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HENRY BARROWE (? 1550-1593)

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Originally appearing in Volume V03, Page 443 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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HENRY BARROWE (? 1550-1593), English Puritan and Separatist, was born about 1550, at Shipdam, Norfolk, of a family related by marriage to the lord keeper Bacon, and probably to Aylmer, bishop of London. He matriculated at Clare Hall, Cambridge, in November 1566, and graduated B.A. in 1569-157o. Afterwards he followed the court " for some time, leading a frivolous if not licentious life. He was a member of Gray's Inn for a few years from 1576, but was never called to the bar. About 158o or 1581 he was deeply impressed by a sermon, whereupon he retired to the country, and was led by study and meditation to the strictest form of Puritanism. Subsequently, in what manner is not known, he came into intimate relations with John Greenwood, the Separatist leader, whose views (probably due, in part at least, to Browne's influence) he adopted without reserve. Though not strictly resident in London at this time, he was associated with " the brethren of the Separation " there, in whose secret meetings his natural earnestness and eloquence made him conspicuous. Greenwood having been' imprisoned in the Clink, Barrowe came from the country to visit him, and on the ,9th of November 1586 was detained by the gaoler and brought before Archbishop Whitgift. He insisted on the illegality of this arrest, refused either to take the ex officio oath or to give bail for future appearance, and was committed to the Gatehouse. After nearly six months' detention and several irregular examinations before the high commissioners, he and Greenwood were formally indicted (May 1587) for recusancy under an act originally directed against Papists. They were ordered to find heavy bail for comformity, and to remain in the Fleet Prison until it was forthcoming. Barrowe continued a prisoner for the remainder of his life, nearly six years, sometimes in close confinement, sometimes having " the liberty of the prison." He was subjected to several more examinations, once before the privy council at Whitehall on the ,8th of March 1588, as a result of petition to the queen. On these occasions he vigorously maintained the principle of separatism, denouncing the prescribed ritual of the Church as " a false worship," and the bishops as oppressors and persecutors. During his imprisonments he was engaged in written controversy with Robert Browne (down to 1588), who had yielded a partial submission to the established order, and whom he therefore accounted a renegade. He also wrote several vigorous treatises in defence of separatism and congregational independency, the most important being:—A True Description of the Visible Congregation of the Saints, &c. (1589); A Plain Refutation of Mr Gifford's Booke, intituled A Short Treatise Gainst the Donatistes of England (1590-1591), and A Brief Discovery of the False Church (1591). Others were written in conjunction with his fellow-prisoner, Greenwood. These writings were taken charge of by friends and mostly printed in Holland. By 1590 the bishops thought it advisable to try other means of convincing or silencing these indomitable controversialists, and sent several conforming Puritan ministers to confer with them, but without effect. At length it was resolved to proceed on a capital charge of " devising and circulating seditious books," for which, as the law then stood, it was easy to secure a conviction. They were tried and sentenced to death on the 23rd of March 1593. What followed is, happily, unique in the history of English misrule. The day after sentence they were brought out as if for execution and respited. On the 31st of March they were taken to the gallows, and after the ropes had been placed about their necks were again respited. Finally they were hanged early on the , morning of the 6th of April. The motive of all this is obscure, but there is some evidence that the lord treasurer Burghley endeavoured to save their lives, and was frustrated by Whitgift and other bishops. The opinions of Browne and Barrowe had much in common, but were not identical. Both maintained the right and duty of the Church to carry out necessary reforms without awaiting the permission of the civil power; and both advocated congregational independency. But the ideal of Browne was a spiritual democracy, towards which separation was only a means. Barrowe, on the other hand, regarded the whole established church order as polluted by the relics of Roman Catholicism, and insisted on separation as essential to pure worship and discipline (see further CONGREGATIONALISM). Barrowe has beencredited by H. M. Dexter and others with being the author of the " Marprelate Tracts "; but this is improbable. AUTHORITIES.—H. M. Dexter, The Congregationalism of the Last Three Hundred Years; F. J. Powicke, Henry Barrowe and the Exiled Church. See also B. Brook, Lives of the Puritans; and Cooper, Athenae Cantabrigienses (1861), vol. ii. BARROW-IN-FURNESS, a seaport and municipal, county and parliamentary borough of Lancashire, England, 2641 M. N.W. by N. from London, on the Furness railway. Pop. (1891) 51,712; (1901) 57,586. It lies on the seaward side of the hammer-shaped peninsula forming part of the district of Furness, between the estuary of the Duddon and Morecambe Bay, where a narrow channel intervenes between the mainland and the long low island of Walney, on which the erection of a strong fort was undertaken by the War Office in 1904. In 1905 the connexion of Walney with the mainland by a bridge was undertaken. In the channel is Barrow Island (among others) which is connected with the mainland, reclamation having been carried on until only a narrow channel was left, which was utilized as docks. Barrow is of modern and remarkably rapid growth. Its rise was dependent primarily on the existence and working of the veins of pure haematite iron ore in the district of Furness (q.v.). At the outset Barrow merely exported the ore to the furnaces of South Wales and the midlands. At the beginning of the 19th century this export amounted at most to a few thousand tons, and though by the middle of the century it had reached some 50,000 in 1847 the population of Barrow was only 325. In 1846 the first section of the Furness railway was opened, connecting Barrow with the mines near Dalton; in the ensuing years a great increase in trade justified the opening of further communications, and in 1859 the iron works of Messrs Schneider & Hannay were instituted. The Barrow Haematite Steel Company (1866) absorbed this company, and a great output of steel produced by the Bessemer process was begun. Other industries followed. Of these the shipbuilding works have surpassed the steel works in importance, the celebrated firm of Vickers, Sons & Maxim having a yard where they construct numerous vessels of war as well as others. There are also a petroleum storage establishment, a paper-pulp factory, jute works, and engineering and wagon works. The docks in the strait between Barrow Island and the main-land were constructed in 1867, and named the Devonshire and Buccleuch docks. The Ramsden docks are a subsequent extension. These are 24 ft. in depth. There are also a graving dock 500 ft. long, a depositing dock accommodating vessels of 16 ft. draught, and two electric cranes each able to lift 150 tons. The Furness railway company is the dock authority. Passenger steamers run on weekdays to Belfast. The town is laid out in rectangular form, and contains several handsome churches, municipal buildings, exchange and other public buildings. An electric tramway service connects the out-skirts and the centre. There are statues of Lord Frederick Cavendish (assassinated at Dublin, 1882), in front of the town-hall, and of Sir James Ramsden (d. 1896), managing director of the Furness railway and first mayor of Barrow, to whom, together with the dukes of Devonshire and Buccleuch, the town owed mirth of its rise in the middle of the 19th century. The cottage inhabited by George Romney the painter from 1742 to 1755 has been preserved from demolition and retained as a memorial. Educational institutions include a school of science and art, a girls' high school and a technical school. Barrow is a suffragan bishopric in the diocese of Carlisle. The parliamentary borough (1885), falling within the North Lonsdale division of the county, returns one member. The town was incorporated in 1867, and became a county borough in 1888. The corporation consists of a mayor, 8 aldermen and 24 councillors. Area, 11,023 acres.
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