AUTOMATISM . In philosophical terminology this word is used in two
See also:main senses: (1) in ethics, for the view that man is not responsible for his actions, which have, therefore, no moral value; (2) in psychology, for all actions which are not the result of conation or conscious endeavour . Certain actions being admittedly automatic,
See also:Descartes maintained that, in regard of the
See also:lower animals, all
See also:action is purely
See also:mechanical . The same theory has since been applied to man, with this difference that, accompanying the mechanical phenomena of action, and entirely disconnected with it, are the phenomena of consciousness . Thus certain
See also:physical changes in the
See also:brain result in a given action; the concomitant
See also:desire or volition is in no sense causally connected with, or
See also:prior to, the physical
See also:change . This theory, which has been maintained by T .
See also:Huxley (Science and Culture) and Shadworth
See also:Hodgson (Metaphysic of Experience and Theory of Practice), must be distinguished from that of the psychophysical
See also:parallelism, or the "
See also:double aspect theory " according to which both the mental state and the physical phenomena result from a so-called " mind stuff," or single substance, the material or cause of both . Automatic acts are of two main kinds . Where the action goes on while the
See also:attention is focused on entirely different subjects (e.g. in
See also:cycling), it is purely automatic . On the other
See also:hand, if the attention is fixed on the end or on any particular
See also:part of a given action, and the other component parts of the action are performed unconsciously, the automatism may be called relative . See G . F .
Stout, Anal . Psych. i . 258
See also:foil . ; Wm .
See also:James, Princ. of Psych. i.
See also:chap . 5; also the articles PSYCHOLOGY,
See also:SUGGESTION, &c . Sensory Automatism is the
See also:term given by students of psychical
See also:research to a centrally initiated
See also:hallucination . Such hallucinations are commonly provoked by crystal-gazing (q.v.), but auditory hallucinations may be caused by the use of a
See also:shell (shell-
See also:hearing), and the other senses are occasionally affected . Motor Automatism, on the other hand, is a non-reflex
See also:movement of a voluntary muscle, executed in the waking state but not controlled by the ordinary waking consciousness . Phenomena of this kind
See also:play a large part in
See also:primitive ceremonies of divination (q.v.) and in our own
See also:day furnish much of the material of Psychical Research . At the lowest level we have vague movements of large groups of muscles, as in " bier-divination," where the murderer or his residence is inferred from the actions of the bearers; of a similar character but combined with more specialized action are many kinds of
See also:witch seeking . These more specialized actions are most typically seen in the
See also:Rod (q.v.; see also TABLE-TURNING), which indicates the presence of
See also:water and is used among the uncivilized to trace criminals .
At a higherstage still we have the delicate movements necessary for Automatic Writing (q.v.) or
See also:Drawing . A parallel case to Automatic Writing is the action of the speech centres, resulting in the production of all kinds of utterances from trance speeches in the ordinary language of the
See also:speaker to mere unintelligible babblings . An interesting
See also:form of speech automatism is known as Glossolalia; in the typical case of Helene
See also:Smith, Th . Flournoy has shown that these utterances may reach a higher
See also:plane andform a real Ianguage, which is, however, based on one already known to the speaker . See Man (1904), No . 68 ;
See also:Folklore, xiii . 134; Myers in Proc . S.P.R. ix . 26, xii . 277, xv . 403; Flournoy,
See also:Des lades d la planete
See also:Mars and in Arch. de Psychologie; Myers, Human
See also:Personality . (N .
AUTOMATON (from aurOs,self, and uiw, to seize)
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