See also:bare, rocky
See also:hill, 370 ft. high, immediately west of the
See also:northern rim of the acropolis of Athens . The ancients interpreted the name as " Hill of
See also:Ares." Though accepted by some
See also:modern scholars, this derivation of the word is rendered improbable by the fact that Ares was not worshipped on the
See also:Areopagus . A more reasonable explanation connects the name with Arae, " Curses," commonly known as Semnae, " Awful Goddesses," whose
See also:shrine was a cave at the
See also:foot of the hill, of which they were the
See also:guardian deities (Aeschyl . Eumen . 417, 804; Schol. on Lucian, vol. iii. p . 68, ed . Jacobitz; Paus. i . 28 . 6) . The Boule, or Council, of the Areopagus (i fv 'Apeiw, IIaycp flovXii), named after the hill, is to be compared in origin and fundamental character with the council of chiefs or elders which we find among the earliest Germans, Celts, Romans, and other
See also:primitive peoples . Under the
See also:kings of Athens it must have closely resembled the Boule of elders described by
See also:Homer; and there can be no doubt that it was the chief factor in the
See also:work of transforming the kingship into an aristocracy, in which it was to be supreme . It was composed of ex-archons .
Aristotle attributes to it for the
See also:period of aristocracy the
See also:appointment to all offices (
See also:Ath . Pol. viii . 2), the chief work of administration, and the right to
See also:fine or otherwise punish in cases, not only of violation of
See also:laws, but also of immorality (ibid. iii . 6; cf . Isoc. vii . 46;
See also:Androtion and
See also:Philochorus, in
See also:Frog . Hist .
See also:Graft .. 1 . 387 . 17, 394 6o).1 This evidence is corroborated by the remnants of
See also:political power
See also:left to it in later
See also:time, after its importance had been greatly curtailed, and by the designation Boule, which in itself indicates that the
See also:body so termed was once a state council . In a passage bearing incidentally upon the early constitution of Athens,
See also:Thucydides (i .
126 . 8) informs us that at the time of the Cylonian insurrection the Athenians, we may suppose in their
See also:assembly ('EKK)trlvia), commissioned the archons with absolute power to
See also:deal with the trouble at their discretion . From this passage, if we accept the Aristotelian view as to the early supremacy of the Areopagitic council, we must infer that a modification of the aristocracy in a popular direction had at that time already taken place . In addition to its political functions, the council from the time of Draco, if not earlier, exercised jurisdiction in certain cases of
See also:homicide (see below, ad fin.) . The
See also:assumption that in their criminal jurisdiction the Areopagites were called Ephetae till after the legislation of Draco (cf . Philoch . 58, in Muller, ibid . 394) would explain the otherwise obscure circumstances that, according to Plutarch (Sol . 19), Draco (q.v.) in his laws mentioned only the Ephetae, and that Pollux (viii . 125) included the Areopagus among the localities in which sat the Ephetae.2 The same assumption would supply a reason for 1 Neither
See also:Herodotus nor Thucydides tells us anything as to its
See also:powers; but their silence on this point need not surprise us, as they had no especial occasion for referring to the subject. and in general it may be said that before the 4th century inc. writers took little
See also:interest in the constitutional
See also:history of the remote past . The statement of Thucydides (i . 126 .
8) that at the time of the Cylonian insurrection the nine archons attended to a
See also:part of the business of
See also:government does not contradict the Aristotelian view, for their administration may well have been under Areopagitic supervision (see also
See also:ARCHON); and, as is stated in the text, the supremacy of the council may have already suffered considerable
See also:limitation . The Eumenides of
See also:Aeschylus is a glorification of the institution, though for obvious reasons it is there represented as an essentially judicial body . Zit is possible also to explain the alleged
See also:absence of reference tothe notion entertained by many writers of later time that the Areopagitic council was instituted by
See also:Solon (q.v.)—a notion partly explained also by the
See also:desire of political thinkers to ascribe to Solon the making of a
See also:complete constitution . Conformably with the view here presented we may suppose that the name " Boule of the Areopagus "
See also:developed from the
See also:term " Boule " in
See also:order to distinguish it from the new Bernie (q.v.), or Council of Four
See also:Hundred . The popular reforms of Solon (594 B.c.), so far as they were carried into effect, tended practically to limit the Council of the Areopagus, though constitutionally it retained all its earlier powers and functions, augmented by the right to try persons accused of
See also:conspiracy against the state (Arist . Ath . Pol. viii . 4) . In the exercise of its
See also:duty as the
See also:protector of the laws it must have had power to inhibit in the Four Hundred, or in the Ecclesia, a measure which it judged unconstitutional or in any way prejudicial to the state, and in the
See also:levy of fines for violation of
See also:law or moral usage it remained irresponsible . As censor of the conduct of citizens it inquired into every man's source of income and punished the idle (Plut . Sol . 22) .
The tyrants (56o–510 B.C.) left to the council itscognizance of
See also:murder cases (Demosth.
See also:xxiii . 66; Arist . Ath . Pol. xvi . 8) and probably the nominal enjoyment of all its prerogatives; but their method of filling the archonship with their own kinsmen and creatures gradually converted the Areopagites into willing supporters of tyranny . Though hostile, therefore, to the policy of
See also:Cleisthenes, their council seems to have suffered no
See also:direct abridgment of power from his reforms . After his legislation it gradually changed character and political sentiment by the
See also:admission of ex-archons who had held
See also:office under a popular constitution . In 487 B.C., however, the introduction of the lot as a part of the
See also:process of filling the archonship (see ARCHON) began to undermine its ability . This deterioration was necessarily slow; it could not have advanced far in 48o B.C., when on the
See also:eve of the
See also:battle of
See also:Salamis, as we are informed (Arist . Polit. viii . 4, p . 13o4a, 17; Ath .
Pol. xxiii . 25; Plut . Them. lio; Cie . Off. i . 22, 75), the council of the Areopagus succeeded in
See also:manning the
See also:fleet by providing pay for the
See also:seamen, thereby regaining the confidence and respect of the
See also:people: The patriotic
See also:action of the council and its attendant popularity enabled it to recover considerable administrative
See also:control, which it continued to exercise for the next eighteen years, although its deterioration in ability, becoming every
See also:year more noticeable, as well as the rapid rise of democratic ideas, prevented it from fully re-establishing the supremacy which Aristotle, with some exaggeration, attributes to it for this period . Its
See also:prestige was seriously undermined by the conduct of individual members, whose corrupt use of power was exposed and punished by Ephialtes, the democratic
See also:leader . Following up this
See also:advantage, Ephialtes (462 B.C.), and less prominently
See also:Archestratus and
See also:Pericles (q.v.), proposed and carried
See also:measures for the transfer of most of its functions to the Council of Five Hundred, the Ecclesia, and the popular courts of law (Arist . Ath . Pol.
See also:xxv . 2,
See also:xxvii . 1,
See also:xxxv . 2; Plut .
Per . 9) . Among these functions were probably jurisdiction in cases of impiety, the supervision of magistrates and the censorship of the morals of citizens, theinhibition of illegal and unconstitutional resolutions in the Five Hundred and the Ecclesia, the examination into the fitness of candidates for office, and the collection of rents from the sacred
See also:property (cf . Wilamowitz-Mollendorff, Arist. u . Ath. ii . 186-197 Busolt, Griech . Gesch . (2nd ed.) iii . 269-294; G .
See also:Gilbert, Const . Antiq. of
See also:Sparta and Athens, Eng. trans., 154 f.) . It retained the Areopagitic council in the Draconian laws by the supposition that Solon, while leaving untouched the Draconian laws concerned with the cases of homicide which came before the Ephetae, substituted a law of his own regarding wilful murder, which fell within the jurisdiction of the Areopagites .
This view finds strong support in the circumstance that the copy of the Draconian laws (C.I.A. i . 61), made in pursuance of adecree of the people of the year 409–408 B.C., does not contain the
See also:provision for cases of premeditated homicide; cf . G. de
See also:Sanctis, 'Aross, 135 . The relation of the Ephetae to the
See also:court of the Areopagus is obscure; cf .
See also:Philippi, Der Areopag and die Epheten (Berlin, 1874) ; Busolt, Griechische Geschichte (2nd ed.), ii . 138 if . jurisdiction in cases of homicide and the care of sacred
See also:olive trees . From this time to the
See also:establishment of the
See also:Thirty (462–404 B.c.) the Areopagitic council, degraded still further by the opening of the archonship to the Zeugitae (457 B.c.) and by the absolute use of the lot in filling the office, was a political nullity . The first indication of a revival of its prestige is to be traced in the action attributed to it by
See also:Lysias during the
See also:siege of Athens (404 B.C.) (in Eratosth . 69: 7rparrobrrj pEv TCIS
See also:ill 'ApELW lIaycu /3ovXT)s o-wrr)p1a) . After the surrender of Athens and the appointment of the Thirty, the repeal of the laws of Ephialtes and Archestratus prepared the way for the rehabilitation of the council as guardian of the constitution by the restored democracy (Arist . Ath .
Pol. xxxv . 2; decree of Tisamenus, in Andoc. i . 84; cf . Din. i . 9) . Although under the new conditions the Areopagites could nothope to recover their full supremacy, they did exercise considerable political influence, especially in crises . In the time of
See also:Demosthenes, accordingly, we find them annulling the election of individuals to offices for which they were unfit (Plut . Phoc . 16), exercising during a crisis a disciplinary power extending to
See also:life and
See also:death over all the Athenians " in conformity with ancestral law," procuring the banishment of one, the racking of another, and the infliction of capital punishment on several of the citizens . This authority seems to have been delegated to them by the assembly with reference either to individual cases or temporarily to the whole body of Athenians (Din. i . 10, 62 f.; Aeschin. iii . 252; Lyc .
Leoc . 52; Demosth. xviii . 132 f.; Plut . Demosth . 14) .Religion, too, was their care (Pseud . Demosth. lix . 8o f.) . Lycurgus (ibid.) even goes so far as to claim chat by their action during the crisis after
See also:Chaeroneia they had saved the state . After the period of the great orators their influence continued to grow .
See also:Demetrius of Phalerum empowered them to assist the gynaeconomi in supervising festivals held in private houses (Philoch. in Milner, ibid. i . 408 .
143) . Under
See also:Roman supremacy in addition to earlier functions they had jurisdiction in cases of forgery, tampering with the standard measures, and probably other high crimes, the supervision of buildings, and the care of religion and of
See also:education (Cic . Pam. xiii . 1; All. v . 9; Tac .
See also:Ann. ii . 55; Plut . Cic . 24; C.I.G. i . 123 . 9; C.I.A. ii . 476; iii .
703, 714, 716; Acts xvii . 19) . Their council acquired, too, inconjunction with the assembly, with or without the co-operation of the Five Hundred (or Six Hundred), the right to pass decrees and to represent their city in
See also:foreign relations (C.I.A. iii . Io, 31, 40, 41, 454, 457, 458) . From the overthrow of the Thirty to the end of their history they enjoyed a high reputation for ability and integrity (Isoc. vii.; Demosth. xxiii . 65 f.; Val . Max. viii . 1 . Amb . 2;
See also:Gell. xii . 7; Lucian, Bis Acc . iv .
12 . 14) . About A.D . 400 their council came to an end (
See also:Theodoret, Curat. ix . 55) . With regard to the jurisdiction of the council in cases of homicide, the procedure, so far as it may be gathered from the orators and other
See also:sources, was as follows: accusations were brought by relatives within the circle of
See also:brothers' and sisters'
See also:children, supported by the wider
See also:kin and the phratry (Demosth. xliii . J7) . On receiving the accusation the
See also:king-archon by proclamation warned the accused to keep away from temples and other places forbidden to such persons . He made three investigations of the case in the three successive months, and brought it to trial in the
See also:month . As he was forbidden to
See also:hand a case over to his successor, it resulted that in the last three months of the year no accusations of homicide could be brought (
See also:Ant. vi . 42) . After the examination he assigned the case to the proper court, and presided over it during the trial, which took place in the open air, that the
See also:judges and the accuser might not be polluted by being brought under the same roof with the offender (Ant. v .
II) . The accuser and the accused,
See also:standing on two
See also:white stones termed " Relentlessness " ('AvaiSeia) and "
See also:Outrage " ("T13p s) respectively (Pans. i . 28 . 5), bound them-selves to the truth by most
See also:solemn oaths (Demosth. xxiii . 68) . Each was allowed two speeches, and the trial lasted three days . After the first speech the accused, unless charged with
See also:parricide, was at liberty to withdraw into
See also:exile (
See also:Poll. viii . 117) . If condemned, he lost his life. and his property was confiscated . Atie
See also:vote acquitted (Aeschyl . Eumen . 735; Ant. v .
5i; Aeschin. iii . 252) . See furtherGREEK LAW .
AREOI, or AREOITI
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