See also:law is singularly extensive without being exhaustive . The so-called " contracts," including a
See also:great variety of deeds, conveyances, bonds, receipts, accounts and, most important of all, the actual legal decisions given by the
See also:judges in the law courts, exist in thousands .
See also:Historical inscriptions, royal charters and rescripts, despatches, private letters and the general literature afford welcome supplementary information . Even grammatical and lexicographical
See also:works, intended solely to facilitate the study of
See also:ancient literature, contain many extracts or
See also:short sentences bearing on law and
See also:custom . The so-called " Sumerian
See also:Laws "are thus preserved . The
See also:discovery of the now celebrated
See also:Code of Khammurabi (Hammurabi)1 (hereinafter simply termed I For the transliteration of Babylonian and
See also:Assyrian names generally, see BABYLONIA AND
See also:ASSYRIA, section ix., Proper Names . BA.BYLONIAN ? LAW the Code "} has, however, made a more systematic study possible than could have resulted from the
See also:classification and
See also:interpretation of the other material . Some fragments of a later code exist and have been published; but there still remain many points upon which we have no evidence . This material
See also:dates from the earliest times down to the commencement or our era .
See also:Ine evidence upon a particular point may be very full at one
See also:period and almost entirely lacking at another . The Code forms the backbone of the
See also:sketch which is here reconstructed . The fragments of it which have been recovered from Assur-bani-
See also:pal's library at
See also:Nineveh and later Babylonian copies show that it was studied, divided into chapters entitled Ninu ilu .
See also:drum from its opening words, and recopied for fifteen
See also:hundred years or more . The greater
See also:part of it remained in force, even through the Persian, Greek and
See also:Parthian conquests, which affected private
See also:life in Babylonia very little, and it survived to influence Syro-
See also:Roman and later
See also:Mahommedan law in
See also:Mesopotamia . The law and custom which preceded the Code we shall
See also:call early," that of the New Babylonian
See also:empire (as well as the Persian, Greek, &c.) "
See also:late . " The law in Assyria was derived from Babylonia but conserved early features long after they had disappeared elsewhere . When the Semitic tribes settled in the cities of 13abylonia, their tribal custom passed over into city law . The early
See also:history of the
See also:country is the
See also:story of a struggle for supremacy between the cities . A metropolis demanded tribute and military support from its subject cities but
See also:left their
See also:local cults and customs unaffected . The city rights and usages were respected by
See also:kings and conquerors alike . As late as the accession of Assur-bani-pal and Samas-sum-yukin we find the Babylonians appealing to their city laws that groups of aliens to the number of twenty at a
See also:time were
See also:free to enter the city, that
See also:women once married to Babylonian husbands could not be enslaved and that not even a
See also:dog that entered the city could be put to
See also:death untried . The population of Babylonia was of many races from early times and intercommunication between the cities was incessant .
Every city had a large number of
See also:resident aliens . This freedom of intercourse must have tended to assimilate custom . It was, however, reserved for the
See also:genius of Khammurabi to make
See also:Babylon his metropolis and weld together his vast empire by a
See also:system of law . Almost all trace of tribal custom has already disappeared from the law of the Code . It is state-law ; alike self-help,
See also:marriage by capture, are absent ; though code of family solidarity,
See also:district responsibility, ordeal, the lcx Kham- murabi. talionis, are
See also:primitive features that remain . The
See also:king is a benevolent autocrat, easily accessible to all his subjects, both able and willing to protect the weak against the highest-placed oppressor . The royal power, however, can only
See also:pardon when private resentment is appeased . The judges are strictly supervised and
See also:appeal is allowed . The whole
See also:land is covered with feudal holdings, masters of the
See also:police, &c . There is a
See also:regular postal system . The
See also:pax Babylonica is so assured that private individuals do not hesitate to ride in their
See also:carriage from Babylon to the
See also:coast of the Mediterranean . Thethat the parties would not agree to wrong .
Incase of dispute the judges dealt first with the contract . They might not sustain it, but if the parties did not dispute it, they were free to observe it . The judges' decision might, however, be appealed against . Many contracts contain the proviso that in case of future dispute the parties would abide by " the decision of the king." The Code made known, in a vast number of cases, what that decision would be, and many cases of appeal to the king were sent back to the judges with orders to decide in accordance with it . The Code itself was carefully and logically arranged and the
See also:order of its sections was conditioned by their subject-
See also:matter . Nevertheless the order is not that of
See also:modern scientific
See also:treatises, and a somewhat different order from both is most convenient for our purpose . The Code contemplates the whole population as falling into three classes, the amelu, the muskinu and the ardu . The amelu was a patrician, the man of family, whose
See also:birth, marriage and death were registered, of ancestral estates and full
See also:civil rights . He had aristocratic privileges and responsibilities, the right to exact
See also:retaliation for
See also:corporal injuries, and liability to heavier punishment for crimes and misdemeanours, higher fees and fines to pay . To this class belonged the king and
See also:court, the higher officials, the professions and craftsmen . The
See also:term became in time a mere courtesy title but originally carried with it
See also:standing . Already in the Code, when status is not concerned, it is used to denote " any one." There was no
See also:property qualification nor does the term appear to be racial .
It is most difficult to characterize the muskinu exactly . The term came in time to mean " a
See also:beggar " and with that meaning has passed through Aramaic and
See also:Hebrew into many modern
See also:languages ; but though the Code does not regard him as necessarily poor, he may have been landless . He was free, but had to accept monetary compensation for corporal injuries, paid smaller fees and fines, even paid less offerings to the gods . He inhabited a
See also:separate quarter of the city . There is no reason to regard him as specially connected with the court, as a royal pensioner, nor as forming the bulk of the population . The rarity of any reference to him in contemporary documents makes further
See also:specification conjectural . The ardu was a slave, his
See also:chattel, and formed a very numerous class . He could acquire property and even hold other slaves . His master clothed and fed him, paid his
See also:doctor's fees, but took all compensation paid for injury done to him . His master usually found him a slave-girl as wife (the
See also:children were then
See also:born slaves), often set him up in a
See also:house (with
See also:farm or business) and simply took an
See also:rent of him . Otherwise he might marry a freewoma.n (the children were then free), who might bring him a dower which his master could not
See also:touch, and at his death one-
See also:half of his property passed to his master as his
See also:heir . He could acquire his freedom by
See also:purchase from his master, or might be freed and dedicated to a
See also:temple, or even adopted, when he became an amelu and not a muskinu .
Slaves were recruited by purchase abroad, from captives taken inwar and by freemen degraded for
See also:debt or
See also:crime . A slave often ran away ; if caught, the captor was bound to restore him to his master, and the Code fixes a
See also:reward of two shekels which the owner must pay the captor . It was about one-tenth of the
See also:average value . To detain,
See also:harbour, &c., a slave was punished by death . So was an attempt to get him to leave the city . A slave
See also:bore an
See also:identification mark, which could only be removed by a surgical operation and which later consisted of his owner's name tattoed or branded on the
See also:arm . On the great estates in Assyria and its subject provinces were many
See also:serfs,. mostly of subject
See also:race, settled captives, cr quondam slaves; tied to the
See also:soil they cultivated and sold with the
See also:estate but capable of possessing land and property of their own . There is little trace of serfs in Babylonia, unless the muskinu be really a serf . The
See also:god of a city was originally owner of its land, which encircled it with an inner
See also:ring of irrigable arable land and an
See also:outer fringe of pasture, and the citizens were his tenants . The god and his viceregent, the king, had long ceased to disturb tenancy, and were content with fixed dues in naturalia, stock, positicn of women is free and dignified . The Code did not merely embody contemporary custom or conserve ancient law . It is true that centuries of law-abiding and litigious habitude had accumulated in the temple archives of each city vast stores of precedent in ancient deeds and the records of judicial decisions, and that intercourse had assimilated city custom .
See also:habit of writing and perpetual recourse to written contract even more modified primitive custom and ancient precedent . Provided the parties could agree, the Code left them free to contract as a
See also:rule . Their deed of agreement was
See also:drawn up in the temple by a
See also:notary public, and confirmed by an
See also:oath " by god and the king." It was publicly sealed and witnessed by professional witnesses, as well as by collaterally interested parties . The manner in which it was thus executed may have been sufficient security that its stipulations were not impious or illegal . Custom or public opinion doubtless secured
See also:money or service . One of the earliest monuments records the purchase by a king of a large estate for his son; paying a
See also:fair market price and adding a handsome honorarium to the many owners in costly garments,
See also:plate, and precious articles of furniture . The Code recognizes
See also:complete private ownership in Iand, but apparently extends the right to hold land to votaries, merchants (and resident aliens ?) . But all land was sold subject to its fixed charges . The king, however, could free land from these charges by
See also:charter, which was a frequent way of rewarding those who deserved well of the state . It is from these charters that we learn nearly all we know of the obligations that
See also:lay upon land . The state demanded men for the army and the corvee as well as dues in kind . A definite
See also:area was bound to find a bowman together with his linked pikeman (who bore the
See also:shield for both) and to furnish them with supplies for the
See also:campaign .
This area was termed " a
See also:bow " as early as the 8th century B.C., but the usage was much earlier . Later, a horseman was due from certain areas . A man was only bound to serve so many (six?) times, but the land had to find a man annually . The service was usually discharged by slaves and serfs, but the amelu (and perhaps the muskinu) went to war . The " bows" were grouped in tens and hundreds . The corvee was less regular . The letters of Khammurabi often
See also:deal with claims to exemption . Religious officials and shepherds in
See also:charge of flocks were exempt .
See also:Special liabilities lay upon riparian owners to repair canals, bridges, quays, &c . The state claimed certain proportions of all crops, stock, &c . The king's messengers could commandeer any subject's property, giving a
See also:receipt . Further, every city had its own octroi duties, customs,
See also:ferry dues,
See also:highway and
See also:water rates .
The king had long ceased to be, if he ever was, owner of the land . He had his own royal estates, his private property and dues from all his subjects . The higher officials had endowments andofficial residences . The Code regulates the feudal position of certain classes . They held an estate from the king consisting of house,
See also:field, stock and a
See also:salary, on
See also:condition of
See also:personal service on the king's errand . They could not delegate the service on
See also:pain of death . When ordered abroad they could nominate a son, if capable, to hold the
See also:benefice and carry on the
See also:duty . If there was no son capable, the state put in a locum tenens, but granted one-third to the wife to maintain herself and children . The benefice was inalienable, could not be sold, pledged, exchanged, sublet, devised or diminished . Other land was held of the state for rent . Ancestral estate was strictly tied to the 'family . If a holder would sell, the family had the right of redemption and there seems to have been no time-limit to its exercise .
The temple occupied a most important position . It received from its estates, from
See also:tithes and other fixed dues, as well as from the sacrifices (a customary
See also:share) and other offerings of the faithful, vast amounts of all sorts of naturalia; besides money and permanent gifts . The larger temples had many officials and servants . Originally, perhaps, each
See also:town clustered
See also:round one temple, and each
See also:head of a family had a right to
See also:minister there and share its receipts . As the city
See also:grew, the right to so many days a
See also:year at one or other
See also:shrine (or its "
See also:gate ") descended in certain families and became a
See also:species of property which could be pledged, rented or shared within the family, but not alienated . In spite of all these demands, however, the temples became great
See also:granaries and
See also:store-houses; as they also were the city archives . The temple had its responsibilities . If a
See also:citizen was captured by the enemy and could not ransom himself the temple of his city must do so . To the temple came the poor
See also:farmer to
See also:borrow seed corn or supplies for harvesters, &c.—advances which he repaid without
See also:interest . The king's power over the temple was not proprietary but administrative . He might borrow from it but. repaid like other borrowers . The tithe seems to have
See also:beer the composition for the rent due to the god for his land .
It is not clear that all lands paid tithe, perhaps only such as once had a special connexion with the temple . The Code deals with a class of persons devoted to the service of a god, as vestals or hierodules . The vestals were vowed to chastity, lived together in a great nunnery, were forbidden toopen or enter a
See also:tavern, and together with other votaries had many privileges . The Code recognizes many ways of disposing of property—sale, lease, barter,
See also:gift, dedication, deposit,
See also:pledge, all of which were matters of contract . Sale was the delivery of the purchase (in the case of real estate symbolized by a
See also:staff, a
See also:key, or deed of
See also:conveyance) in return for the purchase money, receipts being given for both .
See also:Credit, if given, was treated as a debt, and secured as a loan by the seller to be repaid by the buyer, for which he gave a bond . The Code admits no claim unsubstantiated by documents or the oath of witnesses . A buyer had to convince himself of the seller's title . If he bought (or received on deposit) from a minor or a slave without power of
See also:attorney, he would be executed as a thief . If the goods were stolen and the rightful owner reclaimed them, he had to prove his purchase by producing the seller and the deed of sale or witnesses to it . Otherwise he would be adjudged a thief and die . If he proved his purchase, he had to give up the property but had his remedy against the seller or, if he had died, could reclaim five-
See also:fold from his estate .
A man who bought a slave abroad, might find that he had been stolen or captured from Babylonia, and he had to restore him to his former owner without profit . If he bought property belonging to a feudal holding, or to a
See also:ward in
See also:chancery, he had to return it and forfeit what he gave for it as well . He could repudiate the purchase of a slave attacked by the bennu sickness within the
See also:month (later, a hundred days), and had a
See also:female slave three days on approval . A defect of title or undisclosed liability would invalidate the sale at`any time . Landowners frequently cultivated their land themselves but might employ a husbandman or let it . The husbandman was bound to carry out the proper cultivation, raise an average
See also:crop and leave the field in
See also:good tilth . In case the crop failed the Code fixed a statutory return . Land might be let at a fixed rent when the Code enacted that accidental loss fell on the
See also:tenant . If let on share-profit, the landlord and tenant shared the loss proportionately to their stipulated share of profit . If the tenant paid his rent and left the land in good tilth, the landlord could not interfere nor forbid subletting . Waste land was let to reclaim, the tenant being rent-free for three years and paying a stipulated rent in the
See also:fourth year . If the tenant neglected to reclaim the land the Code enacted that he must
See also:hand it over in good tilth and fixed a statutory rent .
Gardens or plantations were let in the same ways and under the same conditions; but for date-groves four years' freetenure was allowed . The metayer system was in vogue, especially on temple lands . The landlord found land, labour, oxen for ploughing and working the watering-
See also:machines, carting, threshing or other implements, seed corn, rations for the workmen and
See also:fodder for the
See also:cattle . The tenant, or steward, usually had other land of his own . If he stole the seed, rations or fodder, the Code enacted that his fingers should be cut off . If he appropriated or sold the implements, impoverished or sublet the cattle, he was heavily fined and in default of payment might be condemned to be torn to pieces by the cattle on the field . Rent was as contracted . Irrigation was indispensable . If the irrigator neglected to repair his dyke, or left his runnel open and caused a
See also:flood, he had to make good the damage done to his neighbours' crops, or be sold with his family to pay the cost . The
See also:theft of a watering-machine, water-bucket or other agricultural implement was heavily fined . Houses were let usually for the year, but also for longer terms, rent being paid in advance, half-yearly . The contract generally specified that the house was in good repair, and the tenant was bound to keep it so .
The woodwork, including doors and
See also:door frames, was removable, and the tenant might bring and take away his own . The Code enacted that if the landlord would re-enter before the term was up, he must remit a fair proportion of the rent . Land was leased for houses or other buildings to be built upon it, the tenant being rent-free for eight or ten years; after which the
See also:building came into the landlord's possession . Despite the multitude of slaves, hired labour was often needed, especially at
See also:harvest . This was matter of contract, and the hirer, who usually paid in advance, might demand a
See also:guarantee to fulfil the engagement . Cattle were hired for ploughing, working the watering-machines, carting, threshing, etc . The Code fixed a statutory wage for sowers, ox-drivers, field-labourers, and hire for oxen, asses, &c . There were many herds and flocks . The flocks were committed to a shepherd who gave receipt for them and took them out to pasture . The Code fixed him a wage . He was responsible for all care, must restore ox for ox,
See also:sheep for sheep, must breed them satisfactorily . Any dishonest use of the
See also:flock had to be re-paid ten-fold, but loss by disease or
See also:wild beasts fell on the owner .
The shepherd made good all loss due to his neglect . If he let the flock feed on a field of corn he had to paydamages four-fold; if he turned them into standing corn when they ought to have been folded he paid twelve-fold . In commercial matters, payment in kind was still
See also:common, though the contracts usually stipulate for
See also:cash, naming the standard expected, that of Babylon, Larsa, Assyria, Carchemish, &c . The Code enacted, however, that a debtor must be allowed to pay in produce according to statutory scale . If a debtor had neither money nor crop, the creditor,must not refuse goods . Debt was secured on the
See also:person of the debtor . Distraint on a debtor's corn was forbidden by the Code; not only must the creditor give it back, but his illegal
See also:action forfeited his claim altogether . An unwarranted seizure for debt was fined, as was the distraint of a working ox . The debtor being seized for debt could nominate as mancipium or
See also:hostage to
See also:work off the debt, his wife, a
See also:child, or slave . The creditor could only hold a wife or child three years as mancipium . If the mancipium died a natural death while in the creditor's possession no claim could lie against the latter; but if he was the cause of death by cruelty, he had to give son for son, or pay for a slave . He could sell a slave-hostage, unless she were a slave-girl who had
See also:borne her master children .
She had to be redeemed by her owner . The debtor could also pledge his property, and in contracts often pledged a field, house or crop . The Code enacted, however, that the debtor should always take the crop himself and pay the creditor from it . If the crop failed, payment was deferred and no interest could be charged for that year . If the debtor did not cultivate the field himself he had to pay for the cultivation, but if the cultivation was already finished he must harvest it himself and pay his debt from the crop . If the
See also:cultivator did not get a crop this would not
See also:cancel his contract . Pledges were often made where the
See also:intrinsic value of the article was
See also:equivalent to the amount of the debt; but antichretic pledge was more common, where the profit of the pledge was a set-off against the interest of the debt . The whole property of the debtor might be pledged as security for the payment of the debt, without any of it coming into the enjoyment of the creditor . Personal guarantees were often given that the debtor would repay or the guarantor become liable himself .
See also:Trade was very extensive . A common way of doing business was for a
See also:merchant to entrust goods or money to a travelling
See also:agent, who sought a market for his goods . The caravans travelled far beyond the limits of the empire .
The Code insisted that the agent shouldinventory and give a receipt for all that he received . No claim could be made for anything not so entered . Even if the agent made no profit he was bound to return
See also:double what he had received, if he made poor profit he had to make up the deficiency; but he was not responsible for loss by robbery or extortion on his travels . On his return, the
See also:principal must give a receipt for what was handed over to him . Any false entry or claim on the agent's part was penalised three-fold, on the principal's part six-fold . In normal cases profits were divided according to contract, usually equally . A considerable amount of forwarding was done by the caravans . The carrier gave a receipt for the
See also:consignment, took all responsibility and exacted a receipt on delivery . If he defaulted he paid five-fold . He was usually paid in advance . Deposit, especially warehousing of
See also:grain, was charged for at one-sixtieth . The warehouseman took all risks, paid double for all shortage, but noclaim could be made unless he had given a properly witnessed receipt .
See also:traffic on the
See also:Euphrates and canals was early very considerable .
See also:Ships, whose
See also:tonnage was estimated at the amount of grain they could carry, were continually hired for the transport of all kinds of goods . The Code fixes the price for building and insists on the builder's giving a year's guarantee of seaworthiness . It fixes the hire of
See also:ship and of
See also:crew . The captain was responsible for the
See also:freight and the ship; he had to replace all loss . Even if he refloated the ship he had to pay a
See also:fine of half its value for sinking it . In the case of collision the
See also:boat under way was responsible for damages to the boat at anchor . The Code also regulated the liquor traffic, fixing a fair price for beer and forbidding the connivance of the tavern-keeper (a female!) at disorderly conduct or treasonable
See also:assembly, under pain of death . She was to
See also:hale the offenders to the palace, which implied an efficient and accessible police system . Payment through a banker or by written draft against deposit was frequent . Bonds to pay were treated as negotiable . Interest was rarely charged on advances by the temple or wealthy land-owners for pressing needs, but this may have been part of the metayer system .
The borrowers may have been tenants . Interest was charged at very high rates for overdue loans of this kind . Merchants (and even temples in some cases) madeordinary business loans, charging from 20 to 30 % . Marriage retained the
See also:form of purchase, but was essentially a contract to be man and wife together . The marriage of
See also:people was usually arranged between the relatives, the
See also:father providing the bride-price, which with other presents the suitor ceremonially presented to the bride's father . This bride-price was usually handed over by her father to the bride on her marriage, and so came back into the bridegroom's possession, along with her
See also:dowry, which was her portion as a daughter . The bride-price varied much, according to the position of the parties, but was in excess of that paid for a slave . The Code enacted that if. the father does not, after accepting a man's presents, give him his daughter, he must return the presents doubled . Even if his decision was brought about by
See also:libel on the part of the suitor's friend this was done, and the Code enacted that the faithless friend should not marry the girl . If a suitor changed his mind, he forfeited the presents . The dowry might include real estate, but generally consisted of personal effects and
See also:household furniture . It remained the wife's for life, descending to her children, if any; otherwise returning to her family, when'the
See also:husband could deduct the bride-price if it had not been given to her, or return it, if it had .
The marriage ceremony included joining of hands and the utterance of some
See also:formula of acceptance on the part of the bridegroom, as " I am the son of nobles,
See also:silver and gold shall fill thy
See also:lap, thou shalt be my wife, I will be thy husband . Like the fruit of a garden I will give thee offspring." It must be performed by a freeman . The marriage contract, without which the Code ruled that the woman was no wife, usually stated the consequences to which each party was liable for repudiating the other . These by no means necessarily agree with the Code . Many conditions might be inserted: as that the wife should
See also:act as maidservant to her
See also:mother-in-law, or to a first wife . The married couple formed a unit as to
See also:external responsibility, especially for debt . The man was responsible for debts contracted by his wife, even before her marriage, as well as for his own; but he could use her as a mancipium . Hence the Code allowed a proviso to be inserted in the marriage contract, that the wife should not be seized for her husband's pre-nuptial debts; but enacted that then he was not responsible for her pre-nuptial debts, and, in any case, that both together were responsible for all debts contracted after marriage . A man might make his wife a settlement by deed of gift, which gave her a life interest in part of his property, and he might reserve to her the right to bequeath it to a favourite child, but she could in no case leave it to her family . Although married she always remained a member of her father's house—she is rarely named wife of A, usually daughter of B, or mother of C .
See also:Divorce was optional with the man, but he had to restore the dowry and, if the wife had borne him children, she had the custody of them . He had then to assign her the income of field, or garden, as well as goods, to maintain herself and children until they grew up .
She then shared equally with them in the
See also:allowance (and apparently in his estate at his death) and was free to marry again . If she had no children, he returned her the dowry and paid her a sum equivalent to the bride-price, or a
See also:mina of silver, if there had been none . The latter is the forfeit usually named in the contract for his repudiation of her . If she had been a
See also:bad wife, the Code allowed him to send her away, while he kept the children and her dowry; or he could degrade her to the position of a slave in his own house, where she would have
See also:food and clothing . She might bring an action against him for cruelty and neglect and, if she proved her case, obtain a judicial separation, taking with her her dowry . No other punishment fell on the man . If she did not prove her case, but was proved to be a bad wife, she was drowned . If she were left without
See also:maintenance during her husband's involuntary
See also:absence, she could cohabit with another man, but must return to her husband if he came back, the children of the second union remaining with their own father . If she had maintenance, a
See also:breach of the marriage tie was
See also:adultery . Wilful
See also:desertion by, or
See also:exile of, the husband dissolved the marriage, and if he came back he had no claim on her property; possibly not on his own . As a widow, the wife took her husband's place in the family, living on in his house and bringing up the children . She could only remarry with judicial consent, when the
See also:judge was bound to inventory the deceased's estate and hand it over to her and her new husband in
See also:trust for the children .
They could not alienate a single utensil . If she did not remarry, she lived on in her husband's house and took a child's share on thedivision of his estate, when the children had grown up . She still retained her dowry and any settlement deeded to her by her husband . This property came to her children . If she had remarried, all her children shared equally in her dowry, but the first husband's gift fell to his children or to her selection among them, if so empowered . Monogamy was the rule, and a childless wife might give her husband a maid (who was no wife) to bear him children, who were reckoned hers . She remained
See also:mistress of her maid and might degrade her to
See also:slavery again for insolence, but could not sell her if she had borne her husband children . If the wife did this, the Code did not allow the husband to take a concubine . If she would not, he could do so . The concubine was a wife, though not of the same
See also:rank; the first wife had no power over her . A concubine was a free woman, was often dowered for marriage and her children were legitimate . She could only be divorced on the same conditions as a wife .
If a wife became a chronic invalid, the husband was bound to maintain her in thehome they had made together, unless she preferred to take her dowry and go back to her father's house; but he was free to remarry . In all these cases the children were legitimate and legal heirs . There was, of course, no hindrance to a man having children by a slave girl . These children were free, in any case, and their mother could not be sold, though she might be pledged, and she was free on her master's death . These children could be legitimized by their father's
See also:acknowledgment before witnesses, and were often adopted . They then ranked equally in sharing their father's estate, but if not adopted, the wife's children divided and took first choice . Vestal virgins were not supposed to have children, yet they could and often did marry . The Code contemplated that such a wife would give a husband a maid as above . Free women might marry slaves and be dowered for the marriage . The children were free, and at the slave's death the wife took her dowry and half what she and her husband had acquired in wedlock for self and children; the master taking the other half as his slave's heir . A father had
See also:control over his children till their marriage . He had a right to their labour in return for their keep .
He might hire them out and receive theirwages, pledge them for debt, even sell them outright . Mothers had the same rights in the absence of the father; even elder
See also:brothers when both parents were dead . A father had no claim on his married children for support, but they retained a right to inherit on his death . The daughter was not only in her father's power to be given in marriage, but he might dedicate her to the service of some god as a vestal or a hierodule; or give her as a concubine . She had no choice in these matters, which were often decided in her childhood . A grown-up daughter might wish to become a votary, perhaps in preference to an uncongenial marriage, and it seems that her father could not refuse her wish . In all these cases the father might dower her . If he did not, on his death the brothers were bound to do so, giving her a full child's share if a wife, a concubine or a vestal, but one-third of a child's share if she were a hierodule or a
See also:Marduk priestess . The latter had the
See also:privilege of exemption from state dues and absolute disposal of her property . All other daughters had only a life interest in their dowry, which reverted to their family, if childless, or went to their children if they had any . A father might, however, execute a deed granting a daughter power to leave her property to a favourite
See also:brother or
See also:sister . A daughter's estate was usually managed for her by her brothers, but if they did not satisfy her, she could appoint a steward .
If she married, her husband managed it, The son also appears to have received his share on marriage, but did not always then leave his father's house; he might bring his wife there . This was usual in child marriages .Adoption was very common, especially where the father (or mother) was childless or had seen all his children grow up and' marry away . The child was then adopted to care for the parents' old age . This was done by contract, which usually specified what the
See also:parent had to leave and what maintenance was expected . The real children, if any, were usually consenting parties to an arrangement which cut off their expectations . They even, in some cases, found the estate for the adopted child who was to relieve them of a care . If the adopted child failed to carry out the filial duty the contract was annulled in the law courts . Slaves were often adopted and if they proved unfilial were reduced to slavery again . A craftsman often adopted a son to learn the craft . He profited by the son's labour . If he failed to teach his son the craft, that son could prosecute him and get the contract annulled .
This was a form ofapprenticeship, and it is not clear that the apprentice had any filial relation . A man who adopted a son, and afterwards married and had a family of his own, could dissolve the contract but must give the adopted child one-third of a child's share in goods, but no real estate . That could only descend in the family to which he had ceased to belong . Vestals frequently adopted daughters, usually other vestals, to care for their old age . Adoption had to be with consent of the real parents, who usually executed a deed making over the child, who thus ceased to have any claim upon them . But vestals, hierodules, certain palace officials and slaves had no rights over their children and could raise no obstacle . Foundlings and illegitimate children had no parents to
See also:object . If the adopted child discovered his true parents and wanted to return to them, his
See also:eye or
See also:tongue was torn out . An adopted child was a full heir, the contract might even assign him the position of eldest son . Usually he was residuary legatee . All legitimate children shared equally in the father's estate at his death, reservation being made of a bride-price for an unmarried son, dower for a daughter or property deeded to favourite children by the father . There was no birthright attaching to the position of eldest son, but he usually acted as executor and after considering what each had already received equalized the shares .
He even made grants in excess to the others from his own share . When there were two mothers, the two families shared equally in the father's estate until later times when the first family took two-thirds . Daughters, in the absence of sons, had sons' rights . Children also shared their own mother's property, but had no share in that of a stepmother . A father could disinherit a son in early times without restric tion, but the Code insisted upon judicial consent and that only for repeated unfilial conduct . In early times the son who denied his father had his fronthair shorn, a slave-mark put on him, and could be sold as a slave; while if he denied his mother he had his front hair shorn, was driven round the city as an example and expelled his home, but not degraded to slavery . Adultery was punished with the death of both parties by drowning, but if the husband was willing to pardon his wife, the king might intervene to pardon the paramour . For
See also:incest with his own mother, both were burned to death; with a stepmother, the man was disinherited; with a daughter, the man was exiled; with a daughter-in-law, he was drowned; with a son's betrothed, he was fined . A wife who for her
See also:sake procured her husband's death was gibbeted . A betrothed girl, seduced by her prospective father-in-law, took her dowry and returned to her family, and was free to marry as she
See also:chose . In the criminal law the ruling principle was the lex talionis . Eye for eye, tooth for tooth,
See also:limb for limb was the
See also:penalty for assault upon an amelu .
A sort of symbolic retaliation was the punishment of the offending member, seen in the cutting off the hand that struck a father or stole a trust; in cutting off the
See also:breast of a wet-
See also:nurse who substituted a
See also:changeling for the child entrusted to her; in the loss of the tongue that denied father or mother (in the Elamite contracts the same penalty was inflicted for
See also:perjury) ; in the loss of the eye that pried into forbidden secrets . The loss of the surgeon's hand that caused loss of life or limb; or the
See also:brander's hand that obliterated a slave's identification mark, are very similar . The slave, who struck a freeman or denied his 'master, lost an ear, the
See also:organ of
See also:hearing and
See also:symbol of obedience . To bring another into danger of death by false accusation was punished by death . To cause loss of liberty or property by false witness was punished by the penalty the perjurer sought to bring upon another . The death penalty was freely awarded for theft and other crimes regarded as coming under that head; for theft involving entrance of palace or temple
See also:treasury, for illegal purchase from minor or slave, for selling stolen goods or receiving the same, for common theft in the open (in default of multiple restoration) or receiving the same, for false claim to goods, for kidnapping, for assisting or harbouring fugitive slaves, for detaining or appropriating same, for
See also:brigandage, for fraudulent sale of drink, for disorderly conduct of tavern, for delegation of personal service, for misappropriating the levy, for oppression of feudal holders, for causing death of a house-holder by bad building . The manner of death is not specified in these cases . This death penalty was also fixed for such conduct as placed another in danger of death . A specified form of death penalty occurs in the following cases: gibbeting (on the spot where crime was committed) for burglary, later also for encroaching on the king's highway, for getting a slave-brand obliterated, for procuring husband's death; burning for incest with own mother, for vestal entering or opening tavern, for theft at
See also:fire (on the spot); drowning for adultery, rape of betrothed
See also:maiden, bigamy, bad conduct as wife, seduction of daughter -in-law . A curious extension of the talio is the death of creditor's son for his father's having caused the death of debtor's son as mancipium; of builder's son for his father's causing the death of house-owner's son by building the house badly; the death of a man's daughter because her father caused the death of another man's daughter . The contracts naturally do not concern such criminal cases as the above, as a rule, but marriage contracts do specify death by strangling, drowning, precipitation from a tower or
See also:pinnacle of the temple or by the iron sword for a wife's repudiation of her husband . We are quite without evidence as to the executive in all these cases .
Exile was inflicted for incest with a daughter; disinheritance for incest with a stepmother or for repeated unfilial conduct . Sixty strokes of an ox-hidescourge were awarded for a brutal assault on a
See also:superior, both being asnelu . Branding (perhaps the equivalent of degradation to slavery) was the penalty for
See also:slander of a married woman or vestal . Deprivation of
See also:office in perpetuity fell upon the corrupt judge . Enslavement befell the extravagant wife and unfilial children . Imprisonment was common, but is not recognized by the Code . The commonest of all penalties was a fine . This is awarded by the Code for corporal injuries to a muskinu or slave (paid to his master); for damages done to property, for breach of contract . The restoration of goods appropriated, illegally bought, or damaged by neglect, was usually accompanied by a fine, giving it the form of multiple restoration . This might be double,
See also:treble, fourfold, fivefold, sixfold,' tenfold, twelvefold, even thirtyfold, according to the enormity of the offence . The Code recognized the importance of intention . A man who killed another in a
See also:quarrel must swear he did not do so intentionally, and was then only fined according to the rank of the deceased .
The Code does not say what would be the penalty of
See also:murder, but death is so often awarded where death is caused that we can hardly doubt that the murderer was put to death . If the assault only led to injury and was unintentional, the assailant in a quarrel had to pay the doctor's fees . A brander, induced to remove a slave's identification mark, could swear to his
See also:ignorance and was free . The owner of an ox which gored a man on the street was only responsible for damages if the ox was known by him to be vicious, even if it caused death . If the mancipium died a natural death under the creditor's hand, the creditor was
See also:scot free . In ordinary cases responsibility was not demanded for accident or for more than proper care . Poverty excused bigamy on the part of a deserted wife . On the other hand carelessness and neglect were severely punished, as in the case of the unskilful physician, if it led to loss of life or limb his hands were cut off, a slave had to be re-placed, the loss of his eye paid for to half his value; a veterinary surgeon who caused the death of an ox or ass paid quarter value; a builder, whose careless workmanship caused death, lost his life or paid for it by the death of his child, replaced slave or goods, and in any case had to rebuild the house or make good any damages due to defective building and repair the defect as well . The boat-builder had to make good any defect of construction or damage due to it for a year's
See also:warranty . Throughout the Code respect is paid to status . Suspicion was not enough . The criminal must be taken in the act, e.g. the adulterer, ravisher, &c .
A man could not be convicted of theft unless the goods were found in his possession . In the case of a lawsuit the
See also:plaintiff preferred his own plea . There is no trace of professional
See also:advocates, but the plea had to be in writing and the notary doubtless assisted in the drafting of it . The judge saw the plea, called the other parties before him and sent for the witnesses . If these were not at hand he might adjourn the case for their production, specifying a time up to six months . Guarantees might be entered into to produce the witnesses on a fixed
See also:day . The more important cases, especially those involving life and death, were tried by a
See also:bench of judges . With the judges were associated a
See also:body of elders, who shared in the decision, but whose exact
See also:function is not yet clear . Agreements, declarations and non-contentious cases are usually witnessed by one judge and twelve elders . Parties and witnesses were put on oath . The penalty for false witness was usually that which would have been awarded the convicted criminal . In matters beyond the knowledge of men, as the
See also:guilt or innocence of an alleged wizard or a suspected wife, the ordeal by water was used .
The accused jumped into the sacred
See also:river, and the innocent swam while the guilty drowned . The accused could clear himself by oath where his own know-ledge was alone available . The plaintiff could swear to his loss by brigands, as to goods claimed, the price paid for a slave
See also:purchased abroad or the sum due to him . But great :tress was laid on the production of written evidence . It was a serious thing to lose a document . The judges might be satisfied of its existence and terms by the evidence of the witnesses to it, and then issue an order that whenever found it should be given up . Contracts annulled were ordered to be broken . The court might go a
See also:journey to view the property and even take with them the sacred symbols on which oath was made . The decision given was embodied in writing, sealed and witnessed by the judges, the elders, witnesses and a
See also:scribe . Women might act in all these capacities . The parties swore an oath, embodied in the document, to observe its stipulations . Each took a copy and one was held by the scribe to be stored in the archives .
Appeal to the king was allowed and is well attested . The judges at Babylon seem to have formed a superior court to those of provincial towns, but a
See also:defendant might elect to answer the charge before the local court and refuse to plead at Babylon . Finally, it may be noted that many immoral acts, such as the use of false weights, lying, &c., which could not be brought into court, are severely denounced in the
See also:Omen Tablets as likely to bring the offender into " the hand of God " as opposed to " the hand of the king." J . Kohler and F . E . Peiser, Aus dem babylonischen Rechtsleben (
See also:Leipzig, 1890 ff.) ; F . E . Peiser, Babylonische Vertrage (Berlin, 189o), Keilinschriftliche Actenstiicke (Berlin, 1889) ; Br . Meissner, Beitrage zur altbabylonischen Privatrecht (Leipzig, 1893) ; F . E . Peiser, " Texte juristischen and geschaftlichen Inhalts," vol. iv. of
See also:Schrader's Keilinschriftliche Bibliothek (Berlin, 1896) ; C . H .
W . Johns, Assyrian Deeds and Documents
See also:relating to the Transfer of Property (3 vols.,
See also:bridge, 1898) ; H . Radau, Early Babylonian History (New
See also:York, 1900) ; C . H . W . Johns, Babylonian and Assyrian Laws, Contracts and Letters (
See also:Edinburgh, 1904) . For
See also:editions of texts and the in-numerable articles in scientific
See also:journals see the
See also:bibliographies and references in the above works . " The Code of Hammurabi," Editio princeps, by V . Scheil in tome iv. of the Textes Elamites-Semitiques of the Memoires de la delegation en Perse (
See also:Paris, 1902) ; H . Winckler, " Die Gesetze Hammurabis Konigs von Babylon um 2250 v . Chr." Der alte Orient, iv . Jahrgang, Heft 4; D .
See also:Muller, Die Gesetze Hammurabis (Vienna, 1903) ; J . Kohler and F . E . Peiser, Hammurabis Gesetz (Leipzig, 1904) ; R . F . Harper, The Code of Hammurabi, King of Babylon about 2250 B.C . (Chicago, 19o4) ; S . A .
See also:Cook, The Laws of Moses and the Code of Hammurabi (
See also:London, 1903) . (C . H .
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