ANNE (1693-1740) , empress ofRussia, second daughter of
See also:Ivan V.,
See also:Peter the
See also:brother, and Praskovia Saltuikova . Her girlhood was passed at Ismailovo near Moscow, with her
See also:mother, an ignorant, bigoted tsaritsa of the old school, who neglected and even hated her daughters . Peter acted as a second
See also:father to the Ivanovs, as Praskovia and her
See also:family were called . In 1710 he married Anne to
See also:William, duke. of
See also:Courland, who died of surfeit on his
See also:journey home from St
See also:Petersburg . The reluctant
See also:young widow was ordered to, proceed on her way to Mittau to take over the
See also:government of Courland, with. the
See also:resident, Count Peter Bestuzhev, as her adviser . He was subsequently her
See also:lover, till supplanted by Biren (q.v.) . Anne's residence at Mittau was embittered by the utter inadequacy of her revenue, which she keenly
See also:felt . It was therefore with joy that she at once accepted the Russian
See also:crown, as the,next
See also:heir, after the
See also:death of Peter II . (
See also:January 30, 1730), when it was offered to her by the members of the supreme privy council, even going so far as to subscribe previously nine articles which would have reduced her from an absolute to a very limited monarch, On the 26th of
See also:February she made her public entry into Moscow under strict surveillance . On the 8th of
See also:March a coup d'etat, engineered by a party of her
See also:personal friends, overthrew the supreme privy council and she was hailed as autocrat . Her government, on the whole, was prudent, beneficial and even glorious; but it was undoubtedly severe and became at last universally unpopular, This was due in the
See also:main to the outrageous insolence of her all-powerful favourite Biren, who hated the Russian
See also:nobility and trampled upon them mercilessly . Fortunately, Biren was sufficiently prudent not to meddle with
See also:foreign affairs or with the army, and these departments in the able hands of two other foreigners, who thoroughly identified. themselves with Russia, Andrei Osterman (q.v.) and Burkhardt Mtinnich (q.v.) did great things in the reign of Anne .
See also:political events of the
See also:period were the War of the
See also:Polish Succession and the second'
See also:Crimean War . The former was caused by the reappearance of
See also:Stanislaus Les2czynski as a
See also:candidate for the Polish
See also:throne after the death of
See also:Augustus II . (February 1, 1733) . The interests of Russia would not, permit her to recognize a candidate dependent directly on France and indirectly upon Sweden and
See also:Turkey, all three
See also:powers being at that
See also:time opposed to Russia's"
See also:system." She accordingly
See also:united with
See also:Austria to support the candidature of the
See also:king's son, Augustus of Saxony . So far as Russia was concerned, the War of the Polish Succession was quickly over . Much more important was the Crimean War oft 736-39 . This war marks the beginning of that systematic struggle on the
See also:part of Russia to recover her natural and legitimate
See also:southern boundaries . It lasted ' VasilyGolitsuin's expedition under the regency of
See also:Sophia was the first Crimean War (1687-89) . four years and a
See also:half, and cost her a
See also:hundred thousand men and millions of roubles; and though invariably successful, she had to be content with the acquisition of a single city (Azov) with a small
See also:district at the mouth of the Don . Yet more had been gained than was immediately apparent . In the first place, this was the only war hitherto waged by Russia against Turkey which had not ended in crushing disaster . Miinnich had at least dissipated the illusion of
See also:Ottoman invincibility, and taught the .
Russian soldier that
See also:ioo,000 janissaries and spahis were no match, in a
See also:field, for half that number of grenadiers and hussars . In the second place the Tatar hordes had been well nigh exterminated . In the third place Russia's
See also:signal and unexpected successes in the Steppe had immensely increased her
See also:prestige on the continent . " This
See also:court begins to have a great
See also:deal to say in the affairs of
See also:Europe," remarked the
See also:Rondeau, a
See also:year later . The last days of Anne were absorbed by the endeavour to strengthen the position of the heir to the throne, the baby
See also:cesarevich Ivan, afterwards Ivan VI., the son of the empress's niece, Anna Leopoldovna, against the
See also:superior claims of her
See also:cousin the cesarevna
See also:Elizabeth . The empress herself died three months later (28th of
See also:October 1740) . Her last
See also:act was to appoint Biren
See also:regent during the
See also:infancy of her great-
See also:nephew . Anne was a grim, sullen woman, frankly sensual, but as well-meaning as
See also:ignorance and vindictiveness would allow her to be . But she had much natural
See also:good sense, was a true friend and, in her more cheerful moments, an amiable
See also:companion .
See also:Lady Rondeau's portrait of the empress shows her to the best
See also:advantage . She is described as a large woman, towering above all the cavaliers of her court, but very well shaped for her
See also:size, easy and graceful in her
See also:person, of a majestic bearing, but with an awfulness in her countenance which revolted those who disliked her . See R .
NisbetBain, The Pupils of Peter the Great (
See also:London, 1897) ; Letters from a lady who resided some years in Russia (i.e . Lady Rondeau) (London, 1775); Christoph Hermann.Manstein, Memoires sur la Russie (Amsterdam, 1771; English edition, London, 1856) ; Gerhard Anton von H al em,Lebensschreibung
See also:des Feldm.B.C.Grafen von Miinnich (
See also:Oldenburg, 1803) ; Claudius Rondeau,DiplamaticDespatches from Russia, 1728-1739 (St Petersburg, 1889-1892), (R . N .
ANNE OF BRITTANY (1477-1514)
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