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ARCHANGEL (ARCHANGELSx)

Online Encyclopedia
Originally appearing in Volume V02, Page 356 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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ARCHANGEL (ARCHANGELSx), chief town of the government of Archangel, Russia, at the head of the delta of the Dvina, on the right bank of the river, in lat. 64° 32' N. and long. 40°33' E. Pop. (1867) 19,936; (1897) 20,933. As early as the loth century, if not earlier, the Norsemen frequented this part of the world (Bjarmeland) on trading 'expeditions; the best-known is that made by Ottar or Othere between 88o and qoo and described (or translated) by Alfred the Great, king of England. The modern town dates, however, from the visit of the English voyager, Richard Chancellor, in 1553. An English factory was erected on the lower Dvina soon after that date, and in 1584 a fort was built, around which the town grew up. Archangel was for long the only seaport of Russia (or Muscovy). The tsar Boris Godunov (1598–1605) threw the trade open to all nations; and the chief participants in it were England, Holland and Germany. In 1668–1684 the great bazaar and trading hall was built, principally by Tatar prisoners. In 1691–1700 the exports to England averaged £112,21.0 annually. After Peter the Great ARCHBISHOP made St Petersburg the capital of his dominions (1702), he placed Archangels under vexatious commercial disabilities, and consequently its trade declined. In 1762 it was granted the same privileges as St Petersburg, and since then it has gradually recovered its former prosperity. It is the seat of a bishop, and has a cathedral (1709-1743), a museum, the monastery of the Archangel Michael (whence the city gets its name), an ecclesiastical seminary, a school of navigation and a naval hospital. Linen, leather, canvas, cordage, mats, tallow, potash and beer are manufactured. There is a lively trade with St Petersburg, and the sea-borne exports, which consist chiefly of timber, flax, linseed, oats, flour, pitch, tar, skins and mats, amount in value to about 1a millions sterling annually (82k % for timber), but the imports (mostly fish) are worth only aboutn' oo,000. A fish fair is held every year on the 1st (15th) of Septed. Archangel communicates with the interior of Russia by n e ;1nd•?canal, and has a railway line (522 m.) to Yaroslavl. The t;..our, deepened to 184 ft., is about a mile below the city, and is accessible from May to October. About 12 M. lower down there are a government dockyard and merchants' warehouses. A new military harbour, Alexandrovsk or Port Catherine, has been made on Catherine (Ekaterininsk) Bay, on the Murman coast of the Kola peninsula. The shortest day at Archangel has only 3 hrs. 12 min., the longest 21 hrs. 48 min. of daylight.
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