Online Encyclopedia


Online Encyclopedia
Originally appearing in Volume V12, Page 317 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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AUGUSTUS HENRY FITZROY, 3rd duke of Grafton (1735–1811), one of the leading politicians of his time, was the grandson of the and duke, and was educated at Westminster and Cambridge. He first became known in politics as an opponent of Lord Bute; in 1765 he was secretary of state under the marquis of Rockingham; but he retired next year, and Pitt (becoming earl of Chatham) formed a ministry in which Grafton was first lord of the treasury (1766) but only nominally prime minister. Chatham's illness at the end of 1767 resulted in Grafton becoming the effective leader, but political differences and the attacks of " Junius led to his resignation in January 1770. He became lord privy seal in Lord North's ministry (1771) but resigned in 1775, being in favour of conciliatory action towards the American colonists. In the Rockingham ministry of 1782 he was again lord privy seal. In later years he was a prominent Unitarian. Besides his successor, the 4th duke (1760–1844), and numerous other children, he was the father of General Lord Charles Fitzroy (1764–1829), whose sons Sir Charles Fitzroy (1798–1858), governor of New South Wales, and Robert Fitzroy (q.v.), the hydrographer, were notable men. The 4th duke's son, who succeeded as 5th duke, was father of the 6th and 7th dukes. The 3rd duke left in manuscript a Memoir of his public career, of which extracts have been printed in Stanhope's History, Walpole's Memories of George III. (Appendix, vol. iv.), and Campbell's Lives of the Chancellors.
AUGUSTUS (a name 1 derived from Lat. augeo, increas...

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