Online Encyclopedia

BAR HARBOR

Online Encyclopedia
Originally appearing in Volume V03, Page 400 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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BAR HARBOR, a well-known summer resort of Hancock county, Maine, U.S.A., an unincorporated village, in the town-ship of Eden, on Frenchman's Bay, on the E. side of Mount Desert Island, about 45 M. S.E. of Bangor. Pop. of the township (1900) 4399; (1910) 4441; of the village (1910), about 2000, greatly increased during the summer season. Bar Harbor is served by the Maine Central railway and by steamship lines to New York, Boston, Portland and other ports. The summer climate is cool, usually too cool for sea-bathing, but there is it large open-air salt water swimming bath. Rugged mountains from r000 to 1500 ft. in height, a coast with deep indentations and lined with bold cliffs, a sea dotted with rocky islets, clear lakes, sparkling rivulets, deep gorges, and wooded glens are features of the attractive scenery here and in the vicinity. Several fine hotels and a number of costly residences occupy a plateau along the shore and the hillsides farther back. The Kebo Valley Club has fine golf links here; and since 1900 an annual horse show and fair has been held at Robin Hood Park at the foot of Newport Mountain. Bar Harbor is usually a summer rendezvous of the North Atlantic Squadron of the United States Navy. The name Bar Harbor, which displaced East Eden, was suggested by the bar which appears at low water between it and Bar Island. Although the first summer hotel was built here in 1855, Bar Harbor's development as a summer resort began about 1870, after some artists had visited the place, and made it widely known through their pictures. (See MOUNT DESERT.) BAR-HEBRAEUS or ABU`L-FARM, a maphrian or catholicus of the Jacobite (Monophysite) Church in the 13th century, and (in Dr. Wright's words) " one of the most learned and versatile men that Syria ever produced." Perhaps no more industrious compiler of knowledge ever lived. Simple and uncritical in his modes of thought, and apparently devoid of any striking originality, he collected in his numerous and elaborate treatises the results of such research in theology, philosophy, science and history as was in his time possible in Syria. Most of his works were written in Syriac, but some few in Arabic, which had long before his time supplanted Syriac as a living speech. The son of a physician of Jewish descent, Bar-Hebraeus was born in 1226 at Malatiah on the upper Euphrates. His youth was passed in the troublous times of the Mongol advance into western Asia, and his father eventually retired to Antioch, where Bar-Hebraeus completed his education. In 1246 he was ordained at Tripolis as Jacobite bishop of Gubas near Malatia, and a year later was transferred to the neighbouring diocese of Lakabhin, whence in 1253 he passed to be bishop of Aleppo. Deposed almost immediately by an ecclesiastical superior on account of disputes about the patriarchate, he was restored to his see in 1258, and in 1264 was promoted by the patriarch Ignatius III. to be maphrian—the next rank below that of patriarch—an office which he held till his death at Maragha in 1286. He seems to have been a model of devotion to his ecclesiastical duties and to have won the respect of all parties in his diocese. It is mainly as an historian that Bar-Hebraeus interests the modern student. His great historical work—the Syriac Chronicle —is made up of three parts. The first' is a history of secular events from the Creation to his own time, and in its later portions gives valuable information regarding the history of south-east Europe and western Asia. A compendium in Arabic of this secular history was made by Bar-Hebraeus under the title al-Mukhtasar fi `d-Duwal (Compendious History of the Dynasties). The second and third parts 2 of the Chronicle deal with the history of the Church, the second being mainly concerned with the patriarchate of Antioch, and the third with the eastern branch of the Syrian Church. Of special value to theologians is the Ausar Raze (Storehouse of Secrets), a critical and doctrinal commentary on the text of the Scriptures. Of this many portions have been edited by various scholars, and a valuable study of the work, together with a biography and estimate of its author, has been published by J. Gottsberger (Barhebraus and seine Scholien zur heiligen Schrift, Freiburg i. B., 'goo). A full list of Bar-Hebraeus's other works, and of editions of such of them as have been published, will be found in W. Wright's Syriac Literature, pp. 268-281. The more important of them are:—(r) Kethdbad dhe-Bhabhatha (Book of the Pupils of the Eyes), a treatise on logic or dialectics; (2) Hewalh Hekhmethd (Butter of Wisdom), an exposition of the whole philosophy of Aristotle; (3) Sullaka-Haunanaya (Ascent of the Mind), a treatise on astronomy and r Imperfectly edited and translated by Bruns and Kirsch in 1789. There is now a better edition by Bedjan (Paris, 1890). 2 Edited and translated by Abbeloos and Lamy (Paris and Louvain, 1872-187, ,cosmography, edited and translated by F. Nau (Paris, 1899) ; (4) various medical works; (5) Kethabha dhe-Sembe (Book of Rays), a treatise on grammar; (6) ethical works; (7) poems; (8) Kethabha dhe-Thunnaye Meghahlzekhane (Book of Entertaining Stories), edited and translated by E. A. W. Budge (London, 1897). (N. M.)
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