BAIRAM , a Perso-
See also:Turkish word meaning "festival," applied in Turkish to the two
See also:principal festivals of
See also:Islam . The first of these, according to the
See also:calendar, is the "Lesser Festival," called by the
See also:Turks Kiitshiik Bairam ("Lesser Bairam"), or Sheker Bairam ("
See also:Sugar Bairam"), and by Arabic-speaking Moslems `Id al-Fitr (" Festival of Fast-breaking"), or Al-'id a--.agar (" Lesser Festival") . It follows immediately the ninth or the
See also:Ramadan, occupying the first three days of the tenth month, Shawwal . It is, therefore, also called by Turks Ramadan Bairam, and exhibits more outward signs of rejoicing than the technically " Greater Festival." Official receptions are held on it, and private visits paid; friends congratulate one another, and presents are given; new clothes are put on, and the
See also:graves of relatives are visited . The second, or " Greater Festival," is called by the Turks ()urban Bairam, Sacrifice Bairam," and by Arabic speakers Al-'id al-
See also:kabir, " Greater Festival,". or '14 al-atlha, " Festival of Sacrifice." It falls on the tenth, and two or three following days, of the last month, Dhu-l-hijja, when the pilgrims each slay a ram, a he-
See also:goat, a cow or a camel in the valley of
See also:Mina in
See also:commemoration of the ransom of Ishmael with a ram . Similarly throughout the Moslem
See also:world, all who can afford it sacrifice at this
See also:time a legal animal, and either consume the flesh themselves or give it to the poor . Otherwise it is celebrated like the " Lesser Festival," but with less ardour . Both festivals, of course, belong to a lunar calendar, and move through the solar
See also:year every
See also:thirty-two years . See Lane's
See also:Modern Egyptians,
See also:Egyptian Calendar;
See also:Dictionary of Islam, pp . 192 ff.;
See also:Sir R .
See also:Burton, Pilgrimage, chaps. vii.,
See also:xxx . (D .
GIUSEPPE BAINI (1775-1844)
HENRY MARTYN BAIRD (1832—1906)
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