ARCH ,' in
See also:building, a constructional arrangement of blocks of any hard material, so disposed on the lines of some
See also:curve that they give mutual support one to the other . The blocks, which are technically known as voussoirs, should be of a
See also:wedge shape, the centre or top
See also:block (see fig . 1, A) being the
See also:keystone A; the
See also:lower blocks B B which
See also:rest on the supporting
See also:pier are the springers, the upper
See also:surface of which is called the i+ .. H FIG . I . skewback, C C; the side blocks, as D, are termed the haunches . The lower surface or
See also:soffit of the arch is the intrados, E, and the upper surface the extrados, F . The rise of the arch is the distance from the springing to the soffit, G, the width between the springers is called the span, H, and the
See also:radius I . The triangular spaces between the
See also:arches are termed spandrils, K . The arch is employed for two purposes: (1) to span an opening in a
See also:wall and support the superstructure; (2) when continuous to
See also:form a vault known as a
See also:barrel or waggon vault . The arch has been used from
See also:time immemorial by every nation, but owing to the tendency of the upper portion to sink, especially when bearing any superincumbent
See also:weight, it requires strong lateral support, and it is for this reason that in the earliest examples in unburnt
See also:brick at
See also:Nippur in
See also:Chaldaea, c . 4000 B.C., and at Rakakna (Requaqna) and
See also:Dendera in
See also:Egypt, 3500–3000 B.C., it was employed only below the level of the ground which served as an
See also:abutment on either side .
In the building of an arch, the voussoirs have to be temporarily ' The ultimate derivation of " arch " is the Latin arcus, a
See also:bow, or arch, in origin meaning something bent, from which through the French is also derived " arc," a curve . In French there are two words arche, one meaning a chest or coffer, from Latin
See also:area (areere, to keep close), hence the
See also:English "
See also:ark "; the other meaning a vaulted arch, such as that of a
See also:bridge, and derived from a Low Latin corruption of arcus, into area (du Cange, Glossarium, s.v.) . The word " arch," prefixed to names of offices, seen in "archbishop," " archdeacon," " archduke," &c., means "
See also:principal " or " chief," and comes from the Greek prefix apx- or apxc- from a.pXecv, to begin, lead, or
See also:rule; it is also prefixed to other words, and usually with words implying hatred or detestation, such as " arch-fiend ", " arch-
See also:scoundrel "; it is from an adaptation of this use, as seen in such expressions as " arch-
See also:rogue," extended to " arch-look," " arch-
See also:face," that the word comes to mean a mischievous, roguish expression of face or demeanour . supported, until the keystone is inserted . This at the
See also:day is effected by means of centreing an assemblage of timbers framed together, with its upper surface of the same form as the arch required; the voussoirs are laid on the centreing till the
See also:ring of the arch is completed . In the case of arches of small span, such as the early examples referred to, limited to about 6 ft., such centreing might be dispensed with in various ways, but it is difficult to see how the arches of the
See also:great entrance gateways, shown in the
See also:Assyrian bas-reliefs, could have been built without temporary support of some kind . In those days, when any amount of labour could be obtained, even the erection of a temporary wall might have been less costly than the employment of
See also:timber, of which there was great scarcity . The Assyrian tradition would seem to have descended first to the
See also:Parthian builders, who in the palace of El Hadr built semi-circular arches with
See also:regular voussoirs decoratively treated . The Sassanians who followed them employed the elliptical or
See also:egg-shaped arch, of which the lower
See also:part was built in
See also:horizontal courses up to about one-third of the height, which lessened the span of the arched portion . In
See also:Europe the earliest arches were those built by the Etruscans, either over canals (see article ARCHITECTURE:
See also:Etruscan), or in the entrance gateways of their towns . The skew-arch in the gateway at
See also:Perugia shows great knowledge in its execution . From the Etruscans the adoption of the arch passed to the Romans, who certainly employed centreing of some kind, but always economized its use, as is clearly shown by Choisy .
Al-though their walls from the Augustanage were built in concrete, arches of brick were always turned over their entrance doorways, sometimes in two or three rings . The Romans utilized the arch in other ways, sometimes burying it in their concrete construction, as in their vaults, and sometimes introducing it as a
See also:veneer only, as in the
See also:Pantheon . In their monumental structures in
See also:stone, the arch was sometimes built with regular voussoirs, i.e. with a semicircular extrados, and sometimes with the joint carried far beyond . The latter was not done in the early examples of the Tabularium and the Theatre of
See also:Marcellus, but in the Colosseum and all the arches of
See also:triumph the
See also:joints run through the spandrils, notwithstanding the recognition of the arch proper by its moulded archivolt . Although the value of the pointed arch as a stronger constructional feature than the semicircular (owing to the tendency to sink in the keystone of the latter) had been recognized by the Assyrian builders, who employed it in their drains, it was not used systematically as an architectural feature till the 9th century, in the mosque of Tulun at Cairo; it seems to have been regarded by the Mahommedans as an emblem of their faith, and its use spread through
See also:Syria to
See also:Persia, was brought to
See also:Sicily from Egypt, and was taken back by the Sicilian masons to
See also:Palestine and employed throughout theCrusaders'churches during ther 2th century . As the pointed arch had already, for constructional reasons, been employed in
See also:Perigord from the commencement of the Il th century, it does not follow that the Crusaders brought it from Palestine, but there is no doubt that its universal employment in France early in the 12th century may have been partly due to its adoption in the Crusaders' churches . At first in
See also:work both the semicircular and pointed arches were used simultaneously in the same building, the larger arches being pointed, the smaller ones and windows being semicircular . The great value of the pointed arch in vaulting is described in the article VAULT . We have suggested that the pointed arch became an emblem of
See also:Mahommedan faith, and it was introduced in India but. not as a constructive feature, for the
See also:Hindus objected to the arch, which they say never sleeps, meaning that it is always exerting a thrust which tends to its destruction . In India therefore it was built in horizontal courses with vertical slabs leaning against one another to form the
See also:apex . The Moors of
See also:north Africa, however, never employed it, preferring the horseshoe arch which they brought into Spain and
See also:developed in the mosque of Cordova . In the additions made to this mosque the prayer chamber was enriched by the
See also:caliph Mansur, who, to eke out the height, raised arch upon arch .
See also:Alhambra it appears in the decorative343
See also:plaster work, and travels northwards into the south of France, where at Le
See also:Puy and elsewhere it is found decorating doorways and windows; in England it was employed towards the end of the 12th century . About the
See also:middle of the 14th century at
See also:Gloucester the four-centred pointed arch was introduced, which became afterwards the leading characteristic feature of the Tudor
See also:style . In France they adopted the three-centred arch in the 15th century . The
See also:ogee arch was the natural result of the development of
See also:tracery in the commencement of the 14th century, and in Gloucester (about 131o) the foliations were run one into the other without the enclosing circles . About the middle of the 14 th century, in the
See also:arcade of the first storey of the ducal palace in Venice, flowing tracery is found, from which the ogee arch there was probably derived, as throughout Venice it becomes the favourite feature in domestic architecture of that and the succeeding century . The arches are of various forms as follows: 2 4 8 IO I2 14 16 2 . Semicircular arch, the centre of which is in the same
See also:line with its springers . 3 . Segmental arch, where the centre is be-low the springing . 4 . Horseshoe arch, with the centre above the springing; employed in Moorish architecture . 5 .
See also:Stilted arches, where the centre is below the springing, but the sides are carried down vertically . 6 . Equilateral pointed arches, described from two centres, the radius being the whole width of the arch . 7 . Drop arches, with centres within the arch . 8 . Lancet arches, with centres outside the arch . 9 . Three centre arches, employed in French Flamboyant . lo . Four centre arches, employed in the Perpendicular and Tudor periods . 1 .
Ogee arches,with curves of
See also:counter flexure, found in English Decorated and French Flamboyant . 12 . Pointed
See also:shoe arches, found in the mosque of Tulun, Cairo, 9th century . 13 . Pointed foiled arches, in the arcades of Beverley Minster (c . 1230) and
See also:Netley Abbey . 14 . Cusped arch ;
See also:Christchurch Priory, Hants . 15 . Multifoil cusped arch, invented by the Moors at Cordova in the loth century . 16 .
See also:Flat arch, where the soffit is horizontal and sometimes slightly cambered (dotted line) .
17 . Upright elliptical arch, sometimes called the egg-shaped arch, employed in
See also:Egyptian and
See also:Sassanian architecture . 9 II 17 I$ 18 . TheTuscanarch, where the extrados takes the form of a pointed arch . 19 . The joggled arch used in
See also:medieval chimneypieces and in Mahommedan architecture . 20 . The discharging or relieving arch, built above the architrave or
See also:lintel to take off the weight of the super-structure . 21 . The relieving arch as used in Egypt, in the
See also:pyramid of
See also:Cheops; and in Saxon architecture, where it was built with
See also:Roman bricks or tiles, or consisted of two sloping slabs of stone . 2I (R . P .
ARCESILAUS (316–241 B.c.)
JOSEPH ARCH (1826– )
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