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LUCAS BARRETT (1837-1862)

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Originally appearing in Volume V03, Page 434 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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LUCAS BARRETT (1837-1862), English naturalist and geologist, was born in London on the 14th of November 1837, and educated at University College school and at Ebersdorf. In 1855 he accompanied R. McAndrew on a dredging excursion from the Shetlands to Norway and beyond the Arctic Circle; and subsequently made other cruises to Greenland and to the coast of Spain, . These expeditions laid the foundations of an extensive knowledge of the distribution of marine life. In 1855 he was engaged by Sedgwick to assist in the Woodwardian Museum at Cambridge, and during the following three years he aided the professor by delivering lectures. He discovered bones of birds in the Cambridge Greensand, and he also prepared a geological map of Cambridge on the one-inch Ordnance map. In 1859, when twenty-two years of age, he was appointed director of the Geological Survey of Jamaica.. He there determined the Cretaceous age of certain rocks which contained Hippurites, the new genus Barrettia being named after him by S, P. Woodward; he also obtained many fossils from the Miocene and newer strata. He was drowned at the early age of twenty-five, on the 18th of December 1862, while investigating the sea-bottom off Kingston, Jamaica. Obituary by S. P. Woodward in Geologist (Feb. 1863), p. 6o. BARRETT, WILSON (1846–1904), English actor, manager and playwright, was born in Essex on the 18th of February 1846, the 434 manners and customs of the Netherlands,' we find the following allusion:—" The diversions of the Dutch differ not much from those of the English, who seem to have borrowed from them the neatness of their drinking booths, skittle and other grounds . . which form the amusements of the middle ranks, not to mention their hand-organs and other musical inventions." An illustration of the hand-organ of that period is given in Knight's London,2 being one of a collection of street views published by Dayes in 1789. In a description of Bartholomew Fair, as held at the beginning of the 18th century, is a further reference to the Dutch origin of the barrel-organ:—" A band at the west-end of the town, well known for playing on winter evenings before Spring Garden Coffee House, opposite Wigley's great exhibition room, consisted of a double drum, a Dutch organ, the tambourine, violin, pipes and the Turkish jingle used in the army. This band was generally hired at one of the booths of the fair." 3 Mr Thomas Brown relates that one Mr Stephens, a Poultry author, proposed to parliament for any one that should presume to keep an organ in a Publick House to be fined X20 and made incapable of being an ale-draper for the future.4 In 1737 Horace Walpole writes':—" I am now in pursuit of getting the finest piece of music that ever was heard;, it is a thing that will play eight tunes. Handel and all the great musicians say that it is beyond anything they can do, and this may be performed by the most ignorant person, and when you are weary of those eight tunes, you may have them changed for any other that you like." . The organ was put in a lottery and fetched £1000. There was a very small barrel-organ in use during the 18th and 19th centuries, known as the bird-organ (Fr. serinette, turlutaine, merline). One of these now in the collection of the Brussels Conservatoire is described by V. C. Mahillon.6 The instrument is in the form of a book, on the back of which is the title " Le chant des oiseaux, Tome vi." There are ten pewter stopped pipes giving the scale of G with the addition of Fb and A two octaves higher. The whole instrument measures approximately S X 51X 24in. and plays eight tunes. Mozart wrote an Andante 7 for a small barrel-organ. For an illustration of the construction of the barrel-organ during the 18th century, consult P. M. D. J. Engramelle, La Tonotechnie ou Part de noter les cylindres et tout ce qua est susceptible de notage dans les instruments de concerts mechaniques (Paris, 1775), with engravings (not in the British Museum) ; and for a clear diagram of the modern instrument the article on " Automatic Appliances connected with Music," by Dr E. J. Hopkins, in Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians, vol. i. (1904), p. 134. (K. S.)
End of Article: LUCAS BARRETT (1837-1862)
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