BARONET . Although the origin of thistitle has been the subject of learned
See also:speculation, it is not known for certain why it was selected as that of " a new Dignitie between Barons and Knights " created by
See also:James I . The
See also:object of its institution was to raise
See also:money for the
See also:crown, as was also done by the sale of
See also:peerage dignities under this
See also:sovereign . But the money was professedly devoted to the support of troops in Ulster, that is, each grantee was to be liable for the pay of
See also:thirty men, at 8d. a
See also:day for three years . This amounted to £1095, which was the sum paid for the
See also:honour . When it was instituted, in May 1611, the
See also:king, to keep the baronetage select, covenanted that he would not create more than two
See also:hundred, and that only those who had loon a
See also:year in landed
See also:estate and whose paternal
See also:grand-fathers had
See also:borne arms should receive the honour . But these qualifications were before long abandoned . As an inducement to apply for it, it was made to confer the prefix of "
See also:Sir " and "
See also:Lady " (or "
See also:Dame "), and was assigned precedence above knights, though below the younger sons of barons . Eight years later (3oth of
See also:September 1619), the baronetage of
See also:Ireland was instituted, the king pledging himself not to create more than a hundred baronets . Meanwhile, questions had arisen as to the exact precedence of the baronets, and James by royal decree (28th of May 1612) had announced that it was his intention to
See also:rank them below the younger sons of barons . As this had the effect of stopping applications for the honour, James issued a fresh commission (18th of
See also:November 1614) to encourage them, and finally, as " the Kinges wants might be much relieved out of the vanities and ambition of the' gentrie " (in
See also:Chamberlain's words), he granted, in 1616, the further
See also:privilege that the heirs ,apparent of baronets should be knighted on coming of age . The baronetage of Nova Scotia was devised in 1624 'as a means of promoting the "
See also:plantation " of that province, and James announced his intention of creating a hundred baronets, each of whom was to support six colonists for two years (or pay 2000 marks in lieu thereof) and also to pay woo marks to Sir
See also:Alexander (afterwards
See also:earl of
See also:Stirling), to whom the province had been granted by
See also:charter in 1621 .
For this he was to receive a "
See also:barony " of 16,000 acres in Nova Scotia, and to become a baronet of " his Hienes
See also:Kingdom of Scotland." James dying at this point,
See also:Charles I. carried out the
See also:scheme, creating the first Scottish baronet on the 28th of May 1625, covenanting in the creation charter that the baronets " of Scotland or of Nova Scotia " should never exceed a hundred and fifty in number, thattheir heirs apparent should be knighted on coming of age, and that no one should receive the honour who had not fulfilled the conditions, viz. paid 3000 marks (£166, 13s . 4d.) towards the plantation of the colony . Four years later (17th of November 1629) the king wrote to " the contractors for baronets," recognizing that they had advanced large sums to Sir William Alexander for the plantation on the security of the payments to be made by future baronets, and empowering them to offer a further inducement to applicants; and on the same day he granted to all Nova Scotia baronets the right to
See also:wear about their necks, suspended by an orange tawny ribbon, a badge bearing an
See also:azure saltire with a crowned inescutcheon of the arms of Scotland and the
See also:motto " Fax mentis honestae gloria." As the required number, how-ever, could not be completed, Charles announced in 1633 that
See also:English and Irish gentlemen might receive the honour, and in 1634 they began to do so . Yet even so, he was only able to create a few more than a hundred and twenty in all . In 1638 the creation ceased to carry with it the
See also:grant of lands in Nova Scotia, and on the union with England (1707) the Scottish creations ceased, English and Scotsmen alike receiving thenceforth baronetcies of
See also:Great Britain . It is a
See also:matter of dispute whether James I. had kept faith with the baronets of England as to limiting their number; but his son soon rejected the restriction freely . Creations became one of his devices for raising money;
See also:patents were hawked about, and in 1641
See also:Nicholas wrote that baronetcies were to be had for £400 or even for £35o; a patent was offered about this
See also:time to Mr Wrottesley of Wrottesley for £300 . On the other
See also:hand, the honour appears to have been bestowed for nothing on some ardent royalists when the great struggle began .
See also:Cromwell created a few baronets, but at the Restoration the honour was bestowed so lavishly that a
See also:letter to Sir
See also:Richard Leveson (3rd of
See also:June 166o) describes it as " too
See also:common," and offers to procure it for any one in return for £300 or £400 . Sir William Wiseman, however, is said to have given £50o, The
See also:history of the baronetage was uneventful till 1783, when in consequence of the wrongful
See also:assumption of baronetcies, an old and then increasing evil, a royal
See also:warrant was issued (6th of
See also:December) directing that no one should be recognized as a baronet in official documents till he had proved his right to the dignity, and also that those created in future must
See also:register their arms and
See also:pedigree at the Heralds'
See also:College . In consequence of the'opposition of the baronets themselves, the first of these two regulations was rescinded and the evil remained unabated . Since the union with Ireland (1800) baronets have been created, not as of Great Britain or of Ireland, but as of the
See also:United Kingdom .
In 1834 a
See also:movement was initiated by Mr Richard Broun (whose
See also:father had assumed a Nova Scotia baronetcy some years before), to obtain certain privileges for the
See also:order, but on the advice of the Heralds' College, the
See also:request was refused . A further petition, for permission to all baronets to wear a badge, as did those of Nova Scotia, met with the same
See also:fate in 1836, Meanwhile
See also:George IV. had revoked (19th of December 1827), as to all future creations the righf of baronets' eldest sons to claim
See also:knighthood, Mr Broun claimed it as an
See also:heir apparent in 1836, and on finally
See also:meeting with refusal, publicly assumed the honour in 1842, a foolish and futile
See also:act . In 1854 Sir J .
See also:Kingston James was knighted as a baronet's son, and Sir Ludlow
See also:Cotter similarly in 1874, on his coming of age; but when Sir
See also:Claude de Crespigny's son applied for the honour (17th of May 1895), his application was refused, on the ground that the
See also:lord chancellor did not consider the clause in the patent (1805) valid . The reason for this decision appears to be unknown . Mr Broun's subsequent connexion with a scheme for reviving the territorial claims of the Nova Scotia baronets as
See also:part of a colonizing scheme need not be discussed here . A fresh agitation was aroused in 1897 by an order giving the sons of
See also:life peers precedence over baronets, some of whom formed themselves, in 1898, into " the Honourable Society of the Baronetage " for the
See also:maintenance of its privileges . But'a royal warrant was issued on the 15th of
See also:August 1898, confirming the precedence complained of as an infringement of their rights . The above
See also:body, however, 424 has continued in existence as the "
See also:Standing 'Council of the Baronetage," and succeeded in obtaining invitations for some representatives of the order to the
See also:coronation of King
See also:Edward VII . It has been sought to obtain badges or other distinctions for baronets and also to purge the order of wrongful assumptions, an evil to which the baronetage of Nova Scotia is peculiarly exposed, owing to the dignity being descendible to
See also:collateral heirs male of the grantee as well as to those of his body . A departmental
See also:committee at the home
See also:office was appointed in 1906 to consider the question of such assumptions and the best means of stopping them . All baronets are entitled to display in their coat of arms, either on a
See also:canton or on an inescutcheon, the red hand of Ulster, save those of Nova Scotia, who display, instead of it, the saltire of that province .
The precedency of baronets of Nova Scotia and of Ireland in relation to those of England was
See also:left undetermined by the Acts of Union, and appears to be still a
See also:moot point with heralds . The premier baronet of England is Sir Hickman
See also:Bacon, whose ancestor was the first to receive the honour in 1611 . See Pixley's History of the Baronetage; Playfair's " Baronetage (in
See also:Family Antiquity, vols. vi.-ix.);
See also:Foster's Baronetage; G . E . Cokayne's
See also:Complete Baronetage;
See also:Nichols, " The Dignity of Baronet " (in
See also:Herald and Genealogist, vol. iii.) (J . H .
MICHEL BARON (1653—1729)
CAESAR BARONIUS (1538-1607)
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