See also:British philosopher and author, was
See also:born at Sheffield in 1791 . He was among the first of those Sheffield merchants who went to the
See also:United States to establish
See also:trade connexions . After a few years in his
See also:father's business, he retired with an ample
See also:fortune from all business concerns, with the exception of the Sheffield Banking
See also:Company, of which he was chairman for many years . Although an ardent liberal, he took little
See also:part in
See also:political affairs . On two occasions he stood for Sheffield as a " philosophic
See also:radical," but without success . His
See also:life is for the most part a
See also:history of his numerous and varied publications . His books, if not of first-
See also:rate importance, are marked by lucidity, elegance of
See also:style and originality of treatment . He diedsuddenly on the 18th of
See also:January 187o, leaving over 8o,000 to the
See also:town of Sheffield . His first
See also:work, Essays on the Formation and Publication of Opinions, published anonymously in 1821 (2nd ed., 1826; 3rd ed., 1837), attracted more
See also:attention than any of his other writings . A sequel to it appeared in 1829, Essays on the Pursuit of Truth (2nd ed., 1844) . Between these two were Questions in Political
See also:Economy, Politics, Morals, &c . (1823), and a Critical Dissertation on the Nature, Measure, and Causes of Value (1825), directed against the opinions of
See also:Ricardo and his school .
His next publications also were on economic or political subjects, Rationale of Political
See also:Representation (1835), and
See also:Money and its Vicissitudes (1837), now practically forgotton; about the same
See also:time also appeared some of his
See also:pamphlets, Discussion of
See also:Parliamentary Reform, Right of
See also:Primogeniture Examined, Defence of Joint-Stock
See also:Banks . In 1842 appeared his Review of
See also:Berkeley's Theory of Vision, an able work, which called forth rejoinders from J . S .
See also:Mill in the
See also:Westminster Review (reprinted in
See also:Dissertations), and from
See also:Ferrier in
See also:Blackwood (reprinted in Lectures and Remains, ii) .
See also:Bailey replied to his critics in a
See also:Letter to a Philosopher (1843), &c . In 1851 he published Theory of Reasoning (2nd ed., 1852), a discussion of the nature of inference, and an able
See also:criticism of the functions and value of the
See also:syllogism . In 1852 he published Discourses on Various Subjects; and finally summed up his philosophic views in the Letters on the Philosophy of the Human Mind (three series, 18J5, 1858, 1863) . In 1845 he published
See also:Moro. a poem in four cantoes (85 pp.,
See also:Longmans), containing a description of a
See also:young poet who printed moo copies of his first poem, of which only to were sold . He was a diligent student of
See also:Shakespeare, and his last
See also:literary work was On the Received Text of Shakespeare's Dramatic Writings and its Improvement (1862) . Many of the emendations suggested are more fantastic than felicitous . The Letters contain a discussion of many of the
See also:principal problems in psychology and ethics . Bailey can hardly be classed as belonging either to the strictly empirical or to the idealist school, but his general tendency is towards the former .
(I) In regard to method, he founds psychology ei}tirely onintrospection . He thus, to a certain extent, agrees with the Scottish school, but he differs from them in rejecting altogether the
See also:doctrine of
See also:mental faculties . What have been designated faculties are, upon his view, merely classified facts or phenomena of consciousness . He criticizes very severely the habitual use of metaphorical language in describing mental operations . (2) His doctrine of perception, which is, in brief, that " the perception of
See also:external things through the
See also:organs of sense is a
See also:direct mental
See also:act or phenomenon of consciousness not susceptible of being resolved into anything else," and the reality of which can be neither proved nor disproved, is not worked out in detail, but is supported by elaborate and sometimes subtle criticisms of all other theories . (3) With regard to general and abstract ideas and general propositions, his opinions are those of the empirical school, but his analysis frequently puts the
See also:matter in a new
See also:light . (4) In the theory of morals, Bailey is an
See also:advocate of
See also:utilitarianism (though he
See also:objects to the
See also:term " utility " as being narrow and, to the unthinking, of sordid content), and
See also:works out with
See also:great skill the steps in the formation of the " complex" mental facts involved in the recognition of
See also:obligation, right . He bases all moral phenomena on five facts:—(1) Man is susceptible to pleasure (and
See also:pain); (2) he likes (or dislikes) their causes; (3) he desires to reciprocate pleasure and pain received ; (4) he expects such reciprocation from others; (5) he feels more or less sympathy with the same feelings in his
See also:fellows (Letters, 3rd series) . See A . Bain's Moral Science; Th .
See also:Ribot, La Psychologie anglaise contemp.; J . F .
Ferrier, Philos . Remains (Edinb. and Lond., 1875), PP . 351-381 .
PHILIP JAMES BAILEY (1816-1902)
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