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Originally appearing in Volume V09, Page 953 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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B1BI TOG R A PH IC ALNOTE.—(I) Bibliographies.—Lists of the principal works on the history of the various European countries, and of their main sources, are given in the bibliographies attached to the separate articles (see also those appended to the articles PAPACY; CHURCH HISTORY; DIPLOMACY; CRUSADES; FEUDALISM, &c.). For the sources of the medieval history of Europe see Ulysse Chevalier's monumental Repertoire des sources historiques du moyen age; Bio-Bibliographie (Paris, 1897, &c.), which with certain limitations (notably as regards the Slav, Hungarian and Scandinavian countries) gives references to published documents for all names of people, however obscure, occurring in medieval history. In 1894 M. Chevalier began the publication of a second series of his Repertoire, under the somewhat misleading title of Topo-Bibliographie, intended as a compendious guide to the places, institutions, &c., of the middle ages; though very useful, this is by no means so complete as the Bio-Bibliographie. August Potthast's Bibliotheca historica medii aevi (2nd ed., Berlin, 1895–1896) gives a complete catalogue of all the annals, chronicles and other historical works which appeared in Europe between the years 375 and 1500 and have since been printed, with short notes on their value and significance, and references to critical works upon them. See also the article RECORD. For authorities on the history of Europe from the end of the 15th to the 19th centuries inclusive the excellent bibliographies appended to the volumes of the Cambridge Modern History are invaluable. (2) Works.—Of general works the most important are the Histoire generate du I V7i1e siecle a nos jours, published under the direction of E. Lavisse and A. Rambaud (Paris, 1894, &c.), in 12 vols., covering the period from the 4th to the end of the 19th century: Leopold von Ranke's Weltgeschichte (Leipzig, 1881, &c.), in 9 vols., covering (i.) the oldest group of nations and the Greeks; (ii.) the Roman Republic; (iii.) the ancient Roman Empire; (iv.) the East Roman empire and the origin of the Romano-German kingdoms; (v.) the Arab world-power and the empire of Charlemagne; (vi.) dissolution of the Carolingian and foundation of the German empire; (vii.) zenith and decay of the German empire; the hierarchy under Gregory VII.; (viii.) crusades and papal world-power (12th and 13th centuries) ; (ix.) period of transition to the modern world (14th and 15th centuries). To this may be added Ranke's works on special periods: e.g. Die Fiirsten and Valker von Siid-Europa im 'Olen and 17ten Jahrhundert (2nd ed., Leipzig, 1837-1839) ; Geschichten der romanischen and germanischen Volker, 1494–1514 (2nd ed., Leipzig, 1874, Eng. trans. 1887). In English the most important general work is the Cambridge Modern History (1903, &c.), produced by the collaboration of English and foreign scholars, and covering the ground from the end of the 15th to the 19th century inclusive. The Historians' History of the World, edited by Dr H. Smith Williams (1908), is a compilation from the works of eminent historians of all ages, and the value of its various parts is therefore that of the historians responsible for them. Its chief merit is that it makes accessible to English readers many foreign or obscure sources which would otherwise have remained closed to the general reader. It also contains essays by notable modern scholars on the principal epochs and tendencies of the world's history, the texts of a certain number of treaties, &c., not included as yet in other collections, and comprehensive bibliographies. On a less ambitious scale are the volumes of the " Periods of European History " series (London, 1893, &c.): Per. I. The Dark Ages, ¢q6-9r8, by C. W. C. Oman (1893); Per. IT. The Empire and the Papacy, 918-1293, by T. F. Tout (1898); Per. III. The Close of the Middle Ages, 1273-1494, by R. Lodge (1901) ; Europe in the 16th Century, 1404–1598, by A. H. Johnson (1897); The Ascendancy of France, by H. O. Wakeman (1894); The Balance of Power, by A. Hassal (1896) ; Revolutionary Europe, by H. Morse Stephens (1893); Modern Europe, by W. Alison Phillips (1901, 5th ed., 1908). See also T. H. Dyer, History of Modern Europe from the fall of Constantinople, revised and continued to the end of the 19th century by A. Hassal (6 vols., London, 1901). Besides the above may be mentioned, for European history since the outbreak of the French Revolution, A. Sorel, L'Europe et la Revolution Franiaise (7 vols., Paris, 1885, &c.), a work of first-class importance; A. Stern, Geschichte Europas seat den Wiener Vertragen von 1815 (Stuttgart and Berlin, 1894, &c.), based on the study of much new material, still in progress (1908); C. Seignobos, Histoire politique de l'Europe contemporaine (Paris, 1897), a valuable text-book with copious bibliography (Eng. trans., London, 1901); C. M. Andrews, Historical development of Europe, 2 vols. (New York, 1896–1898). (3) Published Documents.—For the vast mass of published sources reference must be made to the bibliographies mentioned above. It must be borne in mind, however, that these represent but a fraction of the unpublished material, and that the great development of original research is constantly revealing fresh sources, throwing new light on old problems, and not seldom upsetting conclusions long established as final. For these latest developments of scholarship the numerous historical and archaeological reviews published in various countries should be consulted: e.g. The English Historical Review (London) ; The Scottish Hist. Rev. (Glasgow) ; The American Hist. Rev. (London and New York) ; the Revue historique (Paris) ; the Historische Zeitschrift (Munich). The most notable collections of treaties are J. Dumont's Corps diplomatique, covering the period from A.D. 800 to 1731 (Amsterdam and the Hague, 1726–1731); F. G. de Martens and his continuators, Recueil des traites, &c. (1791, &c ), covering with its supplements the period from 1494 to 1874; F. (T. T.) de Martens, Recueil des 'mites conclus par la Russie, &c. (14 vols., St Petersburg, 1874, &c.) ; A. and J. de Clercq, Recueil des traites de la France (Paris, 1864; new ed., 188o, &c.); L. Neumann, Reeved des traites conclus par l'Autriche (from 1763), (6 vols., Leipzig, 1855) ; new series, by . L. Neumann and A. de Plason (16 vols., Vienna, 1877–1903) ; Osterreichische Staatsvertrage (vol. i. England, 1526–1748), published by the Commission for the modern history of Austria (Innsbruck, 1907), with valuable introductory notes; British and Foreign State Papers (from the termination of the war in 1814), compiled at the Foreign Office by the Librarian and Keeper of the Papers (London, 1819, &c.) ; Sir E. Hertslet, The Map of Europe by Treaty (from 1814), (4 vols., London, 1875–1891). See the article TREATIES. (W. A. P.)
End of Article: B1BI TOG R A PH IC ALNOTE
AZYMITES (Gr. It-, without; Sµn, leaven)

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