See also:Austria, bounded E. by Hungary, N. by Bohemia and Moravia, W. by Bohemia and Upper Austria, and S. by Styria . It has an
See also:area of 7654 sq. m. and is divided into two parts by the
See also:Danube, which enters at its most
See also:westerly point, and leaves it at its eastern extremity, near Pressburg .
See also:North of this
See also:line is the low hilly
See also:country, known as the Waldviertel, which lies at the
See also:foot and forms the continuation of the Bohemian and Moravian
See also:plateau . Towards the W. it attains in the Weinsberger Wald, of which the highest point is the Peilstein, an altitude of 3478 ft., and descends towards the valley of the Danube through the Gfohler Wald (2368 ft.) and the Manhartsgebirge (1758 ft.) . Its most south-easterly offshoots are formed by the Bisamberg (I18o ft.), near Vienna, just opposite the Kahlenberg . The
See also:southern division of the province is, in the
See also:main, mountainous and hilly, and is occupied by the
See also:Alps and their offshoots . The
See also:principal groups are: the Voralpe (5802 ft.), the Durrenstein (6156 ft.), the Otscher (62o5 ft.), the Raxalpe (6589 ft:) and the
See also:Schneeberg (68o6 ft.), which is the highest
See also:summit in the whole province . To the E. of the famous
See also:ridge of Semmering are the groups of the Wechsel (5700 ft.) and the Leithagebirge (1674 ft.) . The offshoots of the Alpine
See also:group are formed by the 'Wiener Wald, which attains an altitude of 2929 ft. in the Schopfl and ends N.W. of Vienna in the Kahlenberg (1404 ft.) and Leopoldsberg (138o ft.) . Lower Austria belongs to the
See also:watershed of the Danube, which with the exception of the Lainsitz, which is a tributary of the Moldau, receives all the other
See also:rivers of the province . Its principal affluents on the right are: the
See also:Enns, Ybbs, Erlauf, Pielach, Traisen, Wien,
See also:Schwechat, Fischa and Leitha; on the
See also:left the Isper,
See also:Krems, Kamp, Gollersau and the
See also:March . Besides the Danube, only the Enns and the March are navigable rivers .
Amongst the small Alpine lakes, the Erlaufsee and the Lunzer See areworth mentioning . Of its
See also:mineral springs, the best known are the
See also:sulphur springs of Baden, the iodine springs of Deutsch-
See also:Altenburg, the iron springs of Pyrawarth, and the thermal springs of VBslau . In general the
See also:climate, which varies with the configuration of the
See also:surface, is moderate and healthy, although subject to rapid changes of temperature . Although 43.4 % of the
See also:total area is arable
See also:land, the
See also:soil is only of moderate fertility and does not satisfy the wants of this thickly-populated province . Woods occupy 34.2%, gardens and meadows 13•I% and pastures 3.2% . Vineyards occupy 2% of the total area and produce a
See also:wine, specially those on the sunny slopes of the Wiener Wald .
See also:Cattle-rearing is not well
See also:developed, but
See also:game and
See also:fish are plentiful .
See also:Mining is only of slight importance, small quantities of
See also:coal and iron-ore being extracted in the Alpine foothill region;
See also:graphite is found near Muhldorf . From an
See also:industrial point of view, Lower Austria stands, together with Bohemia and Moravia, in the front
See also:rank amongst the Austrian provinces . The centre of its
See also:great industrial activity is the capital, Vienna (q.v.); but in the region of the Wiener Wald up to the Semmering, owing to its many
See also:waters, which can be transformed into
See also:motive power, many factories are spread . The principal
See also:industries are, the metallurgic and textile industries in all their branches, milling,
See also:brewing and chemicals; paper,
See also:leather and
See also:cloth, objets de luxe and millinery;
See also:physical and musical
See also:tobacco factories and
See also:food-stuffs . The very extensive commerce of the province has also its centre in Vienna .
Thepopulation of Lower Austria in 1900 was 3,100,493, which corresponds to 405 inhabitants per sq.. m . It is, therefore, the most densely populated province of Austria . According to the language in
See also:common use, 95 % of the population IT was German, 4.66 %was
See also:Czech, and the
See also:remainder was composed of Poles,'lovaks, Ruthenians, Croatians and Italians . According to religion 92'47 % of the inhabitants were
See also:Roman Catholics; 5'07% were Jews; 2.11% were Protestants and the remainder belonged to the Greek
See also:church . In the
See also:matter of
See also:education, Lower Austria is one of the most advanced provinces of Austria, and 99.8% of the
See also:children of school-going age attended school regularly in 1900 . The
See also:diet is composed of 78 members, of which the archbishop of Vienna, the
See also:bishop of St Polten and the rector of the Vienna University are members ex officio . Lower Austria sends 64 member.,- to the Imperial Reichsrat at Vienna . For administrative purposes, the province is divided into 22 districts and three towns with autonomous municipalities: Vienna (1,662,269), the capital (since 1905 including Floridsdorf, 36,599), Wiener-
See also:Neustadt (28,438) and Waidhofen on the Ybbs (4447)• Other principal towns are: Baden(12,447), Bruck on the Leitha (5134), Schwechat (8241),
See also:Korneuburg (8298), Stokerau (10,213), Krems (12,657),
See also:Modling (15,304),
See also:Reichenau (7457),
See also:Neunkirchen (10,831), St Polten (14,510) and
See also:Klosterneuburg (11,595), The
See also:original archduchy, which included Upper Austria, is the nucleus of the Austrian
See also:empire, and the
See also:oldest possession of the
See also:house of
See also:Habsburg in its
See also:present dominions . See F . Umlauft, Das Erzherzogtum Osterreich unter der Enns, vol. i. of the collection Die
See also:Lander Osterreich- Ungarns in Wort and Bild (Vienna, 1881–1889, 15 VON.); Die osterreichisch-ungsrische Monarchie in Wort and Bild, vol . 4 (Vienna,1886–1902, 24 vols.); . M .
Vansca, Gesch . Rieder- u . Ober-Osterreitrhs (inHeeren's Staatengesch., G6tha,' 1905) .
AUSTRIA AND HUNGARY
UPPER AUSTRIA (Ger. Oberosterreich or Osterreich ob...
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