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ARTEMISIA (159o-1642)

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Originally appearing in Volume V11, Page 603 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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ARTEMISIA (159o-1642), Orazio's daughter, studied first under Guido, acquired much renown for portrait-painting, and considerably excelled her father's fame. She was a beautiful and elegant woman; her likeness, limned by her own hand, is to be seen in Hampton Court. Her most celebrated composition is " Judith and Holofernes," in the Uffizi Gallery; certainly a work of singular energy, and giving ample proof of executive faculty appreciation of the services which he rendered to international law. The movement to do him honour originated in 1875 in England, as the result of the inaugural lecture of Prof. T. E. Holland, and was warmly taken up in Italy. In spreading through Europe it encountered two curious cross-currents of opinion,—one the ultra-Catholic, which three centuries before had ordered his name to be erased from all public documents and placed his works in the Index; another the narrowly-Dutch, which is, it seems, needlessly careful of the supremacy of Grotius. These two currents resulted respectively in a bust of GarciaMoreno being placed in the Vatican, and in the unveiling in 1886, with much international oratory, of a fine statue of Grotius at Delft. The English committee, under the honorary presidency of Prince Leopold, in 1877 erected a monument to the memory of Gentili in St Helen's church, and saw to the publication of a new edition of the De Jure Belli. The Italian committee, of which Prince (after-wards King) Humbert was honorary president, was less successful. It was only in 1908, the tercentenary of the death of Alberico, that the statue of the great heretic was at length unveiled in his native city by the minister of public instruction, in the presence of numerous deputations from Italian cities and universities. Preceding writers had dealt with various international questions, but they dealt with them singly, and with a servile submission to the decisions of the church. It was left to Gentili to grasp as a whole the relations of states one to another, to distinguish international questions from questions with which they are more or less intimately connected, and to attempt their solution by principles entirely independent of the authority of Rome. He uses the reasonings of the civil and even the canon law, but he proclaims as his real guide the Jus Naturae, the highest common sense of mankind, by which historical precedents are to be criticized and, if necessary, set aside. His faults are not few. His style is prolix, obscure, and to the modern reader pedantic enough; but a comparison of his greatest work with what had been written upon the same subject by, for instance, Belli, or Soto, or even Ayala, will show that he greatly improved upon his predecessors, not only by the fulness with which he has worked out points of detail, but also by clearly separating the law of war from martial law, and by placing the subject once for all upon a non-theological basis. If, on the other hand, the same work be compared with the De Jure Belli et Pacis of Grotius, it is at once evident that the later writer is indebted to the earlier, not only for a large portion of his illustrative erudition, but also for all that is commendable in the method and arrangement of the treatise. but repulsive and unwomanly in its physical horror. She accompanied her father to England, but did not remain there long; the best picture which she produced for Charles I. was " David with the head of Goliath." Artemisia refused an offer of marriage from Agostino Tasi, and bestowed her hand on Pier Antonio Schiattesi, continuing, however, to use her own surname. She settled in Naples, whither she returned after her English sojourn; she lived there in no little splendour, and there she died in 1642. She had a daughter and perhaps other children.
End of Article: ARTEMISIA (159o-1642)
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ARTEMON (fl. c. A.D. 230)

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