ASTRAKHAN , a
See also:town of E . Russia, capital of the
See also:government of Astrakhan, on the
See also:bank of the
See also:main channel of the
See also:Volga, 5o m. from the
See also:Sea, in 46° 2r' N.
See also:lat. and 48° 5' E. long . Since the growth of the petroleum
See also:industry of
See also:Baku and the construction of the Transcaspian railway, Astrakhan has become an important commercial centre, exporting
See also:sugar, metals,
See also:naphtha, cottons and woollens, and importing
See also:cotton, fruit and
See also:timber, to the aggregate value of £8,250,000 with
See also:foreign countries and of £14,500,000 with the interior of Russia . The town gives its name to the " fur " called " astrakhan," the skin of the new-
See also:born Persian lamb, and so to an imitation in rough woollen
See also:cloth . There is some tanning,
See also:building and
See also:brewing, and making of
See also:tar and machinery . Astrakhan is the chief
See also:port on the Caspian Sea and the
See also:head-quarters of the
See also:Russian Caspian
See also:fleet . The city consists of (I) the kreml or citadel (1550), crowning a
See also:hill, on which stand also the spacious
See also:cathedral containing the tombs of two Georgian princes, the archbishop's palace and the monastery of the Trinity; (2) the Byelogorod or
See also:White Town, containing the administrative offices and the bazaars; and (3) the suburbs, where most of the population resides . The buildings in the first two quarters are of
See also:stone, in the third of
See also:wood, irregularly arranged along unpaved, dirty streets . The city is the see of a Greek Catholic archbishop and of an Armenian archbishop, and contains a Lamaist monastery, as well as technical
See also:schools, an ichthyological museum, the
See also:Peter museum, with ethnographical, archaeological and natural
See also:history collections, a botanical
See also:garden, an ecclesiastical seminary, and
See also:good squares and public gardens, one of which is adorned with a statue (1884) of
See also:Alexander II . Vineyards surround the city . Astrakhan was anciently the capital of a Tatar state, and stood some 7 M. farther
See also:north . After this was destroyed by the Mongol
See also:prince Timur the
See also:Great in 1395, the existing city was built .
TheTatars were expelled about 1554 by
See also:Ivan IV. of Russia . In 7569 the city was besieged by the
See also:Turks, but they were defeated with great slaughter by the Russians . In 1670 it was seized by the
See also:rebel Stenka
See also:Razin; early in the following century Peter the Great constructed here a
See also:shipbuilding yard and made Astrakhan the
See also:base for his hostilities against
See also:Persia, and later in the same century Catherine II. accorded the city important
See also:industrial privileges . In 1702, 1718 and 1767, it suffered severely from fires; in 17r9 was plundered by the Persians; and in 1830 the cholera swept away a large number of its
See also:people . In the
See also:middle ages the city was known also as Jitarkhan and Ginterkhan . Pop . (1867) 47,839; (1900) 121,580 . Eight
See also:miles above Astrakhan, on the right bank of the Volga., are the ruins of two
See also:ancient cities superimposed one upon the other . In the upper, which may represent the city of Balanjar (Balansar, Belenjer), have been found gold and
See also:silver coins struck by Mongol rulers, as well as ornaments in the same metals . The older and scantier underlying ruins are supposed to be those of the once large and prosperous city of Itil or Atel (Etel, Idl) of the Arab geographers, a residence of the khan of the
See also:Khazars, destroyed by the Russians in 969 . (P . A .
ASTRAGAL (from the Gr. ao-rpbyaXos, the ankle-joint...
ASTROLABE (from Gr. liar pop, star, and Aa(3eiv, to...
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