BANBURY , amarket-
See also:town and municipal
See also:borough in the Banbury
See also:parliamentary division of
See also:Oxfordshire, England, on the
See also:river Cherwell and the
See also:Oxford canal, 86 m . N.W. of
See also:London by the
See also:line of the
See also:Great Western railway . Pop . (1901 12,968 . The canal communicates northward with the
See also:Grand Junction and
See also:Warwick canals, and there are branch lines of the Great Central railway to the
See also:main line at
See also:Woodford, and of the London & .
See also:North-Western railway to Bletchley: The town is the centre of a
See also:rich agricultural
See also:district, and there is a large manufacture of agricultural implements; while other
See also:industries include rope and
See also:works and
See also:brewing . Banbury cakes, consisting of a case of pastry containing a mixture of currants, have a reputation of three centuries'
See also:standing . A magnificent
See also:church was destroyed by
See also:fire and
See also:gunpowder in 1790 to make way for a
See also:building of little merit in
See also:style . The
See also:ancient Banbury
See also:Cross, celebrated in a
See also:familiar nursery
See also:rhyme, was destroyed by Puritans in 161o . During the 17th century the inhabitants of Banbury seem to have been zealous Puritans, and are frequently satirized by contemporary dramatists . At a somewhat earlier
See also:period the grammar school, now
See also:extinct, was of such repute as to be chosen as the
See also:model for the constitution of the school of St Paul's . A school of science was erected in ,861, and there is a municipal secondary and technical school .
See also:fine old timbered houses remain in the streets . Of the
See also:castle built in 1125 there are only the barest traces . Wroxton Abbey, 2 M . N.W., shows slight remains of the originalAugustinian priory; but the
See also:present beautiful gabled building, picturesquely situated,
See also:dates mainly from ,618 . Broughton Castle, 21m . S.W., is the most noteworthy
See also:house in the
See also:county . The oblong
See also:block of buildings, fronted by lawns, is surrounded by a
See also:moat and protected by a
See also:part of which dates from 1301, at which date the
See also:chapel and a part of the house were also built . There is also
See also:work of the 15th century and the Elizabethan period . The house is the seat of
See also:Lord Saye and Sele, having been in the
See also:family since the reign of
See also:Henry VII . (1485—1509) . Here
See also:Pym and
See also:Hampden and other leaders of the Parliamentarians were wont to meet in 164o . Without the gate is a fine Decorated church .
Banbury is governed by amayor, 6 aldermen and 18 councillors .
See also:Area, 4633 acres . In the
See also:year 556 Banbury (Beranbyrig, Banesberie) was the scene of a
See also:battle between Cynric and
See also:Ceawlin and Britons . It was assessed at 5o hides in the Domesday survey and was then held by the
See also:bishop of Lincoln . Allusions to the market occur as early as 1138, and Henry II. by
See also:charter confirmed a market on
See also:Thursday and granted a
See also:fair at Whitsun . The first charter of incorporation was granted by
See also:Queen Mary in 1553, and instituted a
See also:common council consisting of a
See also:bailiff, 12 aldermen and 12 chief burgesses;'a
See also:court of record, one
See also:justice of the peace, a Thursday market and two
See also:annual fairs .
See also:James I. confirmed this charter in ,6o8. with some additions, including a weekly wool-market, a
See also:horse-market and two additional annual fairs . Both these charters were surrendered in 1683 in favour of a new charter, but were resumed in 1688 . In 1718
See also:George I. granted a new charter, which held until the Municipal Corporations
See also:Act of 1835 . From the date of Queen Mary's charter until the Re-distribution of Seats Act of 1885 the borough was represented by one member in parliament . See
See also:Alfred Beesley,
See also:History of Banbury (London, 1841) .
ADRIANO BANCHIERI (c. 1557—1634)
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