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AUSTRALIA AND NEW

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Originally appearing in Volume V21, Page 156 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND New South Wales.—The Australian Magazine was published monthly at Sydney in 1821–1822. This was followed by the South Asian Register (1827), the Australian Quarterly Journal (1828), edited by the Rev. P. N. Wilton, the New South Wales Magazine (1833), the New South Wales Literary, Political and Commercial Advertiser (1835), edited by the eccentric Dr Lhotsky, Tegg's Monthly Magazine (1836), the Australian Magazine (1838), the New South Wales Magazine (1843), the Australian Penny Journal (1848) and many others. The Sydney University Magazine (1855), again published in 1878–1879, and continued as the Sydney University Review, is the first magazine of a high literary standard. The Sydney Magazine of Science and Art (1857) and the Month (1857) were short-lived. Of later magazines the Australian (1878–1881), Aurora australis (1868), and the Sydney Magazine (1878), were the most noteworthy. Of contemporary magazines Dalgety's Review is mainly agricultural, the Australian Magazine (1909) and the Lone Hand (1907) are popular, and the Science of Man is an anthropological review. See Australasian Bibliography (Sydney, 1893) ; G. B. Barton, Literature of N. S. W. (1866) ; E. A. Petherick, Catalogue of Books Relating to Australasia. (1899). Victoria.—The Port Phillip Magazine (1843) must be regarded as the first literary venture in Victoria. This was followed by the Australia Felix Magazine (1849), and the Australasian Quarterly Reprint (1850–1851) both published at Geelong, the Illustrated Australian Magazine (1850–1852), the Australian Gold-Digger's Monthly Magazine (1852–1853), edited by James Bonwick, and the Melbourne Monthly Magazine (1855–1856). The Journal of Australasia (1856–1858), the Australian Monthly Magazine (1865–1867), which contained contributions from Marcus Clarke and was continued as the Colonial Monthly (1867–1869), the Melbourne Review (1876–1885) and the Victorian Review (1879–1886) may also be mentioned. The Imperial Review, apparently the work of one pen, has been published since 1879; the Pastoralists' Review appeals more especially to the agricultural community. A Library Record of Australasia was published in 1901–1902. An Australian edition of the Review of Reviews is published at Melbourne. See " Some Magazines of Early Victoria," in the Library Record of Australasia, Nos. 2–4 (1901). South Australia.—The South Australian Magazine was issued monthly in 1841-1843, the Adelaide Magazine (1845), the Adelaide Miscellany (1848–1849), and the Wanderer in 1853. The South Australian Twopenny Magazine was published at Plymouth, England, in 1839, and the South Australian Miscellany and New Zealand Review at London in the same year. See T. Gill, Bibliography of South Australia (1886). Tasmania.—The first magazine was Murray's Austral-Asiatic Review, published at Hobart in 1828. The Hobart Town Magazine appeared in 1833-1834, and the Van Diemen's Land Monthly Magazine in 1835. New Zealand.—The New Zealand Magazine, a quarterly, was published at Wellington in 185o. In 1857 appeared the New Zealand Quarterly Review, of little local interest, followed by Chap-man's New Zealand Monthly Magazine (1862), the Southern Monthly Magazine (1863), the Delphic Oracle (1866–187o), the Stoic (1871), the Dunedin Review (1885), the Literary Magazine (1885), the four latter being written by J. G. S. Grant, an eccentric genius, the Monthly Review (1888–189o), the New Zealand Illustrated Magazine (1899-1905), chiefly devoted to the light literature of New Zealand subjects, the Maori Record (1905–1907), and the Red Funnel, published since 1905. See T. M. Hocken, Bibliography of New Zealand (1909). WEST INDIES AND BRITISH CROWN COLONIES In Jamaica the Columbian Magazine was founded at Kingston in 1796 and ceased publication in 1800. Two volumes were Calcutta.—The first Indian periodical was the Asiatick Miscellany (Calcutta, 1785–1789), probably edited by F. Gladwin. The Calcutta Monthly Register was published in 1790, and the Calcutta Monthly Journal from 1798 to 1841. Among other early Calcutta magazines were the Asiatic Observer (1823–1824), the Quarterly Oriental Magazine (1824–1827), and the Royal Sporting Magazine (1833–1838). The Calcutta Literary Gazette was published in 1830-1834, and the Calcutta Review, still the most important serial of the Indian Empire, first appeared in 1846 under the editor-ship of Sir J. W. Kaye. Bombay.—The Bombay Magazine was started in 1811 and lasted but a short time. The Bombay Quarterly Magazine (1851–1853) gave place to the Bombay Quarterly Review, issued in 1855. Madras.—Madras had a Journal of Literature and Science and the Oriental Magazine and Indian Hurkuru (1819). The Indian Antiquary was started at Bombay in 1872 and still continues. Of other contemporary magazines the Hindustan Review (Allahabad), the Modern Review (Calcutta), the Indian Review (Madras), the Madras Review, a quarterly first published in 1895, and the Calcutta University Magazine (1894), are important. Ceylon.—In Ceylon the Religious and Theological Magazine was started at Colombo in 1833, the Colombo Magazine in 1839, the Ceylon Magazine in 1840, and the Investigator at Kandy in 1841. Of contemporary magazines the Tropical Agriculturist was started in 1881, the Ceylon Literary Register (1886–1896), afterwards the Monthly Literary Register and the Ceylon National Review in 1893. In Burma the quarterly Buddhism appeared in 1904. Singapore had a Journal of the Indian Archipelago from 1847 to 1859, and the Chinese Repository (1832–1851) was edited at Carton by Morrison. See " Periodical Literature in India," in Dark Blue (1872–1873). FRANCE We owe the literary journal to France, where it soon attained to a degree of importance unapproached in any other country. The first idea may be traced in the Bureau d'adresse (1633–1642) of Theophraste Renaudot, giving the proceedings of his conferences upon literary and scientific matters. About the year 1663 Mezeray obtained a privilege for a regular literary periodical, which came to nothing, and it was left to Denis de Sallo. counsellor of the parliament of Paris and a man of rare merit and learning, to actually carry the project into effect. The first number of the Journal des savants appeared on the 5th of January 1665, under the assumed name of the sieur d'Hedouville. The prospectus promised to give an account of the chief books published throughout Europe, obituary notices, a review of the progress of science, besides legal and ecclesiastical information and other matters of interest to cultivated persons. The criticisms, however, wounded alike authors and the clergy, and the journal was suppressed after a career of three months. Colbert, seeing the public utility of such a periodical, ordered the abbe Gallois, a contributor of De Sallo's, to re-establish it, an event which took place on the 4th of January 1666. It lingered nine years under the new editor, who was re-placed in 1675 by the abbe de la Roque, and the latter in his turn by the president Cousin, in 1686. From 1701 commenced a new era for the Journal, which was then acquired by the chancellor de Pontchartrain for the state and placed under the direction of a commission of learned men. Just before the Revolution it developed fresh activity, but the troubles of 1792 caused it to be discontinued until 1796, when it again failed to appear after twelve numbers had been issued. In 1816 it was definitely re-established and replaced under government patronage, remaining subject to the chancellor or garde-des-sceaux until 1857, when it was transferred to the control of the minister of public instruction. Since 1903 the organization of the publication has changed. The state subsidy having been withdrawn, the Institute voted a yearly subscription of 10,000 francs and nominated a commission of five members, one for each section, who managed the Journal. Since 1909, however, the various sections have left to the Academie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres the entire direction of the Journal, while still paying the annual subsidy. It now restricts itself to publishing contributions relating to antiquities and the middle ages and Oriental studies. Louis Auguste de Bourbon, sovereign prince of Dombes, having transferred his parliament to Trevoux, set up a printing press, and was persuaded by two Jesuits, Michel le Tellier and Philippe Lalleman, to establish the Memoires pour servir a. l'histoire des sciences et des arts (1701–1767), more familiarly known as the Journal des Trevoux, long the best-informed and best-written journal in France. One feature of its career was its constant appeal for the literary assistance of outsiders. It was continued in a more popular style as Journal des sciences et des beaux-arts (1768–1775) by the abbe Aubert and by the brothers Castilhon (1776-1778), and as Journal de litterature, des sciences, et des arts (1779–1782) by the abbe Grosier. The first legal periodical was the Journal du palais (1672) of Claude Blondeau and Gabriel Gueret, and the first devoted to medicine the Nouvelles decouvertes dans toutes les parties de la medecine (1679) of Nicolas de Blegny, frequently spoken. of as a charlatan, a term which sometimes means simply a man of many ideas. Religious periodicals date from 168o, and the Journal ecclesiastique of the abbe de la Roque, to whom is also due the first medical journal (1683). The prototype of the historico-literary periodical may be discovered in La Clef du cabinet des princes de l'Europe (1704–1706), familiarly known as Journal de Verdun, and carried on under various titles down to 1794. Literary criticism was no more free than political discussion, and no person was allowed to trespass either upon the domain of the Journal des savants or that of the Mercure de France (see NEws-PAPERS) without the payment of heavy subsidies. This was the origin of the clandestine press of Holland, and it was that country which for the next hundred years supplied the ablest periodical criticism from the pens of French Protestant refugees. During that period thirty-one journals of the first class proceeded from these sources. From its commencement the Journal des savants was pirated in Holland, and for ten years a kind of joint issue made up with the Journal des Trevoux appeared at Amsterdam. From 1764 to 1775 miscellaneous articles from different French and English reviews were added to this reprint. Bayle, a born journalist and the most able critic of the day, conceived the plan of the Nouvelles de la republique des lettres (1684–1718), which at once became entirely successful and obtained for him during the three years of his control the dictatorship of the world of letters. He was succeeded as editor by La Roque, Barrin, Bernard and Leclerc. Bayle's method was followed in an equally meritorious periodical, the Histoire des ouvrages des Savants (1687–1704) of H. Basnage de Beauval. Another continuator of Bayle was Jean Leclerc, one of the most learned and acute critics of the 18th century, who carried on three reviews—the Bibliotheque universelle et historique (1686–1693), the Bibliotheque choisie (1703–1713), and the Bibliotheque ancienne et moderne (1714–1727). They form one series, and, besides valuable estimates of new books, include original dissertations, articles and biographies like our modern learned magazines. The Journal litteraire (1713-1722, 1729–1736) was founded by a society of young men, who made it a rule to discuss their contributions in common. Specially devoted to English literature were the Bibliotheque anglaise (1716–1728), the Memoires litteraires de la Grande Bretagne (1720–1724), the Bibliotheque britannique (1733–1734), and the Journal britannique (1750–1757) of Maty,' who took for his principle, " pour penser avec liberte it faut penser seul." One of these Dutch-printed reviews was L'Europe savante (1718-1720), founded chiefly by Themiseul de Saint-Hyacinthe, with the intention of placing each separate department under the care of a specialist. The Bibliotheque germanique (1720–1740) was established by Jacques Lenfant to do for northern Europe what the Bibliotheque britannique did for England. It was followed by the Nouvelle bibliotheque germanique (1746–1759). The Bibliotheque raisonnee des ouvrages des savants (1728–1758) was supplementary to Leclerc, and was succeeded by the Bibliotheque des sciences et des beaux-arts (1754–1780). Nearly all of the preceding were produced either at Amsterdam or Rotterdam, and, although out of place in a precise geographical arrangement, really belong to France by the close ties of language and of blood. Taking up the exact chronological order again, we find the success of the English essay-papers led to their prompt introduction to the Continent. An incomplete translation of the Spectator was published at Amsterdam in 1714, and many volumes of extracts from the Taller, Spectator and Guardian were issued in France early in the 18th century. Marivaux brought out a Spectateur Francais (1722), which was coldly received; it was followed by fourteen or fifteen others, under the titles of La Spectatrice (1728–1730), Le Radoteur (1775), Le Babillard (1778-1779), &e. Of a similar character was Le Pour et le contre (1723–1740) of the abbe Prevost, which contained anecdotes and criticism, with special reference to Great Britain. Throughout the 18th century, in France as in England, a favourite literary method was to write of social subjects under the assumed character of a foreigner, generally an 1 Matthew Maty, M.D., born in Holland, 1718, died principal librarian of the British Museum, 1776. He settled in England in 1740, published several books, and wrote the preface to Gibbon'‘ first work, Etude de la litterature. published of a New Jamaica Magazine which was started about 1798. The Jamaica Magazine (1812–1813), the Jamaica Monthly Magazine (1844–1848), and the Victoria Quarterly (1889–1892), which contained many valuable articles on the West Indies, were other magazines. The West Indian Quarterly was published at George-town, British Guiana, from 1885 to 1888. At Georgetown was also published the well-known Timehri (1882–1898) which contained many important historical articles. In Trinidad the Trinidad Monthly Magazine was started in 1871, and the Union Magazine in 1892. Malta had a Malta Penny Magazine in 1839–1841, and the Revue historique et litteraire was founded in Mauritius in 1887. Many magazines dealing with the colonies have been published in England, such as the Colonial Magazine (1840–1843). See F. Cundall, Bibliographia Jamaicensis (1902–1908).
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