See also:minister and general, was
See also:born at the
See also:castle of Sietamo, a lordship of his
See also:family near Huesca in
See also:Aragon, on the 1st of
See also:August 1719 . The
See also:house of Abarca was very
See also:ancient, a fact of which Don Pedro, who never forgot that he was a " rico hombre " (
See also:noble) of Aragon, was deeply conscious . He was educated partly at Bologna and partly at the military school of
See also:Parma . In 1740 he entered the army as captain in the regiment " Castilla," of which his
See also:father was proprietary colonel . On the
See also:death of his father he became colonel, and served in the
See also:campaigns of the War of the
See also:Austrian Succession . In 1749 he married Dona
See also:Ana, daughter of the 9th duke of Hijar, by whom he had one son, who died
See also:young, and a daughter . During the following years he travelled and visited the
See also:camp of
See also:Frederick the
See also:Great, whose
See also:system of
See also:drill he admired and afterwards introduced into the Spanish army . After a
See also:period of
See also:diplomatic service in
See also:Portugal, where his exacting
See also:temper made it impossible for him to agree with the premier, Pombal, he returned to
See also:Madrid, was made a knight of the
See also:Golden Fleece, and director-general of artillery—a
See also:post which he threw up, together with his
See also:rank of
See also:lieutenant-general, because • he was not allowed to punish certain fraudulent contractors . The
See also:Ferdinand VI., exiled him to his estates, but
See also:Charles III. on his accession took him into favour . He was again employed in
See also:diplomacy, and then appointed to command an army against Portugal in 1763 . In 1764 he was made
See also:governor of Valencia . When in 1766 the king was driven from his capital in a riot, he summoned Aranda to Madrid and made him
See also:president of the council, and captain-general of New
See also:Castile .
Until 1773 Aranda was the most important minister inSpain . He restored
See also:order and aided the king most materially in his
See also:work of administrative reform . But his great achievements, which gave him a high reputation throughout
See also:Europe with the philosophical and
See also:anti-clerical parties, were his expulsion of the
See also:Jesuits, whom the king considered responsible for the riot of 1766, and the active
See also:part he took in the suppression of the order . Aranda had come much under
See also:foreign influence by his
See also:education and his travels, and had acquired the reputation of being a confirmed sceptic . By Voltaire and the Encyclopaedists he was erected into a hero from whom great things were expected . His ability, his remarkable capacity for work, and his popularity made him in-dispensable to the king . But he was a trying servant, for his temper was captious and his
See also:tongue sarcastic, while his aristocratic arrogance led him to display an offensive contempt for the golillas (the stiff collars), as he called the lawyers and public servants whom the king preferred to choose as ministers, and he permitted himself an amazing freedom of language with his
See also:sovereign . At last Charles III. sent him as
See also:ambassador to
See also:Paris in a disguised disgrace . Aranda held this position till 1787, but in Paris he was chiefly known for his oddities of manner and for perpetual wrangling with the French on small points of
See also:etiquette . He resigned his post for private reasons . In the reign of Charles IV., with whom he had been on
See also:familiar terms during the
See also:life of the old king, he was for a very short
See also:prime minister in 1792 . In reality he was merely used as a
See also:screen by the
See also:queen Maria Louisa and her favourite Godoy .
His open sympathy with the French Revolution brought him into collision with the violent reaction produced in Spain by the excesses of the
See also:Jacobins, while his temper, which had become perfectly uncontrollable with age, made him insufferable to the king . After his removal from
See also:office he was imprisoned for a short time at Granada, and was threatened with a trial by the Inquisition . The proceedings did not go beyond the preliminary stage, and Aranda died at Epila on the 9th of
See also:January 1798 . See Don Jacobo de la Pezuela in the Revista de Espana, vol.
See also:xxv . (1872); Don Antonio Ma . Fabie, in the Diccionario general de politica y administration of Don E .
See also:Suarez Inclan (Madrid, 1868), vol. i.; M .
See also:Morel Fatio, Etudes sur l'Espagne (2nd series, Paris, 1890) . (D .
ARAN ISLANDS, or SOUTH ARAN
ARANJUEZ (perhaps the ancient Ara Jovis)
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