for striking cuttings, for which purpose fine clean sharp silver sand is the best; and a somewhat coarser kind, if it is gritty, is to be preferred to the comminuted sands which contain a large proportion of earthy matter. River sand and the sharp grit washed up sometimes by the road side are excellent materials for laying around choice bulbs at planting time to prevent contact with earth which is perhaps manure-tainted. Sea sand may be advantageously used both for propagating purposes and for mixing in composts. For the growth of pot plants sand is an essential part of most composts, in order to give them the needful porosity to carry off all excess of moisture from the roots. If the finer earthy sands only are obtainable, they must be rendered sharper by washing away the earthy particles. Washed sand is best for all plants like heaths, which need a pure and lasting peaty compost. Peat soil is largely employed for the culture of such plants as rhododendrons, azaleas, heaths, &c. In districts where heather and gritty soil predominate, the peat soil is poor and unprofitable, but selections from both the heathy and the richer peat soils, collected with judgment, and stored in a dry part of the compost yard, are essential ingredients in the cultivation of many choice pot plants, such as the Cape heaths and many of the Australian plants. Many monocotyledons do well in peat, even if they do not absolutely require it. Leaf-mould is eminently suited for the growth of many free-growing plants, especially when it has been mixed with stable manure and has been subjected to fermentation for the formation of hot beds. It any state most plants feed greedily upon it, and when pure or free from decaying wood or sticks it is a very safe ingredient in composts; but it is so liable to generate fungus, and the mycelium or spawn of certain fungi is so injurious to the roots of trees, attacking them if at all sickly or weakened by drought, that many cultivators prefer not to mix leaf-mould with the soil used for permanent plants, as peaches or choice ornamental trees. For quick growing plants, however, as for example most annuals cultivated in pots, such as balsams, cockscombs, globe-amaranths and the like, for cucumbers, and for young soft-wooded plants generally, it is exceedingly useful, both by preventing the consolidation of the soil and as a manure. The accumulations of light earth formed on the surface in woods where the leaves fall and decay annually are leaf-mould of the finest quality. Leaves collected in the autumn and stored in pits or heaps, and covered with a layer of soil, make beautiful leaf-mould at the end of about twelve months, if frequently drenched with water or rain during this period. Composts are mixtures of the foregoing ingredients in varying proportions, and in combination with manures if necessary, so as to suit particular plants or classes of plants. The chief point to be borne in mind in making these mixtures is not, to combine in the same compost any bodies that are antagonistic in their nature, as for example lime and ammonia. In making up composts for pot plants, the fibrous portion should not be removed by sifting, except for small-sized pots, but the turfy portions should be broken up by hand and distributed in smaller or larger lumps throughout the mass. When sifting is had recourse to, the fibrous matter should be rubbed through the to decompose. Manures (see MANURE).-These are of two classes, organic and inorganic—the former being of animal and vegetable, the latter of mineral origin. The following are organic manures: Farm-yard manure consists of the mixed dung of horses and cattle thrown together, and more or less soaked with liquid drainings of the stable or byre. It is no doubt the finest stimulant for the growth of plants, and that most adapted to restore the fertile elements which the plants have abstracted from exhausted soils. This manure is best fitted for garden use when in a moderately fermented state. Horse dung is generally the principal ingredient in all hot bed manure; and, in its partially decomposed state, as afforded by exhausted hot beds, it is well adapted for garden use. It is most beneficial on cold stiff soils. It should not be allowed to lie too long unmoved when fresh, as it will then heat violently, and the ammonia is thus driven off. To avoid this, it should be turned over two or three times if practicable, and well moistened—preferably with farm-yard drainmgs. Cow dung is less fertilizing than horse dung, but being slower in its action it is more durable; it is also cooler, and therefore better for hot dry sandy soils. Thoroughly decayed, it is one of the best of all manures for mixing in composts for florists' flowers and other choice plants. Pig dung is very powerful, containing more nitrogen than horse dung; it is therefore desirable that it should undergo moderate fermentation, which will be secured by mixing it with litter and a portion of earth. When weeds are thrown to the pigs, this fermentation becomes specially desirable to kill their seeds. Night-soil is an excellent manure for all bulky crops, but requires to be mixed with earth or peat, or coal-ashes, so as both to deodorize it and to ensure its being equally distributed. Quicklime should not be used, as it dispels the greater part of the ammonia. When prepared by drying and mixing with various substances, night-soil is sold as desiccated night-soil or native guano, the value of which depends upon the materials used for admixture. Malt-dust is an active manure frequently used as. a top-dressing, especially for fruit trees in pots. It is rapid in its action, but its effects are not very permanent. Rape dust is somewhat similar in its character and action. Bones are employed as a manure with decided advantage both to vegetable crops and to fruit trees, as well as to flowers. For turnips bone manure is invaluable. The effects of bones are no doubt mainly due to the phosphates they contain, and they are most effectual on dry soils. They are most quickly available when dissolved in sulphuric acid. Guano is a valuable manure now much employed, and may be applied to almost every kind of crop with decided advantage. It should be mixed with six or eight times its weight of loam or ashes, charred peat, charcoal-dust or some earthy matter, before it is applied to the soil, as from its causticity it is otherwise not unlikely to kill or injure the plants to which it is administered. Peruvian guano is obtained from the excreta of South American sea-birds, and fish guano from the waste of fish. Both are remarkable for the quantity of nitrates and phosphates they contain. Pigeon dung approaches guano in its power as manure. It should be laid up in ridges of good loamy soil in alternate layers,to form a compost, which becomes a valuable stimulant for any very choice subjects if cautiously used. The dung of the domestic fowl is very similar in character. Horn, hoof-parings, woollen rags, fish, blubber and blood,, after treatment with sulphuric acid, are all good manures, and should be utilized if readily obtainable. Liquid manure, consisting of the drainings of dung-heaps, stables, cowsheds, &c., or of urine collected from dwelling houses or other sources, is a most valuable and powerful stimulant, and can be readily applied to the roots of growing plants. The urine should be allowed to putrefy, as in its decomposition a large amount of ammonia is formed, which should then be fixed by sulphuric acid or gypsum; or it may be applied to the growing crops after being freely diluted with water or absorbed in a compost heap. Liquid manures can be readily made from most of the solid manures when required, simply by admixture with water. When thus artificially compounded--unless for immediate use, they should be made strong for convenience of storage, and applied as required much diluted. The following are inorganic manures: Ammonia is the most powerful and one of the most important of the constituents of manures generally, since it is the chief source whence plants derive their nitrogen. It is largely supplied in all the most fertilizing of organic manures, but when required in the in-organic state must be obtained from some of the salts of ammonia, as the sulphate, the muriate or the phosphate, all of which, being extremely energetic, require to be used with great caution. These salts of ammonia may be used at the rate of from 2 to 3 cwt. per acre as a top-dressing in moist weather. When dissolved in water they used the turfy ingredients of composts should lie together in a heap only long enough for the roots of the herbage to die, not of steel type. For stove and greenhouse plants, orchids, ferns, &c., labels made of xylonite, zinc and other materials are also used. IV. Garden Operations. Propagation.—The increase of plants, so far as the production of new individuals of particular kinds is concerned, is one of the most important and constantly recurring of gardening operations. In effecting this, various processes are adopted, which i. By Seeds.—This may be called the natural means of increasing the number of any particular kind of plant, but it is to be re-membered that we do not by that means secure an exact reproduction of the parent, especially in the case of plants raised or evolved in the course of generations by hybridization and selection. We may get a progeny very closely resembling it, yet each plant possessing a distinct individuality of its own; or we may get a pro, eny very unlike the parent, or a mixed progeny showing various degrees of divergence. Many seeds will grow freely if sown in a partially ripened state; but as a general rule seeds have to be kept for some weeks or months in store, and hence they should be thoroughly ripened before being gathered. They should be sown in fine rich soil, and such as will not readily get consolidated. In the case of outdoor crops, if the soil is inclined to be heavy, it is a good plan to cover all the smaller seeds with a light compost. Very small seeds should only have a sprinkling of light earth or of sand, and sometimes only a thin layer of soft moss to exclude light and preserve an equable degree of moisture. Somewhat larger seeds sown indoors may be covered to the depth of one-eighth of one-fourth of an inch, according to their size. Outdoor crops require to be sown, the smaller seeds from 1 to r in.,. and the larger ones from 2 to 4 in. under the surface, the covering of the smaller ones especially being light and open. Many seeds grow well when raked in; that is, the surface on which they are scattered is raked backwards and forwards until most of them are covered. Whatever the seeds, the ground should be made tolerably firm both beneath and above them; this may be done by treading in the case of most kitchen garden crops, which are also better sown in drills, this admitting the more readily of the ground being kept clear from weeds by hoeing. All seeds require a certain degree of heat to induce germination. For tropical plants the heat of a propagating house—75° to 8o°, with a bottom heat of 8o° to 9o°—is desirable, and in many cases absolutely necessary; for others, such as half-hardy annuals,, a mild hot bed, or a temperate pit ranging from 60° to 7o°, is convenient; while of course all outdoor crops have to submit to the natural temperature of the season. It is very important that seeds should be sown when the ground is in a good working condition, and not clammy with moisture. 2. By Offsets.—This mode of increase applies specially to bulbous plants, such as the lily and hyacinth, which produce little bulbs on the exterior round their base. Most bulbs do so naturally to a limited but variable extent; when more rapid increase is wanted the heart is destroyed, and this induces the formation of a larger number of offsets. The stem bulbs of lilies are similar in character to the offsets from the parent bulb. The same mode of increase occurs in the gladiolus and crocus, but their bulb-like permanent parts 'are called corms, not bulbs. After they have ripened in connexion with the parent bulb, the offsets are taken off, stored in appropriate places, and at the proper season planted out in nursery beds. 3. By Tubers.—The tuber is a fleshy underground stem, furnished with eyes which are either visible, as in the potato and in some familiar kinds of Tropaeolum (T. luberosum) and of Oxalis (0. crenata), or latent, as in the Chinese yam (Dioscorea Batatas). When used for propagation, the tubers are cut up into what are called " sets," every portion having an eye attached being capable of forming an independent plant. The cut portions of bulky sets should be suffered to lie a short time before being planted, in order to dry the surface and prevent rotting; this should not, however, be done with such tropical subjects as caladiums, the tubers of which are often cut up into very small fragments for propagation, and of course require to be manipulated in a properly heated propagating pit. No eyes are shall not discuss them here. They are, moreover, illustrated visible in the Chinese yam, but slices of the long club-shaped tubers will push out young shoots and form independent plants, if planted with ordinary care. 4. By Division.—Division, or partition, is usually resorted to in the case of tufted growing plants, chiefly perennial herbs; they may be evergreen, as chamomile or thrift, or when dormant may consist only of underground crowns, as larkspur or lily-of-thevalley; but in either case the old tufted plant being dug up may be divided into separate pieces, each furnished with roots, and, when replanted, generally starting on its own account without much check. Suffruticose plants and even small shrubs may be propagated in this way, by first planting them deeper than they are ordinarily grown, and then after the lapse of a year, which time they require to get rooted, taking them up again and dividing them into parts or separate plants. Box-edging and southernwood are examples. The same ends may sometimes be effected by merely working fine form active liquid manures. The most commonly used nitrogenous manures are nitrate of soda, nitrate of potash and sulphate of. ammonia, the prices of which are constantly fluctuating. Potash and soda are also valuable inorganic manures in the form of carbonates, sulphates, silicates and phosphates, but the most valuable is the nitrate of potash. The price, however, is generally so high that its use is practically nil, except in small doses as a liquid manure for choice pot plants. Cheaper substitutes, however, are now found in sulphate of potash, and muriate of potash and kainit. The two last-named must not be applied direct to growing crops, but to the soil some weeks in advance of sowing or cropping. The manures of this class are of course of value only in cases where the will now be described. soil is naturally deficient in them. On this account the salts of soda are of less importance than those of potash. The value of wood ashes as a manure very much depends upon the carbonate and other salts of potash which they contain. Phosphoric acid, in the form of phosphates, is a most valuable From food, and is absorbed by most plants in fairly large quantities from the soil. It induces the earlier production of flowers and fruits. In a natural state it is obtained from bones, guano and wood ashes; and in an artificial condition from basic slag or Thomas's phosphate, coprolites and superphosphate of lime. Lime in the caustic state is beneficially applied to soils which contain an excess of inert vegetable matter, and hence may be used for the improvement of old garden soils saturated with humus, or of peaty soils not thoroughly reclaimed. It does not supply the place of organic manures, but only renders that which is ptesent available for the nourishment of the plants. It also improves the texture of clay soils. Gypsum, or sulphate of lime, applied as a top-dressing at the rate of 2 to 3 cwt. per acre, has been found to yield good rssults, especially on light soils. It is also employed in the case of liquid manures to fix the ammonia. Gas lime, after it has been exposed to the air for a few months is an excellent manure on heavy soils. In a fresh state it is poisonous and fatal to vegetation, and is often used for this reason to dress land infested with wireworms, grubs, club-root fungus, &c. Burnt clay has a very beneficial effect on clay land by improving its texture and rendering soluble the alkaline substances it contains. The clay should be only slightly burnt, so as to make it crumble down readily; in fact, the fire should not be allowed to break through, but should he constantly repressed by the addition of material. The burning should be effected when the soil is dry. Vegetable refuse of all kinds, when smother-burned in a similar way, becomes a valuable mechanical improver of the soil; but the preferable course is to decompose it in a heap with quicklime and layers of earth, converting it into leaf-mould. Potato haulms, and club-rooted cabbage crops should, however, never be mixed with ordinary clean vegetable refuse, as they would be most likely to perpetuate the terrible diseases to 'which they are subject. The refuse of such plants should be burned as early as possible. The ash may be used as manure. Soot forms a good top-dressing; it consists principally of charcoal, but contains ammonia and a smaller proportion of phosphates and potash, whence its value as a manure is derived. It should be kept dry until required for use. It may also be used beneficially in pre-venting the attacks of insects, such as the onion gnat and turnip fly, by dusting the plants or dressing the ground with it. Common salt acts as a manure when used in moderate quantities, but in strong doses is injurious to vegetation. It suits many of the esculent crops, as onions, beans, cabbages, carrots, beet-root, asparagus, &c.; the quantity applied varies from 5 to so bushels per acre. It is used as a top-dressing sown by the hand. Hyacinths and other bulbs derive benefit from slight doses, while to asparagus as much as 20 lb to the rood has been used with beneficial effect. At the rate of from 6 to so bushels to the acre it may be used on garden lawns to prevent worm casts. For the destruction of weeds on gravel walks or in paved yards a strong dose of salt, applied either dry or in a very strong solution, is found very effective, especially a hot solution, but after a time much of it becomes washed down, and the residue acts as a manure; its continued application is undesirable, as gravel so treated becomes pasty. Garden Tools, &c.—Most of these are so well known that we and described in the catalogues of most nurserymen and dealers in horticultural sundries. Tallies or Labels.—The importance of properly labelling plants can hardly be over-estimated. For ordinary purposes labels of wood of various sizes (sold in bundles) are the most convenient. These should be wiped with a little white paint or linseed oil, and written with a soft lead pencil before the surface becomes dry. Copying-ink pencils should not be used, as water will wash away the writing. For permanent plants, as trees, roses, &c., metallic labels with raised type are procurable from dealers, and are neat, durable and convenient. Permanent labels may also be made from sheet lead, the names being punched in by means soil in amongst the base of the stems, and giving them time to throw out roots before parting them. 5. By Suckers.—Root suckers are young shoots from the roots of plants, chiefly woody plants, as may often be seen in the case of the elm and the plum. The shoots when used for propagation must be transplanted with all the roots attached to them, care being taken not to injure the parent plant. If they spring from a thick root it is not to be wantonly severed, but the soil should be removed and the sucker taken off by cutting away a clean slice of the root, which will then heal and sustain no harm. Stem suckers are such as proceed from the base of the stem, as is often seen in the case of the currant and lilac. They should be removed in any case; when required for propagation they should be taken with all the roots attached to them, and they should be as thoroughly disbudded below ground as possible, or they are liable to continue the habit of suckering. In this case, too, the soil should be carefully opened and the shoots re-moved with a suckering iron, a sharp concave implement with long iron handle (fig. 14). When the number of roots is limited, the tops should be shortened, and some care in watering and mulching should be bestowed on the plant if it is of value. 6. By Runners.—The young string-like shoots produced by the strawlerry are a well-known example of runners. The process of rooting these runners should be facilitated by fixing them close down to the soil, which is done by small wooden hooked pegs or by stones; hair-pins, short lengths of bent wire, &c., may also be used. After the roots are formed, the strings are cut through, and the runners become independent plants. 7. By Prol i ferous Buds.—Not unlike the runner, though growing in a very different way, are the bud-plants formed on the fronds of several kinds of ferns belonging to the genera Asplenium, Woodwardia, Polystichum, Lastrea, Adiantum, Cystopteris, &c. In some of these (Adiantum caudatum, Polystichum lepidocaulon) the rachis of the frond is lengthened out much like the string of the strawberry runner, and bears a plant at its apex. In others (Polystichum angulare proliferum) the stipes below and the rachis ampngst the pinnae develop buds, which are often numerous and crowded. In others again (Woodwardia orientalis, Asplenium bulbiferum), buds are numerously produced on the upper surf-ace of the fronds. These will develop on the plant if allowed to remain. For propagation the buibiferous portion is pegged down on the surface of a pot of suitable soil; if kept close in a moist atmosphere, the little buds will soon strike root and form independent plants. In Cystopteris the buds are deciduous, falling off as the fronds acquire maturity, but, if collected and pressed into the surface of a pot of soil and kept close, they will grow up into young plants the following season. In some genera of flowering plants, and notably in Bryophyllum, little plants form on various parts of the leaves. In some Monocotyledons, ordinarily in Chlorophytum, and exceptionally in Phalaenopsis and others, new plants arise on the flower stems. 8. By Layers.—Layering consists in preparing the branch of a plant while still attached to the parent, bending it so that the part operated on is brought under ground, and then fixing it there by means of a forked peg. Some plants root so freely that they need only pegging down; but in most cases the arrest of the returning sap to form a callus, and ultimately young roots, must be brought about artificially, either by twisting the branch, by splitting, it, by girding it closely with wire, by taking off a ring of bark, or by " tonguing." in tonguing the leaves are cut off the portion which has to be brought under ground, and a tongue or slit is then cut from below upwards close beyond a joint, of such length that, when the cut part of the layer is pegged an inch or two (or in larger woody subjects 3 or 4 in.) below the surface, the elevation of the point of the shoot to an upright position may open the incision, and thus set it free, so that it may be surrounded by earth to induce it to form roots. The whole branch, except a few buds at the extremity, is covered with soil. The best seasons for these operations are early spring and mid-summer, that is, before the sap begins to flow, and after the first flush of growth has passed off. One whole summer, sometimes two, must elapse before the layers will be fully rooted in the case of woody plants; but such plants as carnations and picotees, which are usually propagated in this way, in favourable seasons take only a few weeks to root, as they are layered towards. the end of the blooming season in July, and are taken off and planted separately early in the autumn. Fig. 15 shows a woody plant with one layer prepared by tonguing and another by ringing. In general, each shoot makes, one layer, but in plants like the Wistaria or Clematis, which make long shoots, what is called serpentine layering may be adopted; that is, the shoot is taken alternately below and above the surface, as frequently as its length permits. There must, however, be a joint at the underground part where it is to be tongued and pegged, and at least one sound bud in each ex-posed part, from which a shoot may be developed to form the top of the young plant. 9. By Circumposition.—When a plant is too high or its habit does not conveniently admit of its being layered, it may often be increased by what is called circumposition, the soil being carried up to the branch operated on. The branch is to be prepared by ringing or notching or wiring as in layering, and a temporary stand made to support the vessel which is to contain the soil. The vessel may be a flower-pot sawn in two, so that the halves may be bound together when used, or it may be a flower-pot or box with a side slit which will admit the shoot; this vessel is to be filled compactly with suit-able porous earth, the opening at the slit being stopped by pieces of slate or tile. The earth must be kept moist, which is perhaps best done by a thick mulching of moss, the moss being also bound closely over the openings in the vessel, and all being kept damp by frequent syringings. Gardeners often dispense with the pot, using sphagnum moss and leaf-mould only when propagating indiarubber plants, perpetual carnations, dracaenas, &c. to. By Grafts.—Grafting is so extensively resorted to that it is impossible here to notice all its phases. It is perhaps of most importance as the principal means of propagating our hardy kinds of fruit, especially the apple and the pear; but the process is the same with most other fruits and ornamental hardy trees and shrubs that are thus propagated. The stocks are commonly divided into two classes:—(1) free stocks, which consist of seedling plants, chiefly of the same genus or species as the trees from which the scions are taken; and (2) dwarfing stocks, which are of more diminutive growth, either varieties of the same species or species of the same or some allied genus as the scion, which have a tendency to lessen the expansion of the engrafted tree. The French Paradise is the best dwarfing stock for apples, and the quince for pears. In determining the choice of stocks, the nature of the soil in which the grafted trees are to grow should have full weight. In a soil, for example, naturally moist, it is proper to graft pears on the quince, because this plant not only thrives in such a soil, but serves to check the luxuriance thereby produced. The scions should always be ripened portions of the wood of the preceding year, selected from healthy parents; in the case of shy-bearing kinds, it is better to obtain them from the fruitful branches. The scions should be taken off some weeks before they are wanted, and half-buried in the earth, since the stock at the time of grafting should in point of vegetation be somewhat in advance of the graft. During winter, grafts may be conveyed long distances, if carefully packed. If they have been six weeks or two months separated from the parent plant, they should be grafted low on the stock, and the earth should be ridged up round them, leaving only one bud of the scion exposed above ground. The best season for grafting apples and similar hardy subjects in the open air is in March and April; but it may be commenced as soon as the sap in the stock is fairly in motion. Whip-grafting or Tongue-grafting (fig. i6) is the most usual mode of performing the operation when there is no great difference in thickness between the stock and scion. The stock is headed off by an oblique transverse cut as shown at a, a slice is then pared off the side as at b, and on the face of this a tongue or notch is made, the cut being in a downward direction; the scion c is pared off in a similar way by a single clean sharp cut, and this is notched or tongued in the opposite direction as the figure indicates; the two are then fitted together as shown at d, so that the inner bark of each may come in contact at least on one side, and then tied round with damp soft bast as at e; next some grafting clay is taken on the forefinger and' pushed down on each side so as to fill out the space between the top of the stock and the graft, and a portion is also rubbed over the ligatures on the side where the graft is placed, a handful of the clay is then taken, flattened out, and rolled closely round the whole point of junction, being finished off to a tapering form both above and below, as shown by the dotted line f. To do this deftly, the hands should be plunged from time to time in dry ashes, to prevent the clay from sticking to them. Various kinds of grafting wax are now obtainable, and are a great improvement upon the clay process. Some cold mastics become very pliable with the warmth of the hands. They are best applied with a piece of flat wood; or very liquid waxes may be applied with a brush. Cleft-grafting (fig. 17) is another method in common use. The stock a is cleft down from the horizontal cut d (but not nearly so much as the sketch would indicate), and the scion, when cut to a thin wedge form, as shown at c and e, is inserted into the cleft; the whole is then bound up and clayed as in the former case. This is not so good a plan as whip-grafting; it is improved by sloping the stock on one side to the size of the graft. Crown-grafting or Rind-grafting (fig. i8) is preferable to cleft-grafting, inasmuch as it leaves no open spaces in tke wood. The stock b is cut off horizontally or nearly so in January or February. At grafting time a slit is cut in the bark f, f, a wedge-shaped piece of iron or a small chisel being inserted to raise the bark; the scion is then cut to the same wedge-shaped form g, h, and inserted in the space opened for it between the alburnum and the bark, after which it is tied down and clayed or waxed over in the manner already described. Side-grafting is performed like whip-grafting, the graft being inserted on the side of a branch and not at the cut end of the stock. It may be practised for the purpose of changing a part of the tree. and is sometimes very useful for filling out vacant spaces, in trained trees especially. Inarching is another form of side-grafting. Here the graft is fixed to the side of the stock, which is planted or potted close to the plant to be worked. The branches are applied to the stock while yet attached to the parent tree, and remain so until united. In the case of trained trees, a young shoot is sometimes inarched to its parent stem to supply a branch where one has not been developed in the ordinary way. For the propagation by grafts of stove and greenhouse plants the process adopted is whip-grafting or a modification of it. The parts are, however, sometimes so small that the tongue of the graft is dispensed with, and the two stems simply pared smooth and bound together. In this way hardy rhododendrons of choice sorts, green-house azaleas, the varieties of the orange family, camellias, roses, rare conifers, clematises and numerous other plants are increased. Raffia—which has taken the place of bast—is generally used for tying, and grafting wax is only used occasionally with such plants under glass. All grafting of this kind is done in the propagating house, at any season when grafts are obtainable in a fit state—the plants when operated on being placed inclose frames warmed to a suitable temperature. Roses and clematis, however, are generally grafted from January to March and Aprii. Root-grafting is sometimes resorted to where extensive increase is an object, or where stem-grafting or other means of propagation are not available. In this case the scion is grafted directly on to a portion of the root of some appropriate stock, both graft and stockbeing usually very small; the grafted root is then potted so as to cover the point of junction with the soil, and is plunged in the bed of the propagating house, where it gets the slight stimulus of a gentle bottom heat. Dahlias (fig. 19), paeonies, and Wistarias maybe of Dahlia. Woody Plant. grafted by inserting young shoots into the neck of one of the fleshy roots of each kind respectively—the best method of doing so being to cut a triangular section near the upper end of the root, just large enough to admit the young shoot when slightly pared away on two sides to give it a similar form. In the case of large woody plants thus worked (fig. 20) the grafted roots, after the operation is completed, are planted in nursery beds, so that the upper buds only are exposed to the atmosphere, as shown in the figure. I I. By Buds.—Budding is the inserting of a bud of a choice variety cut with a portion of bark into the bark of the stock of an inferior nature where it is bound gently but firmly. Stone fruits, such as peaches, apricots, plums, cherries, &c., are usually propagated in this way, as well as roses and many other plants. In the propagating house budding may be done at any season when the sap is in motion; but for fruit trees, roses, &c., in the open air, it is usually done in J my or August, when the buds destined for the following year are completely formed in the axils of the leaves, and when the bark separates freely from the wood it covers. Those buds are to be preferred, as being best ripened, which occur on the middle portion of a young shoot, and which are quite dormant at the time. The simplest and most generally practised form of budding is that called shield-budding or T-budding (fig. 21). The operator should be provided with a sharp budding knife having a thin ivory or bone handle, for raising the bark of the stock. A horizontal incision is made in the bark quite down to the wood, and from this a perpendicular slit is drawn upwards to the extent of perhaps an inch, so that the slit has a resemblance to the letter T, as at a. A bud is then cut by a clean incision from ::he tree intended to be propagated, having a portion of the wood attached to it, and so that the whole may be about I in. long, as at d. The bit of wood e must be gently withdrawn, care being taken that the bud adheres wholly to the bark or shield, as it is called, of which f is a side view. The bark on each side of the perpendicular slit being then cautiously opened, as at b, with the handle of the knife, the bud and shield are inserted as shown at c. The upper tip of the shield is cut off horizontally, and brought to fit the bark of the stock at the transverse incision. Slight ties of soft cotton wool or worsted, or moist raffia, are then applied. In about a month or six weeks the ligatures may be removed or slit with the knife to allow for the swelling stem, when, if the operation has been successful, the bud will be fresh and full, and the shield firmly united to the wood. In the following spring a strong shoot will be thrown out, and to prevent its being blown out by the wind, must be fastened to a stake, or to the lower portion of the old stock which has been left for the purpose. To be successful the operation should be performed with a quick and light hand, so that no part of the delicate tissues be injured, as would happen if they were left for a time exposed, or if the bud were forced in like a wedge. The union is effected as in grafting, by means of the organizable sap or cambium, and the less this is disturbed until the inner bark of the shield is pressed and fixed against it the better. Trees to be grown in the form of a bush are usually budded low down on the stem of the stock as near the root as possible to obviate the development of wild suckers later on. Standard trees, however, are budded on a sturdy young shoot close to the top. In either case the stocks should have been carefully planted at least the previous November when the work is to be done in the open air the following July or August. 12. By Branch Cuttings.—Propagation by cuttings is the mode of increase most commonly adopted, next to that by seeds. It is effected by taking a portion from a branch or shoot of the plant, and placing it in the soil. There are great differences to be observed in the selection and treatment of cuttings. Sometimes soft green leafy shoots, as in Verbena (fig. 22, a), are used; sometimes the shoots must be half-ripened,, and sometimes fully matured. So of the mode of preparation; some will root if cut off or broken off at any point and thrust into wet earth or sand in a warm place (fig. 22, a); others require to be cut with the utmost care just below a joint or leaf-base, and by a keen blade so as to sever the tissues without tearing or bruising; and others again after being cut across may be split up for a short distance, but there seems to be no particular virtue in this. It is usual and in most cases necessary to cut away the lower portion of a cutting up to just below the node or joint (fig. 22, b, d, e)The internodal parts will not often divide so as to form separate individual plants; sometimes, however, this happens; it is said that the smallest piece of Torenia asiatica, for instance, will grow. Then as to position, certain cuttings grow readily enough if planted outdoors in the open soil, some preferring shade, others sunshine, while less hardy subjects must be covered with a bell-glass, or must be in a close atmosphere with bottom heat, or must have the aid of pure silver sand to facilitate their rooting (fig. 22, c). Cuttings should in all cases be taken from healthy plants, and from shoots of a moderate degree of vigour. It is also important to select leafy growths, and not such as will at:once run up to flower. Young shoots which have become moderately firm generally make the best cuttings, but some-times the very softest shoots strike more readily. For, all indoor plants in a growing state spring is a good time for taking cuttings, but at any time during the summer months is also favourable if cuttings are obtainable. Cuttings of deciduous plants should be taken off after the fall of the leaf. These cuttings should be about 6 in. to 1 ft. in length, and should be planted at once in the ground so as to leave only the top with the two or three preserved buds exposed. If a clean stem, however, is desired, a longer portion may be left uncovered. Goose-berries, currants, roses and many hardy 'deciduous trees and shrubs are easily propagated in this way if the cuttings are inserted in well-drained soil about the end of October or early in November. Cuttings of growing plants are prepared by removing with a sharp knife, and moderately close, the few leaves which would otherwise be buried in the soil; they are then aft clean across just 'below a joint; the fewer the leaves thus removed, however, the better,as if kept from being exhausted they help to supply the elaborated sap out of which the roots are formed. Free-rooting subjects strike in any lightish sandy mixture; but difficult subjects should have thoroughly well-drained pots, a portion of the soil proper for the particular plants made very sandy, and a surfacing of clean sharp silver sand about as deep as the length of the cutting. Such difficult plants as heaths are reared in silver sand, a stratum of which ' is placed over the sandy peat soil in a specially prepared cutting pot, and thus the cuttings, though rooting in the sand under a bell-glass, find at once on the' emission of roots con-genial soil for them to grow in (fig. 22, c). Hardy plants, such as pinks, pansies, &c., are' propagated by cuttings planted a during early summer in light rich soil. The cuttings of pinks are called pipings (fig. 22, d), and are planted about June, while pansies may be renewed in this way both in spring and in autumn. 13. By Leaf Cuttings.—Many plants maybe propagated by planting their leaves or portions of the leaves as cuttings, as, for example, the Gloxinia (fig. 23, a) and Gesnera, the succulent Sempervivum, Echeveria, Pachyphytum and their allies, and such hard-leaved plants as Theophrasta (fig. 23, b). The leaves are best taken off with the base whole, and should be planted in well-drained sandy soil; in due time they form roots, and ultimately from some latent bud a little shoot which forms the young plant. The treatment is precisely like that of branch cuttings. ' Gloxinias, begonias, &c., grow readily from fragments of the leaves cut clean through the thick veins and ribs, and planted edgewise like cuttings. This class of subjects may also be fixed flat on the surface of the cutting pot, by means of little pegs or hooks, the main ribs being cut across at intervals, and from these points roots, - and eventually young tubers, will be produced (fig. 2 14. By Root Cuttings.—Some !. plants which are not easily increased 2 by other means propagate readily from root cuttings. Amongst the indoor plants which may be so treated, Bouvardia, Pelargonium, Aralia and Wigandia may be mentioned. The modus operandi is to Fm.24.—Leaf-Propagation of turn the plant out of its pot, Begonia. shake away the soil so as to free the roots, and then select as many pieces of the stouter roots as may be required. These are cut up into half-inch lengths (more or less), and inserted in light sandy soil round the margin of a cutting pot, so that the upper end of the root cutting may be level with the soil or only just covered by it. The pots should be watered so as to settle the soil, and be placed in the close atmosphere of the propagating pit or frame, where they will need scarcely any water until the buds are seen pushing through the surface. There are various herbaceous plants which may be similarly treated, such as sea-kale, and horseradish, and, among ornamental plants, the beautiful autumn-blooming Anemone japonica, Bocconia cordata, Dictamnus Fraxinella—the burning bush; the sea hollies (Eryngium), the globe thistle (Echinops nitro), the Oriental poppy (Popover orientale) , the sea lavender (Statice'latifolia), Senecio pulcher, &c. The sea-kale and horseradish require to be treated in the open garden, where the cut portions should be planted in lines in well-worked soil; but the roots of the others should be planted, in pots and kept in a close frame with a little warmth till the young shoots have started. Various hardy ornamental trees are also increased in this way, as the quince, elm, robinia and mulberry, and the rose amongst shrubs. The most important use to which this mode of propagation is put is, however, the increase of roses; and of the various plums used as stocks for working the choicer stone fruits. ' The method in the latter case is to select roots averaging the thickness of the little finger, to cut these into lengths of about 3 or 4 in., and to plant them in lines just beneath the surface in nursery beds. The root cuttings of rose-stocks are prepared and treated in a similar way. 15. By Cuttings of Single Eyes.—This mode of propagation is by cutting the ripened young branches into short lengths, each containing one well-matured bud or eye, with a short portion of the stem above and below. It is a common mode of propagating vines, the eyes being in this case cut from the ripened leafless wood. The eyes (fig. 25, a) are planted just below the surface in pots of light soil, which are placed in a hot bed or propagating pit, and in due time each pushes up a young shoot which forms the future stem, while from about its base the young roots are produced (fig. 25, b) which convert it into an independent plant. In the case of plants with persistent leaves, the stem may be cut through just above and below the bud, retaining the leaf which is left on the cutting, the old wood and eye being placed beneath the soil and the leaf left ex-posed. In this way the india-rubber tree (Ficus elastica), for example, and many other tender plants may be increased with the aid of a brisk bottom heat. Many of the free-growing soft-wooded plants may also be grown from cuttings of single joints of the young wood, where rapid increase is desired ; and in the case of opposite-leaved plants two cuttings may .cften be made from one joint by splitting the stem longitudinally, each cutting consisting of a leaf and a perfect bud attached to half the thickness of the stem. Planting and Transplanting.—In preparing a fruit tree for transplantation, the first thing to be done is to open a trench round it at a distance of from 3 to 4 ft., according to size. The trench should be opened to about two spades' depth, and any coarse roots which may extend thus far from the trunk may be cut clean off with a sharp knife. The soil between the trench and the stem is to be reduced as far as may seem necessary or practicable by means of a digging fork, the roots as soon as they are liberated being fixed on one side and carefully preserved. By working in this way all round the ball, the best roots will be got out and preserved, and the ball lightened of all superfluous soil. The tree will then be ready to lift if carefully prized up from beneath the ball, and if it does not lift readily, it will probably be found that a root has struck downwards, which will have to be sought out and cut through. Whenever practicable, it is best to secure a ball of earth round the roots. On the tree being lifted from its hole the roots should be examined, and all which have been severed roughly with the spade should have the ends cut smooth with the knife to facilitate the emission of fibres. The tree can then be transported to its new position. The hole for its reception should be of sufficient depth to allow the base of the ball of earth, or of the roots, to stand so that the point whence the uppermost roots spring from the stem may be 2 or 3 in. below the general surface level. Then the bottom being regulated so as to leave the soil rather highest in the centre, the plant is to be set in the hole in the position desired, and steadied there by hand. Next the roots from the lower portion of the ball are to be sought out and laid outwards in lines radiating from the stem, being distributed equally on all sides as nearly as this can be done; some fine and suitable good earth should .be thrown amongst the roots as they are thus being placed, and worked in well up to the base of the ball. The soil covering the roots may be gently pressed down, but the tree should not be pulled up and down, as is sometimes done, to settle the soil. This done,another set of roots higher up the ball must be laid out in the same way, and again another, until the whole of the roots, thus carefully laid, are embedded as firmly as may be in the soil, which may now receive another gentle treading. The stem should next be supported permanently, either by one stake or by three, according to its size. The excavation will now be filled up about two-thirds perhaps; and if so the tree may have a thorough good watering, sufficient to settle the soil closely about its roots. After twenty-four hours the hole may be levelled in, with moderate treading, if the water has soaked well in, the surface being left level and not sloping upwards towards the stem of the tree. In transplanting trees of the ornamental class, less need be attempted in respect to providing new soil, although the soil should be made as congenial as practicable. Generally speaking, fruit trees are best transplanted when three or four years of age, in which time they will have acquired the shape given by the nurseryman, who generally transplants his stock each autumn to produce large masses of root fibres. Nowadays, however, quite large trees, chiefly of an ornamental character, and perhaps weighing several tons, are lifted with a large ball of soil attached to the roots, by means of a special tree-lifting machine, and are readily transferred from one part of the garden to another, or even for a distance of several miles, without serious injury. The best season for transplanting deciduous trees is during the early autumn months. As regards evergreens opinions are divided, some preferring August and September, others April or May. They can be successfully planted at either period, but for subjects which are at all difficult to remove the spring months are to be preferred. In transplanting smaller subjects, such as plants for the flower garden, much less effort is required. The plant must be lifted with as little injury to its rootlets as possible, and carefully set into the hole, the soil being filled in round it, and carefully pressed close by the hand. For moving small plants the garden trowel is a very convenient tool, but we are inclined to give the preference to the hand-fork. For larger masses, such as strong-growing herbaceous plants, a spade or digging-fork will be requisite and the soil may be trodden down with the feet. When seedlings of vigorous plants have to be " pricked out," a dibble or dibber is the best implement to be used. The ground being prepared and, if necessary, enriched, and the surface made fine and smooth, a hole is made with the dibble deep enough and large enough to receive the roots of the seedling plants without doubling them up, and the hole is filled in by working the soil close to the plant with the point of the dibble. The pricking out of seedlings in pots in the propagating pit is effected in a similar way. The plants; indeed, often require to be removed and set from z in. to r in. apart before they have become sufficiently developed to admit of being handled with any degree of facility, and for these a pointed stick of convenient size is used as a dibble. In delicate cases, such as seedling gloxinias and begonias, it is best to lift the little seedling on the end of a flattish pointed stick, often cleft at the apex, pressing this into the new soil where the plant is to be placed, and liberating it and closing the earth about it by the aid of a similar stick held in the other hand. Potting and Repotting.—Garden pots are made with a comparatively large hole in the bottom, and those of the largest size have also holes at the side near the bottom; these openings are to prevent the soil becoming saturated or soured with superabundant water. To prepare the pot for the plant, a broadish piece of potsherd, called a " crock," is placed over the large hole, and if there be side holes they also are covered. The bottom crock is made from a piece of a broken garden pot, and is laid with the con-vex side upwards; then comes a layer of irregular pieces of crock of various sizes, about i in. deep in a 5-in. pot, 2 in. in an 11-in. or 12-in. pot, &c. The mode of crocking a pot is shown in fig. 26. A few of the coarser lumps from the outer showing Crocks. edge of the heap of potting soil are spread over the crocks. be filled in gradually with the prepared compost, which is. from The same end, that of keeping the finer particles of the soil from mixing with the drainage crocks, may be attained by shaking in a little clean moss. A handful or two of the soil is then put in, and on this the plant with its roots spread out is to be set, a trifle higher than the plant should stand in the pot when finished off; more soil is to be added, and the whole pressed firmly with the fingers, the base of the stem being just below the pot-rim, and the surface being smoothed off so as to slope a little outwards. When finished off, the pots should be watered well, to settle the soil; but they should stand till the water has well drained away, since, if they are moved about while the fresh soil is very wet, there will be a risk of its becoming puddled or too much consolidated. Larger plants do not need quite such delicate treatment, but care should be taken not to handle the roots roughly. The soil for these may be somewhat coarser, and the amount of drainage material more ample. Larger bodies of soil also require to be more thoroughly consolidated before watering; otherwise they would settle down so as to leave an unsightly void at the pot-rim. Some plants, especially when potted temporarily, may be dealt with in a simpler way. A single crock may be used in some cases, and in others no crock at all, but a handful of half-decayed leaves or half-decayed dung thrown into the bottom of the pot. This mode of potting does well for bulbs, such as hyacinths, which are either thrown away or planted out when the bloom is over. The bedding plants generally may be potted in this way, the advantage being that at planting-out time there is less risk of disturbing the roots than if there were potsherds to remove. Plants of this character should be potted a little less firmly than specimens which are likely to stand long in the pot, and indeed the soil should be made comparatively light by the intermixture of leaf-mould or some equivalent; in order that the roots may run freely and quickly into it. For epiphytal plants like orchids the most thorough drainage must be secured by the abundant use of potsherds, small pots being sometimes inserted inside the larger ones, or by planting in shallow pots or pans, so that there shall be no large mass of soil to get consolidated. For most of these the lightest spongy but sweet turfy peat must be used, this being packed lightly about the roots, and built up above the pot-rim, or in some cases freely mixed before use with chopped sphagnum moss and small pieces of broken pots or nodules of charcoal. The plants under these conditions often require to be supported by wooden pegs or sticks. Some of the species grow better when altogether taken out of the soil and fixed to blocks of wood, but in this case they require a little coaxing with moss about the roots until they get established. In other cases they are planted in open baskets of wood or wire, using the porous peat and sphagnum compost. Both blocks and baskets are usually suspended from the roof of the house, hanging free, so that no accumulation of water is possible. These conditions of orchid-growing have undergone great changes of late years, and the plants are grown much as other stove and greenhouse plants in ordinary pots with composts not only of peat but of leaf-mould, and fibres from osmunda and polypodium ferns. When repotting is adopted as a temporary expedient, as in the case of bedding-out plants which it is required to push for-ward as much as possible, it will suffice if provision is made to prevent the drainage hole from getting blocked, and a rich light compost is provided for the encouragement of the roots. When, however, a hard-wooded plant has to he repotted, the case is different; it may stand without further potting for one year or two years or more, and therefore much more care is necessary. The old ball of earth must be freed from all or most of the old crocks without doing injury to the roots, and the sharp edge of the upper surface gently rubbed off. If there be any sour or sodden or effete soil into which the roots have not run, this should be carefully picked out with a pointed stick. The ball is to be set on the new soil just high enough that when finished the base of the stem may he somewhat below the pot-rim, and the space between the old ball and the sides of the pot is to time to time to be pressed down with a blunt-ended flat piece of wood called a potting-stick, so as to render the new soil as solid as the old. The object of this is to prevent the plant from starving by the water applied all running off by way of .the new soil, and not penetrating the original ball of earth. When this amount of pressure is necessary, especially in the case of loamy composts, the soil itself should be rather inclined to dryness, and should in no case be sufficiently moist to knead together into a pasty mass. In ordinary cases the potting soil should be just so far removed from dryness that when a handful is gently pressed it may hang together, but may lose its cohesion when dropped. When plants are required to stand in ornamental china pots or vases, it is better, both for the plants and for avoiding risk of breakage, to grow them in ordinary garden pots of a size that will drop into the more valuable vessels. Slate pots or tubs, usually square, are sometimes adopted, and are durable and otherwise unobjectionable, only, their sides being less porous, the earth does not dry so rapidly, and some modification of treatment as to watering is necessary. For large conservatory specimens wooden tubs, round or square, are frequently used; these should be coated with pitch inside to render them more durable. Various other contrivances take the place of garden pots for special purposes. Thus shallow square or oblong wooden boxes, made of light, inexpensive wood, are very useful for seed-sowing, for pricking out seedlings, or for planting cuttings. When the disturbance of the roots incidental to all transplanting is sought to be avoided, the seed or plant is started in some cases in squares of turf (used grassy-side downwards), which can when ready be transferred to the place the plant is to occupy. Cucumber and melon plants and vines reared from eyes are some-times started in this way, both for the reason above mentioned and because it prevents the curling of the roots apt to take place in plants raised in pots. Strips of turf are sometimes used for the rearing of early peas, which are sown in a warmish house or frame, and gradually hardened so as to bear exposure before removal to the open air. Watering.—The guiding principle in watering plants is to do it thoroughly when it is required, and to abstain from giving a second supply till the first has been taken up. When watering becomes necessary for kitchen-garden crops, the hose should be laid on and the lines of esculents allowed to drink their fill, if fresh succulent vegetables are desired. So also, if well-swelled and luscious fruits, such as strawberries, are required, there must be no parching at the roots. This applies even more strongly to conservatory borders and to forcing-houses than to the outside fruit-tree borders, because from these the natural rain supply is in most cases more distinctly cut off. In the case of forcing-houses, the water should be heated before being applied to the borders containing the roots of the trees. In the watering of pot plants the utmost care is requisite if the plant be a shy-growing or valuable one, and yet it is almost impossible to give any intelligible instruction for performing the operation. The roots should never be suffered either to get thoroughly dry or to get sodden with excess of water. An adept will know by the ring of the pot on striking it with his knuckles whether water is wanted or not, according as it rings loud and clear or dull and heavy. With very choice subjects watering may. be necessary two or three times a day in drying summer weather. It is a wrong though common practice to press the surface of the soil in the pot in order to feel if it is moist enough, as this soon consolidates it, and prevents it from getting the full benefit of aeration. In all heated houses the water used should be warmed at least up to the temperature of the atmosphere, so as to avoid chilling the roots. This is also necessary in the case of water used for syringing the plants, which should be done two or three times a day in all stoves and forcing-houses, especially during the period when the young growth is being developed. The damping of all absorbent surfaces, such as the floors or bare walls, &c., is frequently necessary several times a day in the growing season, so as to keep up a humid atmosp'here; hence the advantage of laying the floors a little rounded, as then the water draws off to the sides against the kerbstone, while the centre remains dry for promenaders. In cooler structures it becomes necessary in the dull season of the year to prevent the slopping of water over the plants or on the floor, as this tends to cause " damping off,"—the stems assuming a state of mildewy decay, which not infrequently, if it once attacks a plant, will destroy it piece by piece. For the same reason cleanliness and free ventilation under favourable weather conditions are of great importance. Pruning.—Pruning is a very important operation in the fruit garden, its object being twofold—(r) to give form to the tree, and (2) to induce the free production of flower buds as the precursors of a plentiful crop of fruit. To form a standard tree, either the stock is allowed to grow up with a straight stem, by cutting away all side branches up to the height required, say about 6 ft., the scion or bud being worked at that point, and the head developed therefrom; or the stock is worked close to the ground, and the young shoot obtained therefrom is allowed to grow up in the same way, being pruned in its progress to keep it single and straight, and the top being cut off when the desired height is reached, so as to cause the growth of lateral shoots. If these are three or four in number, and fairly balanced as to strength and position, little pruning will be required. The tips of unripened wood should be cut back about one-third their length at an outwardly placed bud, and the chief pruning thereafter required will be to cut away inwardly directed shoots which cross or crowd each other and tend to confuse the centre of the tree. Bushy heads should be thinned out, and those that are too large cut back so as to remodel them. 'If the shoots produced are not sufficient in number, or are badly placed, or very unequal in vigour, the head should be cut back moderately close, leaving a few inches only of the young shoots, which should be pruned back to buds so placed as to furnish shoots in the positions desired. When worked at the top of a stem formed of the stock, the growth from the graft or bud must be pruned in a similar way. Three or four leading shoots should be selected to pass ere long into boughs and form a well-balanced framework for the tree; these boughs, however, will soon grow beyond any artificial system the pruner may adopt. To form a dwarf or bush fruit tree the stock must be worked near the ground, and the young shoot produced from the scion or bud must be cut back to whatever height it is desired the dwarf stem should be, say II to 2 ft. The young shoots produced from the portion of the new wood retained are to form the framework of the bush tree, and must be dealt with as in the case of standard trees. The growth of inwardly directed shoots is to be prevented, and the centre kept open, the tree assuming a cup-shaped outline. Fig. 27, reduced from M. Hardy's excellent work, Train de la faille des arbres fruitiers, will give a good idea how these dwarf trees are to be manipulated, a showing the first year's development from the maiden tree after being headed back, and b the form assumed a year or two later. In forming a pyramidal tree, the lateral growths, instead of being removed, as in the standard tree, are encouraged to the utmost; and in order to strengthen them the upper part of the leading shoot is removed annually, the side branches being also shortened somewhat as the tree advances in size. In fig. 28, reduced from M. Hardy's work, a shows a young tree with its second year's growth, the upright shoot of the maiden tree having been moderately headed back, being left longer if the buds near the base promise to break freely, or cut shorter if they are weak and wanting in vigour. The winter pruning, carried out with the view to shape the tree into a well-grown pyramid, would be effected at the places marked by a cross line. The lowest branch would have four buds retained, the end one being on the lower side of the branch. The two next would be cut to three buds, which here also are fortunately so situated that the one to be left is on the lower side of the branches. The fourth is not cut at all owing to its shortness and weakness, its terminal bud being allowed to grow to draw strength into it. The fifth is an example where the bud to which the shoot should be cut back is badly placed; a shoot resulting from a bud left on the upper side is apt instead of growing outwards to grout erect, and lead to confusion in the form of the tree; to avoid this it is tied down in its proper place during the summer by a small twig. The upper shoots are cut closer in. Near the base of the stem are two prominent buds, which would produce two vigorous shoots, but these would be too near the ground, and the buds should therefore be suppressed; but, to strengthen the lower part, the weaker buds just above and below the lowest branch should be forced into growth, by making a transverse incision close above each. Fig. 28, b, shows what a similar tree would be at the end of the third year's growth. In order to bring a young tree into the cordon shape, all its side branches are shortened back, either to form permanent spurs, as in the case of pears, or to yield annual young shoots, as in peaches and nectarines. The single-stemmed cordon may be trained horizontally, obliquely at any required angle, or vertically if required, the first two arrangements being preferable. If a double cordon is required, the original young stem must be headed back, and the two best shoots produced must be selected, trained right and left, and treated as for the single cordon. The forms chiefly adopted for trees trained to walls and espalier rails are the fan-shaped, the half-fan and the horizontal, with their various modifications. The maiden tree is headed down, and two shoots led away right and left. Two laterals should be allowed to grow from the upper side of them, one from near the base, the other from near the middle, all others being pinched out beyond the second or third leaf during summer, but cut away to the last bud in winter. The tree will thus consist of six shoots, probably 3 ft. to 4 ft. long, which are not to be pruned unless they are unequal in strength, a defect which is rather to be remedied by summer pinching than by winter pruning. The second year three young shoots are to be left on each of the six, one close to the base, one about the middle, and one at the point, the rest being rubbed off. These three shoots will produce laterals, of which one or two may be selected and laid in; and thus a number of moderately strong fertile shoots will be obtained, and at the end of the season a comparatively large tree will be the result. The method of pruning formerly adopted for the formation of a fan-shaped tree was to head down the maiden plant to about two eyes, so placed as to yield a young shoot on each side (fig. 29), the supernumerary shoots being rubbed off while quite young, and the reserved shoots trained against the wall shaped Tree. during the summer so as to get them well matured. The next year they were cut back again; often nearly to the base, in order that the lower pair of these shoots might each produce two well-placed young shoots, and the upper pair three young shoots. The tree would thus consist of ten shoots, to be laid out at regular distances, and then if closely cut the frame-work of the tree would be as in fig. 30. These main shoots were not again to be shortened back, but from each of them three young shoots were to be selected and trained in two, on the upper side, one near the base, and the other half way up, and one on the lower side placed about midway between these two; these with the leading shoot, which was also to be nailed in, made four branches of the current year from each of the ten main branches, and the form of the tree would therefore be that of fig. 31. The other young shoots produced were pinched off while quite young, to throw all the strength of the tree into those which were to form ..~. its basis, and to secure abundant light and air. In after years the leading shoot was not to be cut back, but all the lateral shoots were to be shortened, and from these year by year other shoots were to be selected to fill up the area occupied by the tree. In pruning for a horizontal tree the young maiden tree has to be headed back nearly to its base, and from the young shoots three are to be selected, the two best-placed lower ones to form an opposite or nearly opposite pair of main branches, and the best-placed upper one to continue the erect stem (fig. 32). This upper shoot is at the next winter pruning to be cut down to within about a foot of the point whence it sprung, and its buds rubbed off except the upper one for a leader, and one on each side just below it to furnish another pair of side shoots; these being trained in position, the tree would appear as in fig. 33. The same course is to be followed annually till the space is filled. Sometimes in very favourable soils and with vigorous trees two pairs of branches may be obtained in one season by summer-stopping the erect shoots and selecting others from the young growths thus induced, but more commonly the trees have to be built up by forming one pair of branches annually. The shoots are not at first lowered to the horizontal line, but are brought down gradually and tied to thin stakes; and while the tree is being formed weak shoots may be allowed to grow in a more erect position than it is ultimately intended they should occupy. Thus in four or five years the tree will have acquired something of the character of fig. 34, and will go on thus increasing until the space is filled. The half-fan is a combination of the two forms, but as regards pruning does not materially differ from the horizontal, as two opposite side branches are produced in succession upwards till the space is filled, only they are not taken out so abruptly, but are allowed to rise at an acute angle and then to curve into the horizontal line. In all the various forms of cordons, in horizontal training, and in fan and half-fan training, the pruning of the main branches when the form of the tree is worked out will vary in accordance with the kind of fruit under treatment. Thus in the peach, nectarine, apricot, plum and cherry, which are commonly trained fan-fashion, the first three (and also the morello cherry if grown) will have to be pruned so as to keep a succession of young annual shoots, these being their fruit-bearing wood. The others are generally pruned so as to combine a moderate supply of young wood with a greater or less number of fruit spurs. In the pear and apple the fruit is borne principally on spurs, and hence what is known as spur-pruning has to be adopted, the young shoots being all cut back nearly to their base, so as to cause fruit buds to evolve from the remaining eyes or buds. Cordons of apples and pears have to be similarly treated, but cordons of peaches and nectarines are pruned so as to provide the necessary annual succession of young bearing wood. third year. Horizontally trained Tree. third year. Fruit trees trained as espaliers, fans or cordons against walls, trellises or fences, are not only pruned carefully in the winter but must be also pruned during the early summer months. Many of the smaller, useless shoots are rubbed out altogether; the best are allowed to grow perhaps a foot or more in length, and then either have the tips pinched out with the finger and thumb, or the ends may be cracked or broken, and allowed to hang down, but are not detached completely. This is called summer pruning, and is an important operation requiring knowledge on the part of the gardener to perform properly. Shoots of peaches, nectarines and morello cherries are "laid in," that is, placed in between fruiting shoots where there is the space to be ripened for next year's crop. Summer Pruning should be performed while the shoots are yet young and succulent, so that they may in most cases be nipped off with the thumb-nail. It is very necessary in the case of trees trained to a flat surface, as a wall or espalier rail, to prevent undue crowding. In some cases , as, for example, with peaches, the superfluous shoots are wholly removed, and certain selected shoots reserved to supply bearing wood for next year. In others, as pears, the tops of the young shoots are removed, leaving three or four leaves and their buds at the base, to be de- veloped into fruit buds by the additional nourishment thus thrown into them (fig. 35, a). One or two may push out a late summer growth, b; this will serve as a vent for the vigour of the tree, and if the lowermost only go to the formation of a fruit spur, the object will have been gained. They are cut to the last dormant bud in winter. But summer pruning has been much extended since the introduction of restricted growth and the use of dwarfing stocks. Orchard-house trees, and also pyramidal and bush trees of apples, pears and plums, are mainly fashioned by summer pruning; in fact, the less the knife is used upon them, except in the necessary cutting of the roots in potted trees, the better. In the case of orchard-house plants no shoots are suffered to lengthen out, except as occasionally wanted to fill up a gap in the outline of the tree. On the contrary, the tops of all young shoots are pinched off when some three or four leaves are formed, and this is done again and again throughout the season. When this pruning is just brought to a balance with the vigour of the roots, the consequence is that fruit buds are formed all over the tree, instead of a thicket of sterile and useless wood. Pyramidal and bush trees out of doors are, of course, suffered to become somewhat larger, and sufficient wood must be allowed to grow to give them the form desired; but after the first year or two, when the fcamework is laid out, they are permitted to extend very slowly, and never to any great extent, while the young growths are continually nipped off, so as to clothe the branches with fruit buds as closely placed as will permit of their healthy development. The nature of the cut itself in pruning is of more consequence, especially in the case of fruit trees, than at first sight may appear. The branches should be separated by a clean cut at an angle of about 45°, just at the back of a bud, the cut entering on a level with the base of the bud and passing out on a level with its top (fig. 36, a), for when cut in this way the wound becomes rapidly covered with new wood, as soon as growth recommences, whereas if the cut is too close the bud is starved, or if less close an ugly and awkward snag is left. Fig 36, b and c, are examples of the former, and d, e, f of the latter. In fact there is only one right way to cut a shoot and that is as shown at a. The Pruning of flowering plants is generally a much lighter `matter than the pruning of fruit trees. If a young seedling or cutting of any soft-wooded plant is to be bushy, it must haveits top nipped out by the thumb-nail or pruning-scissors at a very early stage, and this stopping must be repeated frequently. If what is called a well-furnished plant is required, an average of from 2 to 3 in. is all the extension that must be permitted sometimes scarcely so much—before the top is nipped out; and this must be continued until the desired size is attained, whether that be large or small. Then generally the plant is allowed to grow away till bloom or blooming shoots are developed. To form a pyramidal plant, which is a very elegant and useful shape to give to a decorative pot plant, the main stem should be encouraged to grow upright, for a length perhaps of 6 or 8 in. before it is topped; this induces the formation of laterals, and favours their development. The best-placed upper young shoot is selected and trained upright to a slender stake, and this also is topped when it has advanced 6 or 8 in. further, in order to induce the laterals on the second portion to push freely. This process is continued till the required size is gained. With all the difficult and slow-growing plants of the hard-wooded section, all the pruning must be done in this gradual way in the young wood as the plant progresses. Some plants, like pelargoniums, can only be kept handsomely formed and well furnished by cutting them down severely every season, after the blooming is over. The plants should be prepared for this by keeping them rather dry at the root, and after cutting they must stand with little or no water till the stems heal over, and produce young shoots, or " break," as it is technically termed. The appearance of a specimen pelargonium properly pruned is shown in fig. 39, in which a shows a young plant, the head of which has been taken off to form a cutting, and whose buds are ready to break into young shoots. Three shoots will be produced, and these, after growing from 4 to 6 in. in length, should be stopped by pinching out the point, this giving rise to lateral shoots. These will blossom in due course, and, after being ripened thoroughly by full exposure to the sun, should be cut back as shown at b. This is the proper foundation for a good specimen, and illustrates how all such subjects should be pruned to keep them stocky and presentable in form. Root-pruning is most commonly practised in fruit-tree cultivation. It is often resorted to as a means of restoring fertility in plants which have become over rank from an excess of nourishment in the soil, or sterile from want of it. The effect of root-pruning in the first case is to reduce the supply of crude sap to the branches, and consequently to cause a check in. their development. In the second case all roots that have struck downwards into a cold uncongenial subsoil must be pruned off if they cannot be turned in a lateral direction, and all the lateral ones that have become coarse and fibreless must also be shortened back by means of a clean cut with a sharp knife, while a compost of rich loamy soil with a little bone-meal, and leaf-mould or old manure, should be filled into the trenches from which the old sterile soil has been taken. The operation is best performed early in autumn, and may be safely resorted to in the case of fruit trees of moderate age, and even of old trees if due care be exercised. In transplanting trees all the roots which may have become bruised or broken in the process of lifting should be cut clean away behind the broken part, as they then more readily strike out new roots from the cut parts. In all these cases the cut should be a clean sloping one, and made in an upward and out-ward direction. The root-pruning of pot-plants is necessary in the case of many soft-wooded subjects which are grown on year after year—pelargoniums and fuchsias, for example. After the close pruning of the branches to which they are annually subjected, and when the young shoots have shot forth an inch or two in length, they are turned out of their pots and have the old soil shaken away from their roots, the longest of which, to the extent of about half the existing quantity, are then cut clean away, and the plants repotted into small pots. This permits the growing plant to be fed with rich fresh soil, without having been necessarily transferred to pots of unwieldy size by the time the flowering stage is reached. Ringing.—One of the expedients for inducing a state of fruit-fulness in trees is the ringing of the branches or stem, that is, removing a narrow annular portion of the bark, by which means, it is said, the trees are not only rendered productive, but the quality of the fruit is at the same time improved. The advantage depends on the obstruction given to the descent of the sap. The ring should be cut out in spring, and be of such a width that the bark may remain separated for the season. A tight ligature of twine or wire answers the same end. The advantages of the operation may generally be gained by judicious root pruning, and it is not at all adapted for the various stone fruits. Training.—What is called training is the guiding of the branches of a tree or plant in certain positions which they would not naturally assume, the object being partly to secure their full exposure to light, and partly to regulate the flow and distribution of the sap. To secure the former object, the branches must be so fixed as to shade each other as little as possible; and to realize the second, the branches must have given to them an upward or downward direction, as they may require to be encouraged or repressed. Something of the same vegetative vigour which is given to a plant or tree by hard pruning is afforded by training in an upward direction so as to promote the flow of the sap; while the repression effected by summer pruning is supplemented by downward training, which acts as a check. One main object is the preservation of equilibrium in the growth of the several parts of the tree; and for this various minor details deserve attention. Thus a shoot will grow more vigorously whilst waving in the air than when nailed close to the wall; consequently a weak shoot should be left free, whilst its stronger antagonist should be restrained; and a luxuriant shoot may be retarded for some time by having its tender extremity pinched off to allow a weaker shoot to overtake it. By the prudent use of the knife, fruit trees may be readily trained into the forms indicated below, which are amongst the best out of the many which have been devised. The training of standard and bush trees in the open ground has been already referred to under the section Pruning. When the growth of pyramids is completed, the outline is something like that of fig. 39, and very pretty trees are thus formed. It is better, however, especially if the tendency to bear fruit is rather slack, to adopt what the French call en quenouille training(fig. 40), which consists in tying or weighting the tips of the branches so as to give them all a downward curve. Pear trees worked on the quince stock, and trained en quenouille, are generally very fertile. Wall trees, it must be evident, are placed in a very unnatural and constrained position, and would in fact soon be reduced to a state of utter confusion if allowed to grow unrestricted; hence the following modes of training have been adopted. Horizontal Training (fig. 41) has long been a favourite form in England. There is one principal ascending stem, from which --.a -sY Tom`= t= ~'~' =. , -. . - . 1- the branches depart at right angles, at intervals of about a foot. Horizontal training is best adapted to the apple and the pear; and for the more twiggy growing slender varieties, the forms shown in fig. 42 have been recommended. In these the horizontal branches are placed wider, 18 to 20 in. apart, and the smaller shoots are trained between them, either on both sides, as at a, or deflexed from the lower side, as at b. The latter is an excellent method of reclaiming neglected trees. Every alternate i ,e rr Sri ~. ~` branch should be taken away, and the spurs cut off, after which the young shoots are trained in, and soon produce good fruit. In Fan Training (fig. 43) there is no leading stem, but the branches spring from the base and are arranged somewhat like the ribs of a fan. This mode of training is commonly adopted for the peach, nectarine, apricot and morello cherry, to which Distribution. a it is best adapted. Though sometimes adopted, it is not so well suited as the horizontal form for apples and pears, because, when the branches reach the top of the wall, where they must be cut short, a hedge of young shoots is inevitable. A modification of the fan shape (fig. 44) is sometimes adopted for stone fruits, such as the plum and apricot. In this the object is to establish a number of mother branches, and on these to form a series of subordinate members, chiefly composed of bearing wood. The mother branches or limbs should not be numerous, but well marked, equal in strength and regularly disposed. The side branches should be pretty abundant, short and not so vigorous as to rival the leading members. The Half fan mode of training, which is intermediate between horizontal and fan training, is most nearly allied to the former, but the branches leave the stem at an acute angle, a disposition supposed to favour the more equal distribution of the sap. Some-times, as in fig. 45, two vertical stems are adopted, but there is no particular advantage in this, and a single-stemmed tree is more manageable. The half-fan form is well adapted for such fruitsbetween the wire and the wood, however, and so preventing them from coming in contact, there is no danger. If they are adopted, the wires should be a few inches away from the wall, to allow free circulation of air between it and the tree, and thus avoid the scorching or burning of leaves and fruits during the summer months in very hot places. Care should be taken that the ties or fastenings do not eventually cut into the bark as the branches swell with increased age. When shreds and nails are used, short thick wire nails and " medicated shreds " are the best; the ordinary cast iron wall nails being much too brittle and difficult to drive into the wall. It must be remembered that nails spoil a wall sooner or later, whereas a wire trellis is not only much neater, but enables the gardener to tie his trees up much more quickly. For tying plants to trellises and stakes soft tarred string or raffia (the fibre from the Raphia palm of Madagascar) is used. In training greenhouse plants the young branches should be drawn outwards by means of ties fastened to a string or wire under the pot-rim; the centre then fills up, and slender stakes are used as required; but the fewer these are in number the better. Climbers are trained from the bottom around or across trellises, of which the cylindrical or the balloon-shaped, or sometimes the flat oval or circular, are the best forms. The size should be adapted to the habit of the plant, which should cover the whole by the time flowers are produced. Bast fibre and raffia fibre are to be preferred for light subjects of this character, as they can be split to any degree of fineness. Very durable trellises for greenhouse climbers are made of slender round iron rods for standards, having a series of hooks on the inner edge, into which rings of similar metal are 'dropped; the rings may be graduated so as to form a broad open top, or may be all of the same size, when the trellis will assume the cylindrical form. Fig. 46 shows a pot specimen of clematis trained over a balloon: shaped trellis. The training of certain bedding plants over the surface of the soil is done by small pegs of birch wood or bracken, by loops of wire or cheap hair-pins, or sometimes by loops of raffia having the ends fixed in the soil by the aid of the dibble. The object is to fill up the blank space as quickly and as evenly as possible. Forcing is the accelerating, by special treatment, of the growth of certain plants, which are required to be had in leaf, in flower or in fruit before their natural season,—as, for instance, the leaves of mint at Eastertide or the leafstalks of sea-kale and rhubarb as the plum and the cherry; and, indeed, for fruits of vigorous habit, it seems to combine the advantages of both the foregoing: Trees must be fixed to the walls and buildings against which they are trained by means of nails and shreds (neat medicated strips are now sold for this purpose), or in cases where it is desired to preserve the wail surface intact, by permanent nails or studs driven in in regular order. Sometimes the walls are furnished with galvanized wires, but this has been objected to as causing cankering of the shoots, for which, however, painting is recommended as a remedy. By crossing the tying material at Christmas, the flowers of summer in the depth of winter, or some of the choicest fruits perfected so much before their normal period as to complete, with the retarded crops of winter, the circle of the seasons. In the management of artificial heat for this purpose, a considerable degree of caution is required. The first stages of forcing should, of course, be very gentle, so that the whole growth of the plants may advance in harmony. The immediate application of a very hot atmosphere would unduly force the tops, while the roots remained partially or wholly inactive; and a strong bottom heat, if it did not cause injury by its excess, would probably result in abortive growth. Any sudden decrease of warmth would be very prejudicial to the progress of vegetation through the successive stages of foliation, inflorescence and fructification. But it is not necessary that one unvarying range of temperature should be kept up at whatever pains or risk. Indeed, in very severe weather it is found better to drop a little from the maximum temperature by fire heat, and the loss so occasioned may be made good by a little extra heat applied when the weather is more genial. Night temperatures also should always be allowed to drop somewhat, the heat being increased again in the morning. In other words, the artificial temperature should increase by day and decrease by night, should rise in summer and fall in winter, should, in short, imitate as nearly as possible the varying influence of the sun. For the growth of flowers generally, and for that of all fruits, every ray of light to be obtained in the dull winter season is required, and therefore every possible care should be taken to keep the glass clean. A moist genial atmosphere too is essential, a point requiring unremitting attention on account of the necessity of keeping up strong fires. With moisture as with heat, the cultivator must hold his hand somewhat in very severe or very dull weather; but while heat must not drop so as to chill the progressing vegetation, so neither must the lack of moisture parch the plants so as to check their growth. There are some few subjects which when forced do not require a light house. Thus amongst flowers the white blossoms of the lilac, so much prized during winter, are produced by forcing purple-flowered plants in darkness. Rhubarb and sea-kale among esculents both need to be forced in darkness to keep them crisp and tender, and mushrooms also are always grown in dark structures. In fact, a roomy mushroom house is one of the most convenient of all places for forcing the vegetables just referred to. The lilac would be better placed in a dark shed heated to about 700 or 8o°, in which some dung and leaves could be allowed to lie and ferment, giving off both a genial heat and moisture. One of the most important preliminaries to successful forcing is the securing to the plants a previous state of rest. The thorough ripening of the preceding season's wood in fruit trees and flowering plants, and of the crown in perennial herbs like strawberries, and the cessation of all active growth before the time they are to start into a new growth, are of paramount importance. The ripening process must be brought about by free exposure to light, and by the application of a little extra heat with dryness, if the season should be unfavourable; and both roots and tops must submit to a limitation of their water supply. When the ripening is perfected, the resting process must be aided by keeping the temperature in which they await the forcing process as low as each particular subject can bear. (See Retardation above.) V. Flowers. Flower Garden and Pleasure Grounds.—Wherever there is a flower garden of considerable magnitude, and in a separate situation, it should be constructed on principles of its own. The great object must be to exhibit to advantage the graceful forms and glorious hues of flowering plants and shrubs. Two varieties of flower gardens have chiefly prevailed is Britain. In one the ground is turf, out of which flower-beds, of varied patterns, are cut; in the other the flower-beds are separatedby gravel walks, without the introduction of grass. When the flower garden is to be seen from the windows, or any other elevated point of view, the former is to be preferred; but where the surface is irregular, and the situation more remote, and especially where the beauty of flowers is mainly looked to, the choice should probably fall on the latter. The flower garden may include several different compartments. Thus, for example, there is the " Rock Garden," which should consist of variously grouped masses of large stones, those which are remarkable for being figured by water-wearing, or containing petrifactions or impressions, or showing something of natural stratification, being generally preferred. In the cavities between the stones, filled with earth, alpine or trailing plants are inserted, and also some of the choicest flowers. In proper situations, a small pool of water may be introduced for the culture of aquatic plants. In these days the rock-garden is a most important feature, and it requires a good deal of care and skill to arrange the boulders, walks, pools or streams in natural and artistic fashion. The selection of suitable alpines, perennials and shrubs and trees also necessitates considerable knowledge on the part of the gardener. A separate compartment laid out on some regular plan is often set apart for roses, under the name of the " Rosery." A moist or rather a shady border, or a section of the pleasure ground supplied with bog earth, may be devoted to what is called the " American Garden," which, as it includes the gorgeous rhododendrons and azaleas, forms one of the grandest features of the establishment during the early summer, while if properly selected the plants are effective as a garden of evergreens at all seasons. The number of variegated and various-coloured hardy shrubs is now so great that a most pleasant plot for a " Winter Garden " may be arrayed with plants of this class, with which may be associated hardy subjects which flower during that season or very early spring, as the Christmas rose, and amongst bulbs the crocus and snowdrop. Later the spring garden department is a scene of great attraction; and some of the gardens of this character, as those of Cliveden and Belvoir, are among the most fascinating examples of horticultural art. The old-fashioned stereotyped flower garden that one met with almost everywhere is rapidly becoming a thing of the past, and grounds are now laid out more in accordance with their natural disposition, their climatic conditions and their suitability for certain kinds of plants. Besides the features already mentioned there are now bamboo gardens, Japanese gardens, water gardens and wall gardens, each placed in the most suitable position and displaying its own special features. Lawns.—In the formation of lawns the ground must be regularly broken up so that it may settle down evenly, any deep excavations that may have to be filled in being very carefully rammed down to prevent subsequent settlement. The ground must also be thoroughly cleared of the roots of all coarse, perennial weeds, and be worked to a fine tilth ready for turfing or sowing. The more expeditious method is of course to lay down turf, which should be free from weeds, and is cut usually in strips of r ft. wide, 3 ft. long, and about r in. in thickness. This must be laid very evenly and compactly, and should then be beaten down firmly with the implement called a turf-beater (fig. 47). When there is a large space to cover, it is much the cheaper plan to sow the lawn FIG. 47.—Turf-Beater. with grass-seeds, and equally effective, though the sward takes much longer to thicken. It is of the utmost importance that a good selection of grasses be made, and that pure seeds should be obtained (see GRASS AND GRASSLAND). The following sorts can be recommended, the quantities given being those for sowing an acre of ground: Cynosurus crista'.is—Crested Dog's-tail 6 lb Festuca duriuscula—Hard Fescue 3 lb Festuca ovina—Sheep's Fescue 3 lb Lotium perenne tenue i8 lb Poa nemoralis sempervirens—Evergreen Meadow-grass Poa trivialis—Trivial Meadow-grass . 3 lb Trisetum flavescens—Yellow Oat-grass 2 lb Trifolium repens—Dutch Clover 6 lb The seeds should be thoroughly mixed, and very evenly sown, after which the surface should be raked over to bury them, and then rolled down while dry so as to finish it off smooth and level. When thus sown, lawns require to be promptly weeded. During the growing season established lawns should be mown at least once a week. They should be occasionally rolled, and towards autumn they require frequent sweepings to remove worm-casts.
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