ARISTOTLE . During the three centuries from theage of
See also:Alexander to that of
See also:Augustus the fortunes of rhetoric were governed by the new conditions of
See also:Hellenism . Aristotle's scientific The method lived on in the Peripatetic school . Meanwhile
See also:period the fashion of florid declamation or strained conceits Alex fro"' - prevailed in the rhetorical
See also:schools of
See also:Asia, where, amid ender to mixed populations, the pure traditions of the best Augus-Greek taste had been dissociated from the use of the tus . Greek language . The " Asianism " of
See also:style which thus came to be constrasted with " Atticism " found imitators at Rome, among whom must be reckoned the orator Hortensius (c . 95 B.C.) .
See also:Hermagoras of Temnos in
See also:Aeolis (c. to Herma- B.c.) claims mention as having done much to revive goras. a higher conception . Using both the
See also:practical rhetoric of the
See also:time before Aristotle and Aristotle's philosophical rhetoric, he worked up the results of both in a new
See also:system, following the philosophers so far as to give the chief prominence to " invention." He thus became the founder of a rhetoric which may be distinguished as the scholastic . Through the influence of his school, Hermagoras did for
See also:Roman eloquence very much what Isocrates had done for Athens . Above all, he
See also:counter-acted the view of " Asianism," that oratory is a mere knack founded on practice, and recalled
See also:attention to the study of it as an
See also:Cicero's rhetorical
See also:works are to some extent based on the technical system to which he had been introduced by Molon at Rhodes . But Cicero further made an
See also:independent use of the best among the earlier Greek writers, Isocrates, Aristotle and
See also:Theophrastus .
Lastly, he could draw, at least in the later of his
See also:treatises, on a vast fund of reflection and experience . Indeed, the distinctive
See also:interest of his contributions to the theory of rhetoric consists in the fact that his theory can be compared with his practice . The result of such a comparison is certainly to suggest how much less he owed to his art than to his
See also:genius . Some consciousness of this is perhaps implied in the idea which pervades much of his writing on oratory, that the perfect orator is the perfect man . The same thought is
See also:present to Quintilian, in whose
See also:Quin- De Institutione Oratoria, the scholastic rhetoric re- than . ceives its most
See also:complete expression (c . A.D . 90) . Quintilian treats oratory as the end to which the entire
See also:mental and moral development of the student is to be directed . Thus he devotes his first
See also:book to an early discipline which should precede the orator's first studies, and his last book to a discipline of the whole man which lies beyond them . Some notion of his comprehensive method may be derived from the circumstance that he introduces a succinct estimate of the chief Greek and Roman authors, of every kind, from
See also:Homer to
See also:Seneca (bk. x . §§ 46-131) .
After Quintilian, the next important name is that of
See also:Hermogenes of
See also:Tarsus, who under
See also:Marcus Aurelius Hrmo• made a complete
See also:digest of the scholastic rhetoric from genes. the time of Hermagoras of Temnos (
See also:Ito B.c.) . It is contained in five extant treatises, which are remarkable for clearness and acuteness, and still more remarkable as having been completed before the age of twenty-five . Hermogenes continued for nearly a century and a
See also:half to be one of the chief authorities in the schools .
See also:Longinus (c . A.D . 26o) published an Art of Rhetoric which is still extant; and the more other celebrated
See also:treatise On Sublimity (irepi ii>/iovs), if not writers . his work, is at least of the same period . In the later half of the 4th century Aphthonius (q.v.) composed the " exercises " (irpoyvµvavµara) which superseded the work of 3 See Jebb's
See also:Attic Orators, ii . 445 . Rhetoric"to Alexander.' Cicero . Hermogenes . At the revival of letters the treatise ofAphthonius 1
See also:tawdry or vapid, these writings occasionally present passages once more became a standard text-book .
Much popularity was of true
See also:literary beauty, while they constantly offer
See also:matter of the highest interest to the student . In the
See also:medieval system of
See also:academic studies, grammar, logic and rhetoric were the subjects of the
See also:trivium, or course followed during the four years of undergraduateship . Medieval
See also:Music, arithmetic,
See also:geometry and astronomy
See also:con- study of stituted the quadrivium, or course for the three years Rhetoric from the B.A. to the M.A. degree . These were the seven liberal arts . In the
See also:middle ages the chief authorities on rhetoric were the latest Latin epitomists, such as Martianus
See also:Capella (5th cent.),
See also:Cassiodorus (5th cent.) or Isidorus (7th cent.) . After the revival of learning the better Roman and Greek writers gradually returned into use . Some new treatises were also produced . Leonard
See also:Cox (d . 1549) wrote The Art or Craft of Rhetoryke, partly compiled, partly
See also:original, which was reprinted in Latin at
See also:Cracow . The Art of Rhetorique, by
See also:Wilson (1553), afterwards secretary of state, embodied rules chiefly from Aristotle, with help from Cicero and Quintilian . About the same time treatises on rhetoric were published in France by Tonquelin (1555) and Courcelles(1557) . The general aim at this. period was to revive and popularize the best teaching of the ancients on rhetoric .
The subject was regularly taught at the
See also:universities, and was indeed important . At Cambridge in 1570 the study of rhetoric was based on Quintilian, Hermogenes and the speeches of Cicero viewed as works of art . An
See also:statute of 1588 shows that the same books were used there . In 162o
See also:Herbert was delivering lectures on rhetoric at Cambridge, where he held the
See also:office of public orator . The decay of rhetoric as a formal study at the universities set in during the 18th century . The
See also:function of the rhetoric lecturer passed over into that of correcting written themes; but his title remained long after his office had lost its
See also:primary meaning . If the theory of rhetoric fell into neglect,. the practice, however, was encouraged by the public exercises (" acts " and " opponencies ") in the schools . The
See also:college prizes for " declamations " served the same purpose . The fortunes of rhetoric in the
See also:world, as briefly sketched above, may suffice to suggest why few modern writers , of ability have given their attention to the subject . Modern Perhaps one of the most notable modern contributions writers on to the art is the collection of commonplaces framed (in Rhetoric . Latin) by
See also:Bacon, " to be so many spools from which the threads can be
See also:drawn out as occasion serves," a truly curious work of that acute and fertile mind .
ARISTOPHANES (c. 448–385 B.e.1)
ARISTOTLE (384-322 B.C.)
There are no comments yet for this article.
Do not copy, download, transfer, or otherwise replicate the site content in whole or in part.
Links to articles and home page are encouraged.