See also:president of the
See also:United States, was
See also:born in
See also:Vermont, on the 5th of
See also:October 1830 . His
See also:William Arthur (1796–1875), when eighteen years of age, emigrated from Co .
See also:Ireland, and, after teaching in various places in Vermont and
See also:Canada, became a Baptist
See also:minister . William Arthur had married Malvina
See also:Stone, an
See also:American girl who lived at the
See also:time of the
See also:marriage in Canada, and the numerous changes of the
See also:family residence afforded a basis for allegations in 188o that theson Chester was born not in Vermont, but in Canada, and was therefore, ineligible for the
See also:presidency . Chester entered Union
See also:College as a
See also:sophomore, and graduated with
See also:honour in 1848 . He then became a schoolmaster, at the same time studying
See also:law . In 1853 he entered a law
See also:office in New
See also:York city, and in the following
See also:year was admitted to the
See also:bar . His reputation as a lawyer began with his connexion with the famous " Lemmon slave case," in which, as one of the
See also:special counsel for the state, he secured a decision from the highest state courts that slaves brought into New York while in transit between two slave states were ipso facto
See also:free . In another noted case, in 1855, he obtained a decision that negroes were entitled to the same accommodations as whites on the street
See also:railways of New York city . In politics he was actively associated from the outset with the Republican party . When the
See also:Civil War began he held the position of engineer-in-chief on
See also:Governor Edwin D .
See also:staff, and afterwards became successively acting quartermaster-general, inspector-general, and quartermaster-general of the state troops, in which capacities he showed much administrative efficiency .
At theclose of Governor Morgan's
See also:term, on the 31st of
See also:December 1862, General Arthur resumed the practice of his profession, remaining active, however, in party politics in New York city . In
See also:November 1871 he was appointed by President U . S .
See also:collector of customs for the
See also:port of New York . The
See also:house had long been conspicuous for the most flagrant abuses of the " spoils
See also:system "; and though General Arthur admitted that the evils existed and that they rendered efficient administration impossible, he made no extensive reforms . In 1877 President Rutherford B . Hayes began the reform of the civil service with the New York custom-house . A non-
See also:partisan commission, appointed by Secretary
See also:John Sherman, recommended sweeping changes . The president demanded the resignation of Arthur and his two
See also:principal subordinates,
See also:George H .
See also:Sharpe, the surveyor, and Alonzo B . Cornell, the
See also:naval officer, of the Port . General Arthur refused to resign on the ground that to retire " under
See also:fire " would be to acknowledge wrong-doing, and claimed that as the abuses were inherent in a widespread system he should not be made to bear the responsibility alone .
His cause was espoused by Senator
See also:Conkling, for a time successfully; but on the rrth of
See also:July 1878, during a recess of the
See also:Senate, the collector was removed, and in
See also:January 1879, after another severe struggle, this
See also:action received the approval of the Senate . In 188o General Arthur was a delegate at large from New York to the Republican
See also:convention . In
See also:common with the
See also:rest of the "Stalwarts," he worked hard for the nomination of Gen . U . S . Grant for a third term . Upon the
See also:triumph of
See also:James A .
See also:Garfield, the
See also:necessity of conciliating the defeated
See also:faction led to the hasty acceptance of Arthur for the second place on the ticket . His nomination was coldly received by the public; and when, after his election and accession, he actively engaged on behalf of Conkling in the
See also:great conflict with Garfield over the New York patronage, the impression was widespread that he was unworthy of his position . Upon the
See also:death of President Garfield, on the 19th of
See also:September 1881, Arthur took the
See also:oath as his successor . Contrary to the general expectation, his appointments were as a
See also:rule unexceptionable, and he earnestly promoted the Pendleton law for the reform of the civil service . His use of the
See also:veto in 1882 in the cases of a
See also:Chinese Immigration
See also:Bill (prohibiting immigration of Chinese for twenty years) and a
See also:River and
See also:Harbour Bill (appropriating over $18,000,000, to be expended on many insignificant as well as important streams) confirmed the favourable impression which had been made .
The most important events of his administration were the passage of the
See also:Act of 1883 and of the "
See also:Edmunds Law " prohibiting polygamy in the territories, and the completion of three great trans-
See also:continental railways—the
See also:Southern Pacific, the
See also:Northern Pacific, and the
See also:Topeka &
See also:Santa Fe . His administration was lacking in
See also:political situations of a dramatic character, but on all questions that arose his policy was sane and dignified . In 1884 he allowed his name to be presented for renomination in the Republican convention, but he was easily defeated by the friends of James G .
See also:Blaine . At the expiration of his term he resumed his residence in New York city, where he died on the 18th of November 1886 . For an account of his administration see UNITED STATES:
See also:History .
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