AUVERGNE , formerly aprovince of France, corresponding to the departments of
See also:Cantal and
See also:Puy-de-Dome, with the arrondissement of
See also:Brioude in Haute-
See also:Loire . It contains many mountains volcanic in origin (Plomb du Cantal, Puy de Dome, Mont Dore), fertile valleys such as that of Limagne, vast pasture-lands, and numerous medicinal springs . Up to the
See also:day the population retains strongly-marked
See also:Celtic characteristics . In the
See also:time of Caesar the
See also:Arverni were a powerful
See also:confederation, the Arvernian Vercingetorix being the most famous of the Gallic chieftains who fought against the Romans . Under the
See also:empire Arvernia formed
See also:part of Prima Aquitania, and the
See also:district shared in the fortunes of
See also:Aquitaine during the Merovingian and Carolingian periods . Auvergne was the seat of a
See also:separate countship before the end of the 8th century; the first hereditary count was
See also:William the Pious (886) . By the
See also:marriage of Eleanor of Aquitaine with
See also:Plantagenet, the countship passed under the
See also:suzerainty of the
See also:kings of England, but at the same time it was divided, William VII., called the
See also:Young (1145-1168), having been despoiled of a portion of his domain by his
See also:uncle William VIII.,called the Old,who was supported by Henry II. of England, so that he only retained the region bounded by the Allier and the Coux . It is this district that from the end of the 13th century was called the
See also:Dauphine d'Auvergne . This
See also:quarrel occasioned the intervention of
See also:king of France, who succeeded in possessing himself of a large part of the
See also:country, which was annexed to the royal domains under the name of Terre d'Auvergne . As the price of his concurrence with the king in this
See also:matter, the
See also:bishop of Clermont, Robert I . (1195-1227), was granted the lordship of the
See also:town of Clermont, which subsequently became a countship . Such was the origin of the four
See also:great historic lordships of Auvergne .
The Terre d'Auvergne was first an
See also:appanage of Count Alphonse of
See also:Poitiers (1241-1271), and in 136o was erected into a duchy in the
See also:peerage of France (duchy-pairie) by King
See also:John II. in favour of his son John, through whose daughter the new title passed in 1416 to the
See also:house of Bourbon . The last duke, the celebrated
See also:Charles of Bourbon,
See also:united the domains of the Dauphine to those of the duchy, but all were confiscated by the
See also:crown in consequence of the
See also:sentence which punished the constable's treason in 1527 . The countship, however, had passed in 1422 to the house of La Tour, and was not annexed to the domain until 1615 . The administration of the royal province of Auvergne was organized under
See also:Louis XIV . At the time of the revolution it formed what was called a "
See also:government," with two divisions: Upper Auvergne (
See also:Aurillac), and
See also:Lower Auvergne (Clermont) . BInuon RA PAY.—Baluze, Histoire genealogique de la maison d'Auvergne (17o8);
See also:Andre Imberdis, Histoire generale de l'Auvergne W67); J . B . M . Bielawski, Histoire de la comte d'Auvergne et de sa capitale Vic-le-Comte (1868); B . Gonot,
See also:des ouvrages imprimes et manuscrits concernant l'Auvergne (1849) . See further Chevalier, Repertoire des
See also:sources hist., Topobibliographie, s.v .
AUXANOMETER (Gr. ab iu'av, to increase, µfTpov, me...
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