See also:art of
See also:tree-cultivation . The culture of those
See also:plants which supply the
See also:food of man or nourish the domestic animals must have exclusively occupied his
See also:attention for many ages; whilst the
See also:timber employed in houses,
See also:ships and
See also:machines, or for fuel, was found in the native woods . Hence, though the culture of fruit-trees, and occasionally of ornamental trees and shrubs, was practised by the Egyptians, Greeks and Romans, the cultivation of timber-trees on a large scale only took place in
See also:modern times . In the days of Charlemagne, the greater
See also:part of France and Germany was covered with immense forests; and one of the benefits conferred on France by that
See also:prince was the rooting up of portions of these forests throughout the
See also:country, and substituting orchards or vineyards . Artificial plantations appear to have been formed in Germany sooner than in any other country, apparently as early as the 15th century . In Britain planting was begun, though sparingly, a century later . After the extensive transfers of
See also:property on the seizure of the
See also:church lands by
See also:Henry VIII., much timber was sold by the new owners, and the quantity thus thrown into the market so lowered its price, as Hollingshed informs us, that the builders of cottages, who had formerly employed
See also:willow and other cheap and
See also:common woods, now built them of the best
See also:oak . The demand for timber constantly increased, and the need of an extended
See also:surface of arable
See also:land arising at the same
See also:time, the natural forests became greatly circumscribed, till at last timber began to be imported, and the proprietors of land to think, first of protecting their native woods, afterwards of enclosing waste ground and allowing it to become covered with self-sown seedlings, and ultimately of
See also:sowing acorns and
See also:mast in such enclosures, or of filling them with
See also:young plants collected in the woods—a practice which exists in
See also:Sussex and other parts of England even now . Planting, however, was not general in England till the beginning of the 17th century, when the introduction of trees was facilitated by the interchange of plants by means of botanic gardens, which, in that century, were first established in different countries .
See also:Evelyn's Sylva, the first edition of which appeared in 1664, rendered an extremely important service to
See also:arboriculture; and there is no doubt that theornamental plantations in which England surpasses all other countries are in some measure the result of his
See also:enthusiasm . In consequence of a scarcity of timber for
See also:naval purposes, and the increased expense during the
See also:Napoleonic war of obtaining
See also:foreign supplies, planting received a
See also:great stimulus in Britain in the early part of the 19th century . After the peace of 1815 the rage for planting with a view to profit subsided; but there was a growing taste for the introduction of trees and shrubs from foreign countries, and for their cultivation for
See also:ornament and use .
The profusion of trees and shrubs planted around suburban villas and country mansions, as well as in
See also:town squares and public parks, shows how much arboriculture is an
See also:object of pleasure to the
See also:people . While isolated trees and old hedgerows are disappearing before steam cultivation, the advantages of shelter from well-arranged plantations are more fully appreciated; and more attention is paid to the principles of
See also:forest conservancy both at home and abroad . In all thickly peopled countries the forests have long ceased to supply the necessities of the inhabitants by natural
See also:reproduction; and it has become needful to
See also:form plantations either by
See also:government or by private enterprise, for the growth of timber, and in some cases for
See also:climatic amelioration . This subject is, however, dealt with more fully under FORESTS AND FORESTRY (q.v.); and the
See also:separate articles on the various sorts of tree may be consulted for details as to each .
FERNANDEZ ARBOS (1863- )
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