See also:born at Cordova . His early
See also:life was occupied in mastering the curriculum of
See also:medicine and philosophy, under the approved teachers of the
See also:time . The years of his
See also:prime fell during the 'last
See also:period of
See also:rule in Spain under the
See also:Almohades (q.v.) . It was
See also:Ibn-Tufail (Abubacer), the philosophic
See also:vizier of Yusef, who introduced Averroes to that
See also:prince, and Avenzoar (Ibn-Zuhr), the greatest of Moslem physicians, was his friend . Averroes, who was versed in the Malekite
See also:system of
See also:law, was made
See also:cadi of Seville (1169), and in similar appointments the next twenty-five yearsof his life were passed . We find him at different periods in Seville, Cordova and
See also:Morocco, probably as physician to Yusef al-Mansur, who took pleasure in engaging him in discussions on the theories of philosophy and their
See also:bearings on the faith of
See also:Islam . But science and
See also:free thought then, as now, in Islam, depended almost solely on the tastes of the wealthy and the favour of the monarch . The ignorant fanaticism of the multitude viewed speculative studies with deep dislike and distrust, and deemed any one a Zendik (infidel) who did not
See also:rest content with the natural science of the
See also:Koran . These smouldering hatreds burst into open flame about the
See also:year 1195 . Averroes was accused of heretical opinions and pursuits, stripped of his honours, and banished to a place near Cordova, where his actions were closely watched . At the same time efforts were made to
See also:stamp out all liberal culture in
See also:Andalusia, so far as it went beyond the little medicine, arithmetic and astronomy required for
See also:practical life . But the
See also:storm soon passed .
Averroes was recalled to Morocco when the transientpassion of the
See also:people had been satisfied, and for a brief period survived his restoration to
See also:honour . He died in the year before his
See also:patron, al-Mansur, with whom (in 1199) the
See also:political power of the Moslems came to an end, as did the culture of liberal science with Averroes . The philosopher
See also:left several sons, some of whom became jurists like his own grandfather . One of them has left an
See also:essay, expounding his
See also:father's theory of the intellect . The
See also:personal character of Averroes is known to us only in a general way, and as we can gather it from his writings . His clear, exhaustive and dignified
See also:style of treatment evidences the rectitude and
See also:nobility of the man . In the histories of his own nation he has little place; the renown which spread in his lifetime to the East ceased with his
See also:death, and he left no school . Yet, from a note in a
See also:manuscript, we know that he had intelligent readers in Spain more than a century afterwards . His historic fame came from the Christian Schoolmen, whom he almost initiated into the system of Aristotle, and who, but vaguely discerning the expositors who preceded, admired in his commentaries the accumulated results of two centuries of labours . The
See also:works of Averroes include
See also:treatises on jurisprudence, grammar, astronomy, medicine and philosophy . In 1859 a
See also:work of Averroes was for the first time published in Arabic by the Bavarian Academy, and a German
See also:translation appeared in 1875 by the editor, J .
See also:Miller .
It is a
See also:treatise en-titled Philosophy and Theology, and, with the exception of a German version of the essay on the conjunction of the intellect with man, is the first translation which enables the non-Semitic
See also:scholar to
See also:form any adequate idea of Averroes . The Latin
See also:translations of most of his works are barbarous and obscure . A
See also:part of his writings, particularly on jurisprudence and astronomy, as well as essays on
See also:special logical subjects, prolegomena to philosophy, criticisms on
See also:Avicenna and Alfarabius (Farabi),remain in manuscript in the
See also:Escorial and other
See also:libraries . The Latin
See also:editions of his medical works include the Colliget (i.e . Kulliyyat, or
See also:summary), a resume of medical science, and a commentary on Avicenna's poem on medicine; but Averroes, in medical renown, always stood far below Avicenna . The Latin editions of his philosophical works comprise the Commentaries on Aristotle, the Destructio Destructionis (against Ghazali), the De Substantia Orbis and a
See also:double treatise De Animae Beatitudine . The Commentaries of Averroes fall under three heads: the larger commentaries, in which a
See also:paragraph is quoted at large, and its clauses expounded one by one; the
See also:medium commentaries, which cite only the first words of a section; and the paraphrases or analyses, treatises on the subjects of the Aristotelian books . The larger commentary was an innovation of Averroes; for Avicenna, copied by Albertus
See also:Magnus, gave under the rubrics furnished by Aristotle works in which, though the materials were borrowed, the grouping was his own . The great commentaries exist only for the Posterior Analytics, Physics, De Caelo, De Anima and
See also:Metaphysics . On the
See also:History of Animals no commentary at all exists, and
See also:Plato's Republic is substituted for the then inaccessible Politics . The Latin editions of these works between 1480 and 158o number about too . The first appeared at
See also:Padua (1472); about fifty were published at Venice, the best-known being that by the Juntas (1552–1553) in ten volumes
See also:folio .
1861) ; See E .
See also:Renan, Averroes et l'Averroisme (2nd ed.,
See also:Paris, S . Munk, Melanges, 418-458 ; G . Stockl, Phil. d . Mittelalters, ii . 67-124; Averroes (Valor and Sohn), Drei Abhandl. fiber d . Conjunction d. separaten Intellects mit d . Menschen, trans. into German from the Arabic version of Sam .
See also:Ben-Tibbon, by Dr J . Hercz (Berlin, 1869) T . J. de
See also:Boer, History of Philosophy in Islam (
See also:London, 1903), ch. vi.; A . F .
M . Mehren in Museon, vii . 613-627; viii . 1-20; Carl Brockelmann, Geschichte der arabischen Litteratur (
See also:Weimar, 1898), vol. i. pp . 461 f . See also ARABIAN PHILOSOPHY . (W . W.; G . W .
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