See also:MEASURES) . The
See also:term is applied to many cylindrical
See also:objects, as to the
See also:round which the chain is
See also:wound in a
See also:crane, a
See also:capstan or a
See also:watch; to the cylinder studded with pins in a
See also:organ or musical-box; to the hollow
See also:shaft in which the
See also:piston of a
See also:works; or to the
See also:tube of a
See also:gun . The "barrel" of a
See also:horse is that
See also:part of the
See also:body lying between the shoulders and the quarters . For the
See also:system of vaulting in architecture known as " barrel-vaulting " see VAULT . BARREL-ORGAN (Eng . "grinder-organ," "street-organ," "
See also:hand-organ," " Dutch organ"; Fr. orgue de Barbarie, orgue d'Allemagne, orgue mecanique,
See also:cabinet d'orgue, serinette; Ger . Drehorgel, Leierkasten; Ital. organetto amanovella, organo tedesco), a small portable organ mechanically played by turning a handle . The barrel-organ owes its name to the cylinder on which the tunes are pricked out with pins and staples of various lengths, set at definite intervals according to the
See also:scheme required by the
See also:music . The
See also:function of these pins and, staples is to raise balanced keys connected by
See also:simple mechanism with the valves of the pipes, which are thus mechanically opened, admitting the stream of air from the
See also:wind-chest . The handle attached to the shaft sets the cylinder in slow rotation by means of a
See also:worm working in a
See also:gear on the barrel-
See also:head; the same motion works the bellows by means of cranks and connecting reds on the shaft . The wind is thereby forced into a
See also:reservoir, whence it passes into the wind-chest, on the sides of which are grouped the pipes . The barrel revolves slowly from back to front, each revolution as a
See also:rule playing one
See also:complete tune .
See also:pin in the barrel-head, furnished with as many notches as there are tunes, enables the performer to shift the barrel and
See also:change the tune . The ordinary street barrel-organ had a compass varying from 24 to 34 notes, forming a diatonic scale with a few accidentals, generally F#, G#, C . There were usually two stops, one for the open pipes of
See also:metal, the other for the closed wooden pipes . Barrel-
See also:organs 432 malcontents in the streets near the Tuileries, 13 Vendemiaire (5th of
See also:October 1795) . Thereupon Barras became one of the five
See also:Directors who controlled the executive of the French republic . Owing to his intimate relations with Josephine de Beauharnais, he helped to facilitate a
See also:marriage between her and
See also:Bonaparte; and many have averred, though on defective evidence, that Barras procured the
See also:appointment of Bonaparte to the command of the army of Italy early in the
See also:year 1796 . The achievements of Bonaparte gave to the
See also:Directory a stability which it would not otherwise have enjoyed; and when in the summer of 1797 the royalist and constitutional opposition again gathered strength, Bonaparte sent General
See also:Augereau (q.v.), a headstrong Jacobin, forcibly to repress that
See also:movement by what was known as the coup d'etat of 18 Fructidor (4th
See also:September) . Barras and the violent
See also:Jacobins now carried matters with so high a hand as to render the
See also:government of the Directory odious; and Bonaparte had no difficulty in overthrowing it by the coup d'etat of 18–19
See also:Brumaire(9th–IothofNovember) . Barras saw the need of a change and was to some extent (how far will perhaps never be known) an
See also:accomplice in Bonaparte's designs, though he did not suspect the power and ambition of their contriver . He was
See also:left on one side by the three Consuls who took the place of the five Directors and found his
See also:political career at an end . He had amassed a large
See also:fortune and spent his later years in voluptuous ease . Among the men of the Revolution few did more than Barras to degrade that movement .
His immorality in both public and private
See also:life was notorious and contributed in no small degree to the downfall of the Directory, and with it of the first French Republic . Despite his profession of royalism in and after 1815, he remained more or less suspect to the Bourbons; and it was with some difficulty that the notes for his
See also:memoirs were saved from seizure on his
See also:death on the 29th of
See also:January 1829 . Barras left memoirs in a rough state to be
See also:drawn up by his
See also:literary executor, M . Rousselin de St Albin . The amount of alteration which they underwent at his hands is not fully known; but M .
See also:Duruy, who edited them on their publication in 1895, has given fairly satisfactory proofs of their genuineness . For other
See also:sources respecting Barras see the Memoirs of
See also:Gohier, Larevelliere-Lepeaux and de Lescure; also Sciout, Le Direcloire (4 vols.,
See also:Paris, 1895-1897), A .
See also:Sorel, L'
See also:Europe et la Revolution francaise (esp. vols. v. and vi., Paris, 1903–1904), and A . Vandal, L'Avenement de Bonaparte (Paris, 1902–1904) . (J .
ISAAC BARRE (1726-1802)
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