See also:geographical name for the peninsula, forming
See also:part of the
See also:empire of
See also:Turkey, on the extreme west of the continent of
See also:Asia, bounded on the N. by the Black
See also:Sea, on the W. by the
See also:Aegean, and on the S. by the Mediterranean, and at its N.W. extremity only parted from
See also:Europe by the narrow straits of the
See also:Bosporus and
See also:Dardanelles . On the east, no natural boundary separates it from the Armenian
See also:plateau; but, for descriptive purposes, it will suffice to take a
See also:drawn from the
See also:southern extremity of the Giaour Dagh, east of the Gulf of Alexandretta along the crest of that chain, then along that of the eastern
See also:Taurus to the
See also:Euphrates near
See also:Malatia, then up the
See also:river, keeping to the western
See also:arm till Erzingan is reached, and finally bending
See also:north to the Black Sea along the course of the Churuk Su, which flows out west of
See also:Batum . This makes the Euphrates the
See also:main eastern limit, with radii to the north-east
See also:angle of the
See also:Levant and the south-east angle of the Black Sea, and roughly agrees with the popular conception of Asia Minor as a geographical region . But it must be remembered that this
See also:term was not used by classical geographers (it is first found in
See also:Orosius in the 5th century A.D.), and is not in
See also:local or official use now . It probably arose in the first instance from a vague popular distinction between the continent itself and the
See also:Roman province of " Asia " (q.v.), which at one
See also:time included most of the peninsula west of the central
See also:desert (Axylon) . The name Anatolia, in the
See also:form Anadol, is used by natives for the western part of the peninsula (cis Halym) and not as including
See also:Cappadocia and
See also:Pontus . Before the reconstitution of the provinces as vilayets it was the official title of the
See also:principal eyalet of Asia Minor, and was also used more generally to include all the
See also:peninsular provinces over which the beylerbey of Anadoli, whose seat was at
See also:Kutaiah, had the same paramount military jurisdiction which the beylerbey of " Rumili " enjoyed in the peninsular provinces of Europe . The term " Anatolia" appears first in the
See also:work of
See also:Constantine Porphyrogenitus (loth century) . The greatest length of Asia Minor, as popularly understood, is along its north edge, 720 m . Along the south it is about 65o m . The greatest breadth is 420 M. from C . Kerembe to C .
Anamur; but at the
See also:waist of the peninsula, between the
See also:head of the Gulf of Alexandretta and the southernmost bight of the Black Sea (at Ordu), it is not quite 300 M . The greater portion of Asia Minor consists of a plateau rising gradually from east to west, 2500 ft. to 4500 ft.; east of the Kizil Irmak (Halys), the ground rises more sharply to the
See also:highlands of Armenia (q.v.) . On the south the plateau is buttressed by the Taurus range, which stretches in a broken irregular line from the Aegean to the Persian frontier . On the north the plateau is supported by a range of varying altitude, which follows the southern
See also:coast of the Black Sea and has no distinctive name . On the west the edge of the plateau is broken by broad valleys, and the deeply indented coast-line throws out long rocky promontories towards Europe . On the north, excepting the deltas formed by the Kizil and Yeshil Irmaks, there are no considerable coast plains, no
See also:good harbours except
See also:Sinope and Vona, and no islands . On the west there are narrow coast plains of limited extent, deep gulfs, which offer facilities for
See also:trade and commerce, and a fringe of protecting islands . On the south are the isolated plains of
See also:Pamphylia and
See also:Cilicia, the almost
See also:land-locked harbours of Marmarice, Makri and Kekova, the broad
See also:bay of Adalia, the deep-seated gulf of Alexandretta (Iskanderun), and the islands of Rhodes with dependencies, Castelorizo and Cyprus . Mountains.—The Taurus range, perhaps the most important feature in Asia Minor, runs the whole length of the peninsula or. the south, springing east of Euphrates in the Armeno-Kurdish highlands, and being prolonged into the Aegean Sea by rocky promontories and islands . It attains in
See also:Lycia an altitude of 10,500 ft., and in the Bulgar Dagh (Cilicia) of over lo,000 ft . The
See also:elevation is about 7000 ft . East of the Bulgar Dagh the range is pierced by the Sihun and Jihun
See also:rivers, and their tributaries, but its continuity is not broken .
The principal passes across the range are those over which Roman or
See also:Byzantine roads ran:—(I) from Laodicea to Adalia (
See also:Attalia), by way of the Khonas pass and the valley of the Istanoz Chai ; (2) from
See also:Apamea or from Pisidian
See also:Antioch to Adalia, by Isbarta and Sagalassus; (3) from Laranda, by Coropissus and the upper valley of the southern Calycadnus, to Germanicopolis and thence to Anemourium or Kelenderis; (4) from Laranda, by the
See also:lower Calycadnus, to Claudiopolis and thence to Kelenderis or
See also:Seleucia ; (5) from
See also:Iconium or Caesarea Mazaca, through the Cilician
See also:Gates (Gulek Boghaz, 3300 ft.) to
See also:Tarsus ; (6) from Caesarea to the valley of the Sarus and thence to Flaviopolis on the Cilician Plain ; (7) from Caesarea over
See also:Anti-Taurus by the Kuru Chai to Cocvsus (Geuksun) and thence to Germanicia (
See also:Marash) . Large districts on the southern slopes of the Taurus chain are covered with forests of
See also:oak and
See also:fir, and there are numerous yailas or grassy "
See also:alps," with abundant
See also:water, to which villagers and nomads move with their flocks during the summer months . Anti-Taurus is a term of rather vague and doubtful application . (a) Some have regarded it as meaning the more or less continuous range which buttresses up the central plateau on the north, parallel to the Taurus . (b) Others take it to mean the line of heights and
See also:mountain peaks which separates the
See also:running to the Black Sea and the Anatolian plateau from those falling to the Persian Gulf and the Mediterranean . This has its origin in the high land, near the source of the Kizil Irmak, and thence runs south-west towards the volcanic
See also:district of Mt . Argaeus, which, however, can hardly be regarded as orographically one with it . After a low
See also:interval it springs up again at its southern extremity in the lofty
See also:ridge of
See also:Ala Dagh (11,00o ft.), and finally joins Taurus . (c) South of Sivas a line of
See also:bare hills connects this chain with another range of high
See also:forest-clad mountains, which loses itself southwards in the main mass of Taurus, and is held to be the true Anti-Taurus by geographers . It throws off, in the latitude of Kaisarieh, a subsidiary range, the Binboa Dagh, which separates the waters of the Sihun from those of the Jihun . The principal passes are those followed by the old roads:—(1) from Sebasteia to Tephrike and the upper valley of the western Euphrates ; (2) from Sebasteia to Melitene, by way of the pass of Delikli Tash and the
See also:basin of the Tokhma Su; (3) from Caesarea to Arabissus, by the Kuru Chai and the valley of Cocysus (Geuksun) . The range of Amanus (Giaour Dagh) is separated from the mass of Taurus by the deep
See also:gorge of the Jihun, whence it runs south - south - west to
See also:Ras el - Khanzir, forming the limit between Cilicia and
See also:Syria, various parts bearing different names, as Elma Dagh above Alexandretta .
It attains its greatest altitude in Kaya Duldul (6500 ft.), which rises abruptly from the
See also:bed of the Jihun, and it is crossed by two celebrated passes:—(1) the Amanides Pylae (Baghche Pass), through which ran the road from the Cilician Plain to Apamea-Zeugma, on the Euphrates; (2) the Pylae Syriae or " Syrian Gates " (Beilan Pass), through which passed the
See also:great Roman
See also:highway from Tarsus to Syria . On the western edge of the plateau several
See also:short ranges, running approximately east and west, rise above the general level:—Sultan Dagh (6500 ft.); Salbacus-
See also:Cadmus (8000 ft.); Messogis (3600 ft.); Latmus (6000 ft.); Tmolus (5000 ft.); Dindymus (8200 ft.);
See also:Ida (5800 ft.); and the Mysian
See also:Olympus (7600 ft.) . The valleys of the Maeander, Hermus and Caicus facilitate communication between the plateau and the Aegean, and the descent to the Sea of Marmora along the valleys of the Tembris and Sangarius presents no difficulties . The
See also:northern border range, though not continuous, rises steadily from the west to itsculmination in the Galatian Olympus (Ilkaz Dagh), south of
See also:Kastamuni . East of the Kizil Irmak there is no single mountain chain, but there are several short ranges with elevations sometimes exceeding 9000 ft . The best routes from the plateau to the Black Sea were followed by the Roman roads from Tavium and Sebasteia to Sinope and Amisus, and those from Sebasteia to Cotyora and Cerasus-Pharnacia, which at first ascend the upper Halys . Several minor ranges rise above the level of the eastern plateau, and in the south groups of volcanic peaks and cones extend for about 15o m. from Kaisarieh (Caesarea) to Karaman . The most important are Mt . Argaeus (Erjish Dagh, 13,100 ft.) above Kaisarieh itself, the highest
See also:peak in Asia Minor;
See also:Ali Dagh (6200 ft.) ;
See also:Hassan Dagh (8000 ft.); Karaja Dagh; and Kara Dagh (7500 ft.) . On the west of the plateau evidences of volcanic activity are to be seen in the district of Kula (Katakekaumene), coated with
See also:recent erupted
See also:matter, and in the numerous hot springs of the Lycus, Maeander, and other valleys . Earthquakes are frequent all over the peninsula, but especially in the south-east and west, where the Maeander valley and the Gulf of
See also:Smyrna are notorious seismic foci . The centre of the plateau is occupied by a vast treeless plain, the Axylon of the Greeks, in which lies a large salt lake, Tuz Geul .
The plain is fertile where cultivated, fairly supplied with deep
See also:wells, and in many places covered with good pasture . Enclosed between the Taurus and Amanus ranges and the sea are the fertile plains of Cilicia Pedias, consisting in great part of a
See also:rich, stoneless
See also:loam, out of which rise rocky crags that are crowned with the ruins of
See also:Greco-Roman and Armenian strongholds, and of Pamphylia, partly alluvial
See also:soil, partly travertine, deposited by the Taurus rivers . Rivers.—The rivers of Asia Minor are of no great importance . Some do not flow directly to the sea; others find their way to the coast through deep rocky gorges, or are mere torrents; and a few only are navigable for boats for short distances from their mouths . They cut so deep into the
See also:limestone formation of the plateau as to over-drain it, and often they disappear into swallow holes (duden) to reappear lower down . The most important rivers which flow to the Black Sea are the following:—the Boas (Churuk Su) which rises near Baiburt, and flows out near Batum; the
See also:Iris (Yeshil Irmak), with its tributaries the Lycus (Kelkit Irmak), which rises on the Armenian plateau, the Chekerek Irmak, which has its source near
See also:Yuzgat, and the Tersakan Su; the Halys (Kizil Irmak) is the longest river in Asia Minor, with its tributaries,, the Deiije Irmak (Cappadox), which flows through the eastern part of
See also:Galatia, and the Geuk Irmak, which has its
See also:sources in the mountains above Kastamuni . With the exception of Sivas, no
See also:town of importance lies in the valley of the Kizil Irmak throughout its course of over 600 m . The Sangarius (Sakaria) rises in the Phrygian mountains and, after many changes of direction, falls into the Black Sea, about 8o m. east of the Bosporus . Its tributaries are the Pursak Su (Tembris), which has its source in the
See also:Murad Dagh (Dindymus), and, after running north to Eski-shehr, flows almost due east to the Sakaria, and the Enguri Su, which joins the Sakaria a little below the junction of the Pursak . To the Black Sea, about 40 M. east of Eregli, also flows the Billaeus (Filiyas.Chai) . Into the Sea of Marmora run the Rhyndacus(Edrenos Chai) and the Macestus (Susurlu Chai), which unite about 12 M. from the sea . The most celebrated streams of the
See also:Troad are the Granicus (Bigha Chai) and the Scamander (Menderes Su), both rising in Mt .
Ida (Kaz Dagh) . The former flows to the Sea of Marmora; the latter to the Dardanelles . The most northerly of the rivers that flow to the Aegean is the Caicus (Bakir Chai), which runs pastSoma, and near
See also:Pergamum, to the Gulf of Chanderli . The Hermus (Gediz Chai) has its principal sources in the Murad Dagh, and, receiving several streams on its way, runs through the volcanic district of Katakekaumene to the broad fertile valley through which it flows past
See also:Manisa to the sea, near Lefke . So recently as about 188o it discharged into the Gulf of Smyrna, but the shoals formed by its silt-laden waters were so obstructive to navigation that it was turned back into its old bed . Its principal tributaries arc—the Phrygius (
See also:Kum Chai), which receives the waters of the Lycus (Giirduk Chai), and the Cogamus (Kuzu Chai), which in its upper course is separated from the valley of the Maeander by hills that were crossed by the Roman road from Pergamum to Laodicea . The Caystrus (Kuchuk Menderes) flows through a fertile valley between Mt . Tmolus and Messogis to the sea near Ephesus, where its silt has filled up the
See also:port . The Maeander (Menderes Chai) takes its rise in a celebrated
See also:group of springs near
See also:Dineir, and after a winding course enters the broad valley, through which it " meanders" to the sea . Its deposits have long since filled up the harbours of
See also:Miletus, and converted the islands which protected them into mounds in a swampy plain . Its principal tributaries are the
See also:Glaucus, the Senarus (Banaz Chai), and the Hippurius, on the right
See also:bank . On the
See also:left bank are the Lycus (Churuk Su), which flows westwards by
See also:Colossae through a broad open valley that affords the only natural approach to the elevated plateau, the Harpasus (Ak Chai), and the
See also:Marsyas (
See also:China Chai) .
The rivers that flow to the Mediterranean, with two exceptions, rise in Mt . Taurus, and have short courses, but inwinter and
See also:spring they bring down large bodies of water . In Lycia are the
See also:Indus (Gereniz Chai), and the
See also:Xanthus (Eshen Chai) . The Pamphylian plain is traversed by the Cestrus (Ak Su), the
See also:Eurymedon (Keupri Su), and the Melas (Menavgat Chai), which, where it enters the sea, is a broad, deep stream, navigable for about 6 m . The Calycadnus (Geuk Su) has two main branches which join near Mut and flow south-east, and enter the sea, a deep rapid river, about 12 M. below Selefke . The Cydnus (Tersous or Tarsus Chai) is formed by the junction of three streams that rise in Mt . Taurus, and one of these flows through the narrow gorge known as the Cilician Gates . After passing Tarsus, the river enters a
See also:marsh which occupies the site of the ancient
See also:harbour . The Cydnus is liable to floods, and its deposits have covered Roman Tarsus to a
See also:depth of 20 ft . The Sarus (Sihun) is formed by the junction of the Karmalas (Zamanti Su), which rises in Uzun Yaila, and the Sarus (Saris), which has its sources in the hills to the south of the same plateau . The first, after entering Mt . Taurus, flows through a deep chasm walled in by lofty precipices, and is joined in the heart of the range by the Saris .
Before reaching the Cilician Plain the river receives the waters of the Kerkhun Su, which cuts through the Bulgar Dagh, and opens a way for the roads from the Cilician Gates to
See also:Konia and Kaisarieh . After passing
See also:Adana, to which point small craft ascend, the Sihun runs south-west to the sea . There are, however, indications that at one
See also:period it flowed south-east to join the Pyramus . The Pyramus (Jihun) has its principal source in a group of large springs near Albistan; but before it enters Mt . Taurus it is joined by the Sogutli Irmak, the Khurman Su and the Geuk Su . The river emerges from Taurus, about 7 M. west of Marash, and here it is joined by the Ak Su, which rises in some small lakes south of Taurus . The Jihun now enters a remarkable
See also:defile which separates Taurus from the Giaour Dagh, and reaches the Cilician Plain near Budrun . From this point it flows west, and then south-west past Missis, until it makes a
See also:bend to
See also:discharge its waters south of Ayas Bay . The river is navigable as far as Missis . The only considerable tributary of the Euphrates which comes within our region is the Tokhma Su, which rises in Uzun Yaila and flows south-east to the main river not far from Malatia . In the central and southern portions of the plateau the streams either flow into salt lakes, where their waters pass off by evaporation, or into
See also:freshwater lakes, which have no visible outlets . In the latter cases the waters find their way beneath Taurus in subterranean channels, and reappear as the sources of rivers flowing to the coast .
Thus the Ak Geul supplies the Cydnus, and the Beishehr, Egirdir and Kestel lakes feed the rivers of the Pamphylian plain . Lakes.—The salt lakes are Tuz Geul (anc .
See also:Tatta), which lies in the great central plain, and is about 6o m. long and ro to 30 rn. broad in winter, but in the dry
See also:season it is hardly more than a saline marsh;
See also:Buldur GeuI, 2900 ft. above sea-level; and Aji-tuz Geul, 2600 ft . The freshwater lakes are Beishehr Geul (anc . Karalis),3770 ft., a
See also:sheet of water 30 M. long, which discharges south-east to the Soghla Geul; Egirdir Geul (probably anc . Limnae, a name which included the two bays of Hoiran and Egirdir, forming the lake), 285o ft., which is 30 M. long, but less broad than Beishehr and noted for the abundance and variety of its
See also:fish . In the north-west portion of Asia Minor are Isnik Geul (L . Ascania), Abulliont Geul (L .
See also:Apollonia), and Maniyas Geul (L . Miletopolis) . Springs.—Asia Minor is remarkable for the number of its thermal and
See also:mineral springs . The most important are:—Yalova, in the
See also:Ismid sanjak;
See also:Brusa, Chitli, Terje and Eskishehr, in the Brusa vilayet; Tuzla, in the Karasi ; Cheshme, Ilija,
See also:Hierapolis (with enormous
See also:alum deposits), and Alashehr, in the
See also:Aidin; Terzili Hammam and
See also:Iskelib in the
See also:Angora ;
See also:Boll in the Kastamuni; and Khaysa, in the Sivas .
Many of these were famous in antiquity and occur in a
See also:list given by
See also:Strabo . The Maeander valley is especially noted for its hot springs . Geology.—The central plateau of Asia Minor consists of nearly
See also:horizontal strata, while the surrounding mountain chains form a complex
See also:system, in which the beds are intensely folded . Around the coast
See also:flat-lying deposits of
See also:Tertiary age are found, and these often extend high up into the mountain region . The deposits of the central, or Lycaonian, plateau consist of freshwater marls and lime-stones of
See also:late Tertiary or Neogene age . Along the south-eastern margin, in front of the Taurus, stands a line of great volcanoes, stretching from Kara-Dagh to Argaeus . They are now
See also:extinct, but were probably active till the close of the Tertiary period . On its southern side the plateau is bounded by the high chains of the Taurus and the Anti-Taurus, which form a
See also:crescent with its convexity facing southwards . Devonian and Carboniferous fossils have been found in several places in the Anti-Taurus . Limestones of Eocene or Cretaceous age form a large part of the Taurus, but the interior zone probably includes rocks of earlier periods . The folding of the Anti-Taurus affects the Eocene but not the
See also:Miocene, while in the Taurus the Miocene beds have been elevated, but without much folding, to great heights . North of the Lycaonian plateau lies another zone of folding which may be divided into the East Pontian and West Pontian arcs .
In the east a well-defined mountain system runs nearly parallel to the Black Sea coast from Batum to Sinope, forming agentle
See also:curve with its convexity facing south-wards . Cretaceous limestones and
See also:serpentine take a large part in the formation of these mountains, while even the Oligocene is involved in the folds . West of Sinope Cretaceous beds form a long
See also:strip parallel to the
See also:shore line . Carboniferous rocks occur at Eregli (
See also:Heraclea Pontica), where they have been worked for
See also:coal . Devonian fossils have been found near the Bosporus and Carboniferous fossils at Balia Maden in
See also:Mysia . Triassic,
See also:Jurassic and Cretaceous beds form a
See also:band south of the Sea of Marmora, probably the continuation of the Mesozoic band of the Black Sea coast . Farther south there are zones of serpentine, and of crystalline and schistose rocks, some of which are probably Palaeozoic . The direction of the folds of this region is from west to east, but on the
See also:borders of
See also:Phrygia and Mysia they meet the north-
See also:westerly extension of the Taurus folds and bend around the ancient mass of
See also:Lydia . Marine Eocene beds occur near the Dardanelles, but the Tertiary deposits of this part of Asia Minor are mostly freshwater and belong to the upper part of the system . In western Mysia they are much disturbed, but in eastern Mysia they are nearly horizontal . They are often accompanied by volcanic rocks, which are mainly andesitic, and they commonly lie unconformably upon the older beds . In the western part of Asia Minor there are several areas of ancient rocks about which very little is known .
The Taurus folds here meet another system which enters the region from the Aegean Sea .
See also:Climate.—The climate is varied, but systematic observations are wanting . On the plateau the winter is long and
See also:cold, and in the northern districts there is much
See also:snow . The summer is very hot, but the nights are usually cool . On the north coast the winter is cold, and the winds, sweeping across the Black Sea from the
See also:steppes of Russia, are accompanied by torrents of
See also:rain and heavy falls of snow . East of
See also:Samsun, where the coast is partially protected by the
See also:Caucasus, the climate is more moderate . In summer the
See also:heat is
See also:damp and enervating, and, as
See also:Trebizond is approached, the vegetation becomes almost subtropical . On the south coast the winter is mild, with occasional frosts and heavy rain; the summer heat is very great . On the west coast the climate is moderate, but the influence of the cold north winds is
See also:felt as far south as Smyrna, and the winter at that place is colder than in corresponding latitudes in Europe . A great feature of summer is the inbat or north
See also:wind, which blows almost daily, often with the force of a gale, off the sea from
See also:noon till near sunset . Products, &'c.—The mineral
See also:wealth of Asia Minor is very great, but few mines have yet been opened . The minerals known to exist are—alum, antimony, arsenic,
See also:asbestos, boracide, chrome, coal, copper,
See also:earth, gold, iron,
See also:kaolin, lead,
See also:lignite, magnetic iron,
See also:meerschaum, mercury, nickel,
See also:sulphur and
See also:zinc .
The vegetation varies with the climate, soil anc elevation . The mountains on the north coast are clothed with dense forests of
See also:pine, fir,
See also:cedar, oak,
See also:beech, &c . On the Taurus range the forests are smaller, and there is a larger proportion of pine . On the west coast the ilex,
See also:plane, oak, valonia oak, and pine predominate . On the plateau willows, poplars and
See also:chestnut trees grow near the streams, but nine-tenths of the
See also:country is treeless, except for scrub . On the south and west coasts the fig and
See also:olive are largely cultivated . The
See also:vine yields rich produce everywhere, except in the higher districts . The
See also:cherry and
See also:plum thrive well in the north; the orange, lemon, citron and
See also:cane in the south; styrax and
See also:mastic in the south-west; and the wheat lands of the Sivas vilayet can hardly be surpassed . The most important
See also:vegetable productions are—cereals,
See also:gum tragacanth,
See also:liquorice, olive oil, opium,
See also:tobacco and yellow berries .
See also:Silk is produced in large quantities in the vicinity of Brusa and
See also:Amasia, and
See also:mohair from the Angora
See also:goat all over the plateau . The
See also:wild animals include bear, boar,
See also:fallow red and roe
See also:deer, gazelle,
See also:ibex, jackal,
See also:leopard, lynx, moufflon,
See also:panther, wild
See also:sheep and
See also:wolf . The native reports of a maneless lion in Lycia (arslan) are probably based on the existence of large panthers .
Amongst the domestic animals are the
See also:buffalo, the Syrian camel, and a
See also:mule camel, bred from a Bactrian sire and Syrian
See also:mother . Large numbers of sheep and Angora goats are reared on the plateau, and
See also:fair horses are bred on the Uzun Yaila; but no effort is made to improve the quality of the wool and mohair or the breed of horses . Good mules can be obtained in several districts, and small
See also:hardy oxen are largely bred for ploughing and transport . The larger birds are the bittern, great and small
See also:bustard, eagle, francolin,
See also:grey and red-legged
See also:partridge, sand
See also:grouse, pelican,
See also:stork and
See also:swan . The rivers and lakes are well supplied with fish, and the mountain streams abound with small'
See also:trout . The principal manufactures are: Carpets, rugs, cotton, tobacco, mohair and silk stuffs,
See also:wine and
See also:leather . The exports are:—Cereals, cotton, cotton seed, dried fruits, drugs, fruit,
See also:gall nuts, gum tragacanth, liquorice
See also:maize, nuts, olive oil, opium, rice,
See also:sponges, storax,
See also:timber, tobacco, valonia,
See also:wood, wine, yellow berries, carpets, cotton
See also:yarn, cocoons, hides, leather, mohair, silk, silk stuffs, rugs,
See also:wax, wool, leeches, live stock, minerals, &c . The imports are:—Coffee, cotton cloths, cotton goods, crockery, drysalteries, fezzes,
See also:ware, haberdashery, hardware,
See also:henna, iron-ware, jute,
See also:linen goods, manufactured goods, matches, petroleum, salt, sugar, woollen goods, yarns, &c . Communications.—There are few metalled roads, and those that exist are in
See also:bad repair, but on the plateau
See also:light carts can pass nearly everywhere . The lines of railway now open are: (I) From Haidar
See also:Pasha to Ismid, Eski-shchr and Angora; (2) from
See also:Mudania to Brusa; (3) from Eski-shehr to Afium-Kara-
See also:hissar, Konia and Bulgurli, east of Eregli (the first section of the
See also:Bagdad railway) . These lines are worked by the German Gesellschaft der anatolischen Eisenbahnen . (4) From Smvrna to Manisa, Ala-shehr and Afium Kara-hissar, with / a branch line from Manisa to Soma .
This line is worked by aFrench
See also:company . (5) From Smyrna to Aidin and Dineir, with branches to Odemish, Tirch, Sokia,
See also:Denizli, Ishekli, Seidi Keui and Bouja, constructed and worked by an
See also:English company . (6) From
See also:Mersina to Tarsus and Adana, an English line under a
See also:control mainly French . There are two competing routes for the eastern trade—one running inland from Constantinople (Haidar Pasha), the other from Smyrna . The first is connected by
See also:ferry with the
See also:European railway system; the second with the great sea routes from Smyrna to Trieste,
See also:Marseilles and Liverpool . The right to construct all
See also:railways in Armenia and north-eastern Asia Minor has been conceded to Russia, and the Germans have a virtual
See also:monopoly of the central plateau .
See also:Ethnology.—None of the conquering races that invaded Asia Minor, whether from the east or from the west, wholly expelled or exterminated the
See also:race in possession . The vanquished retired to the hills or absorbed the victors . In the course of ages race distinction has been almost obliterated by
See also:fusion of
See also:blood; by the
See also:complete Hellenization of the country, which followed the introduction of
See also:Christianity; by the later acceptance of
See also:Islam; and by migrations due to the occupation of cultivated lands by the nomads . It will be convenient here to adopt the
See also:modern division into Moslems, Christians and Jews:—(a) Moslems . The
See also:Turks never established themselves in such numbers• as to form the predominant
See also:element in the population . Where the land was unsuitable for nomad occupation the agricultural population remained, and it still retains some of its
See also:original characteristics .
Thus in Cappadocia the facial type of the non-
See also:Aryan race is
See also:common, and in Galatia there are traces of Gallic blood . The Zeibeks of the west and south-west are apparently representatives of the Carians and Lycians; and the peasants of the Black Sea coast range of the
See also:people of
See also:Paphlagonia and Pontus . Wherever the people accepted Islam they called themselves Turks, and a majority of the so-called " Turks " belong by blood to the races that occupied Asia Minor before the Seljuk invasion .
See also:Turkish and Zaza-speaking Kurds (see
See also:KURDISTAN) are found in the Angora and Sivas vilayets . There are many large colonies of Circassians and smaller ones of Noghai (Nogais), Tatars, Georgians, Lazis, Cossacks, Albanians and Pomaks . East of Boghaz Keui there is a compact population of Kizilbash, who are partly descendants of Shia Turks trans-planted from
See also:Persia and partly of the indigenous race . In the Cilician plain there are large settlements of Nosairis who have migrated from the Syrian mountains (see SYRIA) . The nomads and semi-nomads are, for the most part, representatives of the Turks,
See also:Mongols and Tatars who poured into the country during the 350 years that followed the defeat of
See also:Romanus . Turkomans are found in the Angora and Adana vilayets; Avshars, a tribe of Turkish origin, in the valleys of Anti-Taurus; and Tatars in the Angora and Brusa vilayets; Yuruks are most numerous in the Konia vilayet . They speak Turkish and profess to be Moslems, but have no mosques or imams . The Turkomans have villages in which they spend the winter, wandering over the great plains of the interior with their flocks and herds during the summer . The Yuruks on the contrary are a truly nomad race .
Their tents are made of black goats'hair and their principal covering is a cloak of the same material . They are not limited to the milder districts of the interior, but when the
See also:harvest is over, descend into the rich plains and valleys near the coast . The Chepmi and Takhtaji, who live chiefly in the Aidin vilayet, appear to be derived from one of the early races . (b) Christians . The Greeks are in places the descendants of colonists from
See also:Greece, many of whom, e.g. in Pamphylia and the Smyrna district, are of very recent importation; but most'of them belong by blood to the indigenous races . These people became " Greeks " as being subjects of the Byzantine empire and members of the Eastern
See also:Church . On the west coast, in Pontus and to some extent of late in Cappadocia, and in the
See also:mining villages, peopled from the Trebizond Greeks, the language is Romaic; on the south coast and in many inland villages (e.g. in Cappadocia) it is either Turkish, which is written in Greek characters, or a Greco-Turkish
See also:jargon . In and near Smyrna there are large colonies of Heilenes . Armenians are most numerous in the eastern districts, where they have been settled since the great
See also:migration that preceded and followed the Seljuk invasion . There are, however, Armenians in every large town . In central and western Asia Minor they are the descendants of colonists from Persia and Armenia (see ARMENIA) . (c) The Jews live chiefly on the Bosporus; and in Smyrna, Rhodes, Brusa and other western towns .
Gypsies—some Moslem, some Christian—are also numerous, especially in the south .
See also:History.—Asia Minor owes the
See also:interest of its history to its geographical position . " Planted like a
See also:bridge between Asia and Europe," it has been from the earliest period a
See also:battle-ground between the East and the West . The central plateau (2500 to 4500 ft.), with no navigable river and few natural approaches, with its monotonous scenery and severe climate, is a continuation of central Asia . The west coast, with its alternation of sea and promontory, of rugged mountains and fertile valleys, its bright and varied scenery, and its fine climate, is almost a part of Europe . These conditions are unfavourable to permanence, and the history of Asia Minor is that of the
See also:march of hostile armies, and rise and fall of small states, rather than that of a
See also:united state under an
See also:sovereign . At a very early period Asia Minor appears to have been occupied by non-Aryan tribes or races which differed little from each other in religion, language and social system . During the past generation much light has been thrown upon one of these races—the "
See also:Hittites " or " Syro-Cappadocians," who, after their
See also:rule had passed away, were known to
See also:Herodotus as "
See also:White Syrians," and whose descendants can still be recognized in the villages of Cappadocia.' The centre of their power is supposed to have been Boghaz Keui (see
See also:PTERIA), east of the Halys, whence roads radiated to harbours on the Aegean, to Sinope, to northern Syria and to the Cilician plain . Their
See also:strange sculptures and inscriptions have been found at Pteria,
See also:Euyuk, Fraktin, Kiz Hissar (Tyana), Ivriz, Bulgar, Muden and other places between Smyrna and the ' The people, Moslem and Christian, are physically one and appear to be closely related to the modern Armenians . This relationship is noticeable in other districts, and the whole original population of Asia Minor has been characterized as Proto-Armenian or Armenoid . 760 Euphrates (see HITTITES) . When the great Aryan immigration from Europe commenced is unknown, but it was dying out in the rlth and loth centuries B.C .
In Phrygia the
See also:Aryans founded a
See also:kingdom, of which traces remain in various rock tombs, forts and towns, and in legends preserved by the Greeks . The Phrygian power was broken in the 9th or 8th century B.C. by the
See also:Cimmerii, who entered Asia Minor through Armenia; and on its decline
See also:rose the kingdom of Lydia, with its centre at
See also:Sardis . A second Cimmerian invasion almost destroyed the rising kingdom, but the invaders were expelled at last by
See also:Alyattes, 617 B.C . (see
See also:SCYTHIA) . The last
See also:Croesus ( ? 560-546 B.C.) carried the boundaries of Lydia to the Halys, and subdued the Greek colonies on the coast . The date of the foundation of these colonies cannot be fixed; but at an early period they formed a chain of settlements from Trebizond to Rhodes, and by the 8th century B.C. some of them rivalled the splendour of Tyre and Sidon . Too jealous of each other to combine, and too de-moralized by luxury to resist, they fell an easy
See also:prey to Lydia; and when the Lydian kingdom ended with the capture of Sardis by Cyrus, 546 B.C. they passed, almost without resistance, to Persia . Under Persian rule Asia Minor was divided into four satrapies, but the Greek cities were governed by Greeks, and several of the tribes in the interior retained their native princes and
See also:priest-dynasts . An attempt of the Greeks to regain their freedom was crushed, 500-494 B.C., but later the
See also:tide turned and the cities were combined with European Greeks into a
See also:league for defence against the Persians . The weakness of Persian rule was disclosed by the expedition of Cyrus and the Ten Thousand Greeks, 402 B.C.; and in the following century Asia Minor was invaded by
See also:Alexander the Great (q.v.), 334 B.C . (See GREECE; PERSIA;
See also:IONIA.) The
See also:wars which followed the
See also:death of Alexander eventually gave Asia Minor to Seleucus, but none of the Seleucid
See also:kings was able to establish his rule over the whole peninsula .
Rhodes be-came a great maritimerepublic, and much of the south and west coast belonged at one time or another to the
See also:Ptolemies of
See also:Egypt . An independent kingdom was founded at Pergamum, 283 B.C., which lasted until Attalus III., 133 B.0 , made the Romans his heirs . Bithynia became an independent
See also:monarchy, and Cappadocia and Paphlagonia tributary provinces under native princes . In southern Asia Minor the Seleucids founded Antioch, Apamea, Attalia, the Laodiceas and Seleuceias, and other cities as centres of commerce, some of which afterwards played an import-
See also:ant part in the Hellenization (see
See also:HELLENISM) of the country, and in the spread of Christianity . During the 3rd century, 278-277 B.C., certain Gallic tribes crossed the Bosporus and
See also:Hellespont, and established a
See also:Celtic power in central Asia Minor . They were- confined by the victories of Attalus I. of Pergamum, c . 232 B.C., to a district on the Sangarius and Halys to which the name Galatia was applied; and after their defeat by
See also:Manlius, 189 B.C., they were subjected to the
See also:suzerainty of Pergamum (see GALATIA) . The defeat of F "tiochus the Great at
See also:Magnesia, 190 B.C., placed Asia Minor , the mercy of Rome; but it was not until 133 that the first Rixan province, Asia, was formed to include only western Anatolia, without Bithynia . Errors in policy and in
See also:government facilitated the rise of Pontus into a formidable power under
See also:Mithradates, who was finally driven out of the country by
See also:Pompey, and died 63 B.C . Under the settlement of Asia Minor by Pompey, Bithynia-Pontus and Cilicia became provinces, whilst Galatia and Cappadocia were allowed to retain nominal independence for over
See also:half a century more under native kings, and Lycia continued an autonomous League . A long period of tranquillity followed, during which the Roman dominion
See also:grew, and all Asia Minor was divided into two provinces . The boundaries were often changed; and about A.D .
See also:Diocletian's reorganization of the empire, the power of the great military commands was broken, and the provinces were made smaller and united in groups called dioceses . A great
See also:change followed the introduction of Christianity, which spread first along the main roads that ran north and west from the Cilician Gates, and especially along the great trade route to Ephesus . In somedistricts it spread rapidly, in others slowly . With its advance the native
See also:languages and old religions gradually disappeared, and at last the whole country was thoroughly Hellenized, and the people united by identity of language and religion . At the close of the 6th century Asia Minor had become wealthy and prosperous; but centuries of peace and over-centralization had affected the moral of the people and weakened the central government . During the 7th century the provincial system broke down, and the country was divided into themes or military districts . From 616 to 626 Persian armies swept unimpeded over the land, and
See also:Chosroes (Khosrau) II. pitched his
See also:camp on the shore of the Bosporus . The victories of
See also:Heraclius forced Chosroes to retire; but the Persians were followed by the
See also:Arabs, who, advancing with equal ease, laid
See also:siege to Constantinople, A.D . 668 . It almost appeared as if Asia Minor would be annexed to the dominion of the
See also:Caliph . But the tide of
See also:conquest was stemmed by the iconoclast emperors, and the Arab expeditions, excepting those of
See also:Harun al-Rashid, 781 and 8o6, and of el-Motasim, 838, became simply predatory raids . In the loth century the Arabs were expelled .
They never held more than the districts along the main roads, and in the intervals of peace the country rapidly recovered itself . But a more dangerous enemy was soon to appear on the eastern border . In 1067 the Seljuk Turks ravaged Cappadocia and Cilicia; in 1071 they defeated and captured theemperor Romanus
See also:Diogenes, and in 1o8o they took Nicaea . One branch of the
See also:Seljuks founded the empire of
See also:Rum, with its capital first at Nicaea and then at Iconium . The empire, which at one time included nearly the whole of Asia Minor, with portions of Armenia and Syria, passed to the Mongols when they defeated the sultan of Rum in 1243, and the sultans became vassals of the Great Khan . The Seljuk sultans were liberal patrons of
See also:art, literature and science, and the remains of their public buildings and tombs are amongst the most beautiful and most interesting in the country . The
See also:marches of the Crusaders across Asia Minor left no permanent impression . But the support given by the Latin princes to the Armenians in Cilicia facilitated the growth of the small warlike state of Lesser Armenia, which fell in 1375 with the defeat and capture of
See also:Leo VI. by the Mameluke sultan of Egypt . The Mongols were too weak to govern the country they had conquered, and the vassalage of the last sultan of Rum, who died in 1307, was only nominal . On his death the
See also:governors of his western provinces drove out the Mongols and asserted their independence . A contest for supremacy followed, which eventually ended in favour of the Osmanli Turks of Brusa . In 1400 Sultan Bayezid I. held all Asia Minor west of the Euphrates; but in 1402 he was defeated and made prisoner by Timur, who swept through the country to the shores of the Aegean .
On the death of Timur Osmanli supremacy was re-established after a prolonged struggle, which ended with theannexation by Mahommed II . (1451-1481) of
See also:Karamania and Trebizond, and the
See also:abandonment of the last of the
See also:Italian trading settlements which had studded the coast during the 13th and 14th centuries . The later history of Asia Minor is that of the Turkish empire . The most important event was the advance (1832-1833) of an
See also:Egyptian army, under
See also:Ibrahim Pasha, through the Cilician Gates to Kohia and Kutaiah . The defeat of the emperor Romanus (1071) initiated a change in the
See also:condition of Asia Minor which was to be complete and lasting . A long succession of nomad Turkish tribes, pressing forward from central Asia, wandered over the rich country in
See also:search of fresh pastures for their flocks and herds . They did not
See also:plunder or
See also:ill-treat the people, but they cared nothing for town
See also:life or for agricultural pursuits, and as they passed onward they left the country bare . Large districts passed out of cultivation and were abandoned to the nomads, who replaced wheeled
See also:traffic by the
See also:horse and the camel . The peasants either became nomads themselves or took
See also:refuge in the towns or the mountains . The Mongols, as they advanced, sacked towns and laid waste the agricultural lands . Timur conducted his
See also:campaigns with a ruthless disregard of life and
See also:property . Entire Christian communities were massacred, flourishing towns were completely destroyed, and all Asia Minor was ravaged .
From these disasters the country never recovered, and the last traces of Western
See also:civilization disappeared with the enforced use of the Turkish language and the wholesale conversions to Islam under the earliest Osmanli sultans . The recent large increase of the Greek population in the western districts, the construction of railways, and the growing interests of Germany and Russia on the plateau seem, however, to indicate that the tide is again turning in favour of the West . 2 . A . Western Asia Minor.—J .
See also:Spon and G . Whaler, Voyage du Levant (1679); P. de Tournefort, Voyage du Levant (1718); F .
See also:Beaufort, Ionian Antiquities (1811) ; R .
See also:Chandler, Travels (1817); W . M .
See also:Leake, Journal of a Tour in A . M .
(182o) ; F . V . J . Arundell, Visit to the Seven Churches (1828), and Discoveries, &c . (1834); C .
See also:Fellows, Excursion in A . M . (1839) ; C . T .
See also:Newton, Travels (1867), and Discoveries at
See also:Halicarnassus, &c . (1863); Dilettanti Society, Ionian Antiquities (1769–1840); J . R .
S . Sterrett, Epigr .
See also:Journey and Wolfe Exped . (Papers, Amer . Arch . Inst. ii. iii.) (1888); J . H .
See also:Skene, Anadol (1853); G . Radet, Lydie (1893); O . Rayet and A .
See also:Thomas, Milet et le Golfe Latmique (1872); K . Buresch, Aus Lydien (1898) ; W .
See also:Ramsay, Cities and Bishoprics of Phrygia (1895), and Impressions of Turkey (1898) . B . Eastern Asia Minor.—W . F .
See also:Ainsworth, Travels in A . M . (1842); G .
See also:Perrot and E . Guillaume, Expl. arch. de la Galatie (1862–1872) ; E . J .
See also:Davis, Analolica (1874) ; H .
F . Tozer, Turkish Armenia (1881); H . J. v .
See also:Lennep, Travels (187o) ; D . G .
See also:Hogarth, Wandering
See also:Scholar (1896) ;
See also:Warkworth, Notes of a
See also:Diary, &c . (1898) ; E . Sarre, Reise (1896); D . G . Hogarth and J . A . R .
See also:Munro, Mod. and Anc . Roads (R.G.S . Supp . Papers iii.) (1893); H . C . Barkley, A Ride through A . M. and Armenia (1891); M . Sykes,
See also:Dar ul-Islam (19o4); E . Chantre,
See also:Mission en Cappadocie (1898) . C . Southern Asia Minor.—F . Beaufort, Karamania (1817); C .
Fellows, Discoveries in Lycia (1841); T . A . B .Spratt and E .
See also:Forbes, Travels in Lycia (1847); V .
See also:Langlois, Voy . Bans la Cilicie (1861); E . J . Davis, Life in A,ciatic Turkey (1879); 0 . Benndorf and E . Niemann, Lykien (1884); C . Lanckoronski, Villes de la Pamphylie et de la Pisidie (189o); F. v .
Luschan, Reisen in S.W . Kleinasien 1888) ; E . Petersen and F. v . Luschan, Lykien (1889) ; K . Humann and 0 . Puchstein, Reisen in Kleinasien and Nordsyrien (189o) . D . Northern Asia Minor.—J . M . Kinneir, Journey through A . M . (1818) ; J .
G . C .
See also:Anderson and F . Cumont, Studia Pontica (1903) ; E . Naumann, Vom Goldenen
See also:Horn, &c . (1893) . See also G . Perrot and C . Chipiez, Hist. de l'art clans l'antiquite', vols. iv. v . (1886–1890); J . Strzygowski, Kleinasien, &c . (1903) .
Also numerous articles in all leading archaeological
See also:periodicals, the Geographical Journal, Deutsche Rundschau, Petermann's Geog . Mitteilungen, &c . &c . 3 . MAPS.—H .
See also:Kiepert, Nouv.
See also:carte gen.
See also:des prov. asiat. de l'Emp.
See also:ottoman (1894), and Spezialkarte v . Westkleinasien (189o); W. von Diest, Karte des Nordwestkleinasien (1901); R . Kiepert, Karte von Kleinasien (1901) ; E . Friederich, Handels- and Produktenkarte von Kleinasien (1898); J . G . C . Anderson, Asia Minor (
See also:Murray's Handy Class .
Maps) (1903) . (C . W . W.; D . G .
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