See also:American naturalist, was
See also:born in
See also:Reading, Pennsylvania, on the 3rd of
See also:February 1823 . He graduated at Dickinson
See also:College, Carlisle, Pennsylvania in 184o, and next
See also:year made an ornithological excursion through the mountains of Pennsylvania, walking, says one of his biographers, " 400 M. in twenty-one days, and the last
See also:day 6o m." In 1838 he met J . J .
See also:Audubon, and thenceforward his studies were largely ornithological, Audubon giving him a
See also:part of his own collection of birds . After studying
See also:medicine for a
See also:Baird became
See also:professor of natural
See also:history in Dickinson College in 1845, assuming also the duties of the
See also:chair of chemistry, and giving instruction in physiology and
See also:mathematics . This variety of duties in a small college tended to give him that breadth of scientific
See also:interest which characterized him through
See also:life, and made him perhaps the most representative general man of science in
See also:America . For the long
See also:period between 1850 and 1878 he was assistant-secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, Washing-ton, and on the
See also:death of
See also:Henry he became secretary . From 1871 till his death he was U.S .
See also:Commissioner of
See also:Fish and
See also:Fisheries . While an officer of the Smithsonian, Baird's duties included the superintendence of the labour of workers in widely different lines . Thus, apart from his assistance to others, his own studies and published writings cover a broad range: iconography, geology,
See also:mineralogy, botany, anthropology, general zoology, and, in particular,
See also:ornithology; while for a series of years he edited an
See also:volume summarizing progress in all scientific lines of investigation .
He gave general superintendence, between 185o and 186o, to several
See also:government expeditions for scientific exploration of the western territories of the
See also:United States, preparing for them a
See also:manual of Instructions to Collectors . Of his own publications, the bibliography by G .
See also:Brown Goode, from 1843 to the close of 1882, includes 1063 entries, of which 775 were
See also:short articles in his Annual Record . His most important volumes, on the whole, were Birds, in the series of reports of explorations and surveys for a railway route from the
See also:river to the Pacific ocean (1858), of which Dr
See also:Elliott Cones says (as quoted in the Popular Science Monthly, xxxiii . 553) that it " exerted an influence perhaps stronger and more widely
See also:felt than that of any of its predecessors, Audubon's and
See also:Wilson's not excepted, and marked an epoch in the history of American ornithology "; Mammals of
See also:North America: Descriptions based on Collections in the Smithsonian Institution (
See also:Philadelphia, 1859) ; and the monumental
See also:work (with
See also:Thomas Mayo
See also:Brewer and Robert Ridgway) History of North American Birds (Boston, 1875–1884; "
See also:Land Birds," 3 vols., "
See also:Water Birds," 2 vols) . He died on the 19th of
See also:August 1887 at the
See also:great marine biological laboratory at Woods Hole, Massachusetts, an institution which was largely the result of his own efforts, and which has exercised a wide effect upon both scientific and economic ichthyology .
SIR DAVID BAIRD (1757—1829)
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