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AUSTRALIA AND POLYNESIA

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Originally appearing in Volume V08, Page 192 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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AUSTRALIA AND POLYNESIA. AMERICA: North, Central (with Mexico), South. EUROPE Greek.—Athenaeus quotes 35 writers of works, known or sup-posed to be dictionaries, for, as they are all lost, it is often difficult to decide on their nature. Of these, Anticlides, who lived after the reign of Alexander the Great, wrote 'Etry,7rr.K6s,which seems to have been a sort of dictionary,perhaps explaining the words and phrases occurring in ancient stories. Zenodotus, the first superintendent of the great library of Alexandria,who lived in the reigns of Ptolemy I. and Ptolemy II., wrote I' Mao-at, and alsoA€Fens i0vicat, a dictionary of barbarous or foreign phrases. Aristophanes of Byzantium, son of Apelles the painter, who lived in the reigns of Ptolemy II. and Ptolemy III., and had the supreme management of the Alexandrian library, wrote a number of works, as 'ArnKat Aitets, AQKWYGKai rxwa•vac which, from the titles, should be dictionaries, but a fragment of his A€e.r printed by Boissonade, in his edition of Herodian (London, 1869, 8vo, pp. 181-189), is not alphabetical. Artemidorus. a pupil of Aristophanes, wrote a dictionary of technical terms used in cookery. Nicander Colophonius, hereditary priest of Apollo Clarius, born at Claros, near Colophon in Ionia, in reputation for 5o years, from 181 to 135, wrote rxwvQai in at least three books. Parthenius, a pupil of the Alexandrian grammarian Dionysius (who lived in the 1st century before Christ), wrote on choice words used by historians. Didymus, called xaAsbirspos, who, according to Athenaeus, wrote 3500 hooks, and, according to Seneca, 4000, wrote lexicons of the tragic poets (of which book 28 is quoted), of the comic poets, of ambiguous words and of corrupt expressions. Glossaries of Attic words were written by Crates, Philemon, Philetas and Theodorus; of Cretan, by Hermon or Hermonax; of Phrygian, by Neoptolemus; of Rhodian, by Moschus; of Italian, by Diodorus of Tarsus; of foreign words, by Silenus; of synonyms, by Simaristus; of cookery, by l-leracleon; and of drinking vessels, by Apollodorus of Cyrene. According to Suidas, the most ancient Greek lexicographer was Apollonius the sophist, son of Archibius. According to the common opinion, he lived in the time of Augustus at Alexandria. He composed a lexicon of words used by Homer, Aet eLs 'Osoipn,at , a very valuable and useful work, though much interpolated, edited by Villoison, from a MS. of the loth century, Paris, 1773, 4to, 2 vols. ; and by Tollius, Leiden, 1788, 8vo; ed. Bekker, Berlin, 1833, 8vo. Erotian or Herodian, physician to Nero, wrote a lexicon on Hippo-crates, arranged in alphabetical order, probably by some copyist, whom Klein calls " homo sciolus." It was first published in Greek in H. Stephani Dictionarium Medicum, Paris, 1564, 8vo; ed. Klein, Lipsiae, 1865, 8vo, with additional fragments. Timaeus the sophist, who, according to Ruhnken, lived in the 3rd century, wrote a very short lexicon to Plato, which, though much interpolated,.is of great value, 1st ed. Ruhnken, Leiden, 1754; ed. locupletior, Lugd. Bat. 1789, 8vo. Aelius Moeris, called the Atticist, lived about 190 A.D., and wrote an Attic lexicon, 1st ed. Hudson, Oxf. 1712, Bekker, 1833. Julius Pollux ('Iobaws HoXv3ebic7/s) of Naucratis, in Egypt, died, aged fifty-eight, in the reign of Commodus (180–192), who made him professor of rhetoric at Athens. He wrote, besides other lost works, an Onomasticon in ten books, being a classed vocabulary, intended to supply all the words required by ach subject with the usage of the best authors. It is of the greatest value for the knowledge both of language and of antiquities. First printed by Aldus, Venice, 1500, fol.; often afterwards; ed. Lederlinus and Hemsterhuis, Amst.17o6, 2 -cols.; Dindorf, 1824, 5 vols., Bethe (1900 f.). Harpocration of Alexandria, probably of the 2nd century, wrote a lexicon on the ten Attic orators, first printed by Aldus, Ven. 1503, fol.; ed. Dindorf, Oxford, 1853, 8vo, 2 vols. from 14 MSS. Orion, a grammarian of Thebes, in Egypt, who lived between 390 and 46o, wrote an etymological dictionary, printed by Sturz, Leipzig, 1820, 4t0. Helladius a priest of Jupiter at Alexandria, when the heathen temples there were destroyed by Theophilus in 389 or 391 escaped to Constantinople, where he was living in 408. He wrote an alphabetical lexicon, now lost, chiefly of prose, called by Photius the largest (7roXvo-nxW -arov) which he knew. Ammonius, professor of grammar at Alexandria, and priest of the Egyptian ape, fled to Constantinople with Helladius, and wrote a dictionary of words similar in sound but different in meaning, which has been often printed in Greek lexicons, as Aldus, 1497, Stephanus, and separately by Valckenaer, Lugd. Bat. 1739, 4to, 2 vols., and by others. Zenodotus wrote on the cries of animals, printed in Valckenaer's Ammonius; with this may be compared the work of Vincentio Caralucci, Lexicon vocum quae a brutis animalibus emittuntur, Perusia, 1779, I2mo. Hesychius of Alexandria wrote a lexicon, important for the knowledge of the language and literature, containing many dialectic and local expressions and quotations from other authors, 1st ed. Aldus, Ven. 1514, fol.; the best is Alberti and Ruhnken, Lugd. Bat. 1746–1766, fol. 2 vols. ; collated with the MS. in St Mark's library, Venice, the only MS. existing, by Niels Iversen Schow, Leipzig, 1792, 8vo; ed. Schmidt, Jena, 1867, 8vo. The foundation of this lexicon is supposed to have been that of Pamphilus, an Alexandrian grammarian, quoted by Athenaeus, which, according to Suidas, was in 95 books from E to 0; A to A had been compiled by Zopirion. Photius, consecrated patriarch of Constantinople, 25th December 857, living in 886, left a lexicon, partly extant, and printed with Zonaras, Lips. 1808, 4to, 3 vols., being vol. iii.; ed. Naber, Leidae, 1864–1865, 8vo, 2 vols. The most celebrated of the Greek glossaries is that of Suidas, of whom nothing is known. He probably lived in the loth century. His lexicon is an alphabetical dictionary of words including the names of persons and places—a compilation of extracts from Greek writers, grammarians, scholiasts and lexicographers, very carelessly and unequally executed. It was first printed by Demetrius Chalcondylas, Milan, 1499, fol.; the best edition, Bernhardy, Halle, 1853, 4t0, 2 vols. John Zonaras, a celebrated Byzantine historian and theologian, who lived in the 12th century, compiled a lexicon, first printed by Tittmann, Lips. 1808. 4to, 2 vols. An anonymous Greek glossary, entitled 'Erv,uoXoyocbv aiya, Etymologicum magnum, has been frequently printed. The first edition is by Musurus, Venitia, 1499, fol.; the best by Gaisford, Oxonii, 1848, fol. It contains many grammatical remarks by famous authorities, many passages of authors, and mythological and historical notices. The MSS. vary so much that they look like the works of different authors. To Eudocia Augusta of Makrembolis, wife of the emperors Constantine XI. and Romanus IV. (1059 to 1071), was ascribed a dictionary of history and mythology, 'Iwve& (bed of violets), first printed by D'Ansse de Villoison, Anecdote Graeca, Venetiis, 1781, 4to, vol. i. pp. 1–442. It was supposed to have been of much value before it was published. Thomas, Magister Officiorum under Andronicus Palaeologus, afterward called as a monk Theodulus, wrote 'E, Xoyal 6vopArwv 'Arruc&v, printed by Callierges, Romae, 1517, 8vo: Papias, Vocabularium, Mediolani, 1476, fol.: Craston, an Italian Carmelite monk of Piacenza, compiled a Greek and Latin lexicon, edited by Bonus Accursius, printed at Milan, 1478, fol.: Aldus, Venetiis, 1497, fol.: Guarino, born about 1450 at Favora, near Camarino, who called himself both Phavorinus and Camers, published his Thesaurus in 1504. These three lexicons were frequently reprinted. Estienne, Thesaurus, Genevae, 1572, fol., 4 vols.; ed. Valpy, Lond. 816–1826, 6 vols. fol. ; Paris, 1831–1865, 9vols.fol., 9902 pages: Ki$wr6s, the ark, was intended to give the whole language, ancient and modern, but vol.'i., Constantinople, 1819, fol., 763 pages, A to A, only appeared, as the publication was put an end to by the events of 1821. ENGLISH.—Jones, London, 1823, 8vo: Dunbar, Edin. 3rd ed. 185o, 4to: Liddell and Scott, 8th ed. Oxford, 1897, 4t0. FRENCH.—Alexandre, 12th ed. Paris, 1863, 8vo; 1869–1871, 2 vols: Chassang, ib. 1872, 8vo. ITALIAN.—Camini, Torino, 1865, 8vo, 972 pages: Muller, ib. 1871, 8vo. SPANISH. Diccionario manual, por des padres Esculapios, Madrid, 1859, 8vo. GERMAN.—PaSSOW, 5th ed. Leipzig, 1841–1857, 4to: Jacobitz and Seiler, 4th ed. ib. 1856, 8vo: Benseler, ib. 1859, 8vo : Pape, Braunschweig, 1870-1874, 8vo, 4 vols. Prellwitz, Etymologisches Worterbuch der griechischen Sprache, new edition, 1906: Herwerden, Lexicon Graecum suppletorium et dialecticum, 1902. DIALECTS. Attic: Moeris, ed. Pierson, Lugd. Bat. 1759, 8vo. Attic Orators: Reiske, Oxon.. 1828, 8vo, 2 vols. Doric: Portus, Franckof. 1605, 8vo. Ionic. Id. ib. 1603, 8vo ; 1817 ; 1825. PRosoDY.—Morell, Etonae, 1762, 4t0; ed. Maltby, Lond. 183o, 4to: Brasse, Lond, 185o, 8vo. RHETORIC.—Ernesti, Lips. 1795, 8vo. Music.—Drieberg, Berlin, 1855. ETYMOLOGY.—Curtius, Leipzig, 1858–1862: Lancelot, Paris,1863, 8vo. SYNONYMs.—Peucer, Dresden, 1766, 8vo: Pillon, Paris, 1847, 8vo. PROPER NAMES.—Pape, ed. Sengebusch, 1866, 8vo, 969 pages. VERBs.—Veitch, 2nd ed. Oxf• 1866. TERMINATIONS.—Hoogeveen, Cantab. 1810, 4t0: Pape, Berlin, 1836, 8vo. PARTICULAR AUTHORS.-Aeschylus: Wellauer, 2 vols. Lips. 183o–1831, 8vo. Aristophanes: Caravella, Oxonii, 1822, 8vo. Demosthenes: Reiske, Lips. 1775, 8vo. Euripides: Beck, Cantab. 1.829, 8vo. Herodotus: Schweighauser, Strassburg, 1824, 8vo, 2 vols. Hesiod: Osoruis, Neapol. 1791, 8vo. Homer: Apollonius Sophista, ed. Tollius, Lugd. Bat., 1788, Ovo: Schaufelberger, Zurich, 1761–1768, 8vo, 8 vols.: Crusius, Hanover, 1836, 8vo: Wittich, London, 1843, 8vo: Dederlein, Erlangen, 8vo, 3 vols.: Eberling, Lipsiae, 1875, 8vo: Autenrieth, Leipzig, 1873, 8vo; London, 1877, 8vo. Isocrates: Mitchell, Oxon. 1828, 8vo. Pindar: Portus, Hanov. 1606, 8vo. Plato: Timaeus, ed. Koch, Lips. 1828, 8vo: Mitchell, Oxon. 1832, 8vo: Ast, Lips. 1835–1838, 8vo, 3 vols. Plutarch: Wyttenbach, Lips. 1835, 8vo, 2 vols. Sophocles: Ellendt, Regiomonti, 1834–1835, 8vo ed.; Genthe, Berlin, 1872, 8vo. Thucydides: Bxtant, Geneva, 1843–1847, 8vo, 2 vols. Xenophon: Sturtz, Lips. 1801–1804, 8vo, 4 vols.: Cannesin (Anabas_s, Gr.-Finnish), Helsirgissa, 1868, 8vo: Sauppe, Lipsiae, 1869, 8vo. Septuagint: Hutter, Noribergae, 1598, 4t0: Biel, Hagae, 1779–1780, 8vo. New Testament: Lithocomus, Colon, 1552, 8vo: Parkhurst, ed. Major, London, 1845, 8vo: Schleusner (juxta ed. Lips. quartam), Glasguae, 1824, 4t0. Medieval and Modern Greek.—Meursius, Lugd. Bat. 1614, 4t0: Critopulos, Stendaliae, 1787, 8vo: Portius, Par. 1635, 4to: Du Cange, Paris, 1682, fol., 2 vols.; Ludg. 1688, fol. ENGLISH. —Polymera, Hermopolis, 1854, 8vo: Sophocles, Cambr. Mass. 1860–1887: Contopoulos, Athens, 1867, 8vo; Smyrna, 1868–1870, 8vo, 2 parts, 1042 pages. FRENCH.—Skarlatos, Athens, 1852, 4to: Byzantius, ib. 1856, 8vo, 2 vols.: Varvati, 4th ed. ib., 1860, 8vo. ITALIAN. Germano, Romae, 1622, 8vo: Somavera, Parigi, 1709, fol., 2 vols.: Pericles, Hermopolis, 1857, 8vo. GERMAN.—Schmidt, Lips. 1825–1827, 12mo, 2 vols.: Petraris, Leipz. 1897.POLYGLOTS.—Koniaz (Russian and Fr.), Moscow, 1811, 4to; Schmidt (Fr.-Germ.), Leipzig, 1837–1840, I2mo, 3 vols.: Theocharopulas de Patras (Fr.-Eng.), Munich, 184o, I2mo. Latin.—Johannes de Janua, Catholicon or Summa, finished in 1286, printed Moguntiae 146o, fol.; Venice, 1487; and about 20 editions before 1500: Johannes, Comprehensorium, Valentia, 1475, fol.: Nestor Dionysius, Onomasticon, Milan, 1477, fol.: Stephanus, Paris, 1531, fol., 2 vols.: Gesner, Lips. 1749, fol., 4 vols.: Forcellini, Patavii, 1771, fol., 4 vols. POLYGLOT.—Calepinus, Reggio, 1502, fol. (Aldus printed 16 editions, with the Greek equivalents of the Latin words; Venetiis, 1575, fol., added Italian, French and Spanish; Basileae, 1590, fol., is in 11 languages; several editions, from 1609, are called Octolingue; many of the latter 2 vol. editions were edited by John Facciolati) : Verantius (Ital., Germ.,Dalmatian, Hungarian), Venetiis, 1595, 4to: Lodereckerus (Ital., Germ., Dalm., Hungar., Bohem., Polish), Pragae, 1605, 4t0. ENGLISH. Promptorium parvulorum, compiled in 1440 by Galf rid us Grammaticus, a Dominican monk of Lynn Episcopi, in Norfolk, was printed by Pynson, 1499; 8 editions, 1508–1528, ed. Way, Camden Society, 1843–1865, 3 vols. 4to; Medulla grammaticis, probably by the same author, MS. written 1483; printed as Ortus vocabulorum, by Wynkyn de Worde, 1500; 13 editions 1509–1523 ; Sir Thomas Elyot, London, 1538, fol. ; 2nd ed. 1543; Bibliotheca Eliotae, ed. Cooper, ib. 1545, fol.: Huloet, Abecedarium, London, 1552, fol.; Dictionarie, 1572, fol.: Cooper, London, 1565, fol. ; 4th edition, 1584, fol.: Baret, Alvearie, ib. 1575, fol.; 158o, fol.: Fleming, ib. 1583, fol.: Ainsworth, London, 1736, 4to; ed. Morell, London, 1796, 4t0, 2 vols.; ed. Beatson and Ellis, ib. 186o, 8vo: Scheller, translated by Riddle, Oxford, 1835, fol.: Smith, London, 1855, 8vo; 187o: Lewis and Short, Oxford, 1879. ENG.-LATIN.—LeVinS, Manipulus puerorum, Lond.1570, 410 : Riddle, ib. 1838, 8vo: Smith, ib. 1855, 8vo. FRENcH.—Catholicon parvum, Geneva, 1487: Estienne, Dictionnaire, Paris, 1539, fol. 675 pages; enlarged 1549; ed. Huggins, Lond. 1572: Id. Dictionarium Latino-Gallicum, Lutetiae, 1G46, fol.; Paris, 1552; 1560: Id., Dictionariolum puerorum, Paris, 1542, 4t0: Les Mots frangais, Paris, 1544, 4t0; the copy in the British Museum has the autograph of Queen Catherine Parr: Thierry (Fr.-Lat.), Paris, 1564, fol.: Danet, Ad usum Delphini, Paris, 1700, 4t0, 2 vols.; and frequently: Quicherat, 9th ed. Paris, 1857, 8vo: Theil, 3rd ed. Paris, 1863, 8vo: Freund, ib. 1835–1865, 4to, 3 vols. GERMAN.—JOh. Melber, of Gerolzhofen, Vocabularius praedicantium, of which 26 editions are described by Hain (Repertorium, No. 11,022, &c.), 15 undated. 7 dated 1480–1495, 4to, and 3 after 1504: Vocabularius gemma gemmarum, Antwerp, 1484, 4to; 1487; 12 editions, 1505–1518: Herman Torentinus, Elucidarius carminum, Daventri,1501, 4to; 22 editions,, 504–1536: Binnart, Ant. 1649, 8vo: Id., Biglotton, ib. 1661; 4th ed. 1688: Faber, ed. Gesner, Hagae Com. 1735, fol., 2 vols.: Hederick, Lips. 1766, 8vo, 2 vols.: Ingerslev, Braunschweig, 1835–1855, 8vo, 2 vols.: Thesaurus linguae Latinae, Leipzig, 1900: Walde, Lateinisches etymologisches Worterbuch, 1906. ITALIAN.—Seebar (Sicilian translation of Lebrixa), Venet. 1525, 8vo: Venuti, 1589, 8vo: Galesini, Venez. 1605, 8vo: Bazzarini and Bellini, Torino, 1864, 4to, 2 vols. 3100 pages. SPANIsH.—Salmanticae, 1494, fol. ; Antonio de Lebrixa, Nebrissenis, Compluti, 1520, fol., 2 vols.: Sanchez de la Ballesta, Salamanca, 1587, 4to: Valbuena, Madrid, 1826, fol. PORTUGUESE. 8 Bluteau, Lisbon, 1712-1728, fol., 10 vols: Fonseca, ib. 1771, fol.: Ferreira, Paris, 1834, 4t0; 1852. R0MANSCH.—Promptuario di voci volgari, Valgrisii, 1565, 4to. VLACH.—Divalitu, Bucuresci, 1852, 8vo. SWEDISH.—VOCabula, Rostock, 1574, 8vo; Stockholm, 1579: Lindblom, Upsala, 1790, 4to. DuTCH.—Binnart, Antw. 1649, 8vo: Scheller, Lugd. Bat. 1799, 4t0, 2 vols. FLEMIsH.—Paludanus, Gandavi, 1544, 4t0. POLISH.—Macinius, Konigsberg, 1564, fol.: Garszynski, Breslau, 1823, 8vo, 2 vols. BOHEMIAN.—Johannes Aquensis, Pilsnae,1511, 4to: Reschel, Olmucii,1560 -1562, 4to, 2 vols.: Cnapius, Cracovia, 1661, fol., 3 vols. ILLYRIAN.—Bellosztenecz, Zagrab, 1740, 4to: Jambresich (also Germ. and Hungar.), Zagrab, 1742, 4t0. SERVIAN.—SWOtlik, Budae, 172I, 8vo. HUNGARIAN.—Molnar, Frankf. a. M. 1645, 8vo: Pariz-Papai, Leutschen, 1708, 8vo; 1767. FINNIsH.—Rothsen, Helsingissa, 1864, 8vo. PoETIC.—Epithetorum et synonymorum thesaurus, Paris, 1662, 8vo, attributed to Chatillon; reprinted by Paul Aler, a German Jesuit, as Gradus ad Parnassum, Paris, 1687, 8vo; many subsequent editions: Schirach, Hal. 1768, 8vo: Noel, Paris, 181o, 8vo; 1826: Quicherat, Paris, 1852, 8vo: Young, London, 1856, 8vo. EROTIC.—Rambach, Stuttgart, 1836, 8vo. RHETORICAL.—ErneSti, Lips. 1797, 8vo. CIVIL LAW.—Dirksen, Berolini, 1837, 4to. SYNONYMS.—Hill, Edinb. 1804, 4to: Doderlein, Lips. 1826–1828, 8vo, 6 vols. ETYMOLOGY.—Danet, Paris, 1677, 8vo: Vossius, Neap. 1762, fol., 2 vols.: Salmon, London, 1796, 8vo, 2 vols.: Nagel, Berlin, 1869, 8vo; Latin roots, with their French and English derivatives, explained in German: Zehetmayr, Vindobonae, 1873, 8vo: Vanicek, Leipz. 1874, 8vo. BARBAROUS.—Marchellus, Mediol. 1753, 4to; Krebs, Frankf. a. M. 1834, 8vo; 1837. PARTICULAR AUTHORS.—Caesar: Crusius, Hanov. 1838, 8vo. Cicero: Nizzoli, Brescia, 1535, fol.; ed. Facciolati, Patavii, 1734, fol.; London, 182o, 8vo, 3 vols.: Ernesti, Lips. 1739, 8vo; Halle, 1831. Cornelius Nepos: Schmieder, Halle, 1798, 8vo; 1816: Billerbeck, Hanover, 1825, 8vo. Curtius Rufus: Crusius, Hanov. 1844, 8vo. Horace: Ernesti, Berlin, 1802–1804, 8vo, 3 vols.: During, Leipz. 1829, 8vo. Justin: Meinecke, Lemgo, 1793, 8vo; 2nd ed. 1818. Livy: Ernesti, Lips, 1784, 8vo; ed Schafer, 1804. Ovid: Gierig, Leipz. 181 : (Metamorphoses) Meinecke, 2nd ed., Lemgo,1825, 8vo: Billerbeck (Do.), Hanover, 1831, 8vo. Phaedrus: Oertel, Nurnberg, 1798, 8vo: Horstel, Leipz. 1803, 8vo: Billerbeck Hanover, 1828, 8vo. Plautus: Paraeus, Frankf. 1614, 8vo. Pliny: Denso, Rostock, 1766, 8vo. Pliny, jun.: Wensch, Wittenberg, 1837–1839, 4t0. Quintilian: Bonnellus, Leipz. 1834, 8vo. Sallust: Schneider, Leipz. 1834, 8vo: Crusius, Hanover, 184o, 8vo. Tacitus: Botticher, Berlin, 183o, 8vo. Velleius Paterculus: Koch, Leipz. 1857, 8vo. Virgil: Clavis, London, 1742, 8vo: Braunhard, Coburg, 1834, 8vo. Vitruvius: Rode, Leipz. 1679, 4to, 2 vols.: Orsini, .Perugia, 1801, 8vo.
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