BARN , formerly a small frontierprovince in the south of France, now included within the department of Basses-Pyrenees . It was bounded on the W. by Soule and
See also:Navarre, on the N. by Chalosse, Tursan and Astarac, E. by Bigorre and S. by the Pyrenees . Its name can be traced back to the
See also:town of Beneharnum (Lescar) . The civitas Beneharnensium was included in the Novempopulania . It was conquered by the Vascones in the 6th century, and in 819 became a viscounty dependent on the dukes of Aquitaine—a feudal
See also:link which was broken in the 11th century, when the viscounts ceased to acknowledge any suzerain . They then reigned over the two dioceses of Lescar and Oloron; but their capital was Morlaas, where they had a mint which was famous throughout the
See also:middle ages . In the 13th century Gaston VII., of the Catalonian
See also:house of Moncade, made
See also:Orthez his seat of
See also:government . His long reign (1229-1290) was a perpetual struggle with the
See also:kings of France and England, each anxious to assert his
See also:suzerainty over Bearn . As Gaston
See also:left only daughters, the viscounty passed at his
See also:death to the
See also:family of
See also:Foix, from whom it was transmitted through the houses of Grailly and
See also:Albret to the Bourbons, and they, in the
See also:person of
See also:Henry IV.,
See also:king of Navarre, made it an apanage of the
See also:crown of France . It was not formally incorporated in the royal domains, however, until 162o . None of these
See also:political changes weakened the
See also:independent spirit of the Bearnais . From the 11th century onward, they were governed by their own
See also:special customs or fors .
See also:drawn up in the language of the
See also:country, a
See also:Romance dialect (1288 being the date of the most
See also:ancient written
See also:code), and are remarkable for the manner in which they define the rights of the
See also:sovereign, determining the reciprocal obligations of the
See also:viscount and his subjects or vassals . Moreover, from the 12th century
See also:Beam enjoyed a kind of representative government, with
See also:tours plenieres composed of deputies from the three estates . From 1220 onward, the judiciary
See also:powers of these assemblies were exercised by a tour majour of twelve barons jurats charged with the
See also:duty of maintaining the integrity of the fors . When Gaston-Phoebus wished to establish a
See also:hearth-tax (fouage) in the viscounty, he convoked the deputies of the three estates in assemblies called 'tats . These soon acquired extensive political and
See also:financial powers, which continued in operation till 1789 . Although, when Bearn was annexed to the domains of the crown, it was granted a conseil d'etat and a
See also:parlement, which sat at
See also:Pau, the province also retained its fors until the Revolution . See also Olhagaray, Histoire de Foix, Beam et Navarre (16o9);
See also:Pierre de
See also:Marca, Histoire de Bearn (164o) . This
See also:work does not go beyond the end of the 13th century; it contains a large number of documents .
See also:Paget de Baure, Essais historiques sur le Beam (1818) ;
See also:Les Fors de Beam, by Mazure and Hatoulet (1839), completed by J . Brissaud and P . Roge in Textes additionnels aux anciens Fors de Beam (19o5) ; Leon Cadier, Les Etats de Beam depuis leur origine jusqu'au commencement du XVI' siecle (1888) . (C .
BARMOUTH (Abermaw, mouth of the Maw, or Mawddach, i...
There are no comments yet for this article.
Do not copy, download, transfer, or otherwise replicate the site content in whole or in part.
Links to articles and home page are encouraged.