Online Encyclopedia


Online Encyclopedia
Originally appearing in Volume V03, Page 453 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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BARTON BEDS, in geology, the name given to a series of softish grey and brown clays, with layers of sand, of Upper Eocene age, which are found in the Hampshire Tertiary basin, where they are particularly well exposed in the cliffs of Barton, Hordwell, and in the Isle of Wight. Above the highly fossiliferous Barton Clay there is a sandy series with few fossils; these are the Headon Hill or Barton Sands. Either of these names is preferable to the term " Upper Bagshot Beds," which has been applied to these sands. The Barton Beds are absent from the London basin, and the Upper Bagshot Sands of that area are probably of a lower horizon than the Barton Sands. The term "Bartonien " was introduced by Mayer-Eymar in 1857 for the continental equivalents of the series. Hampshire basin and Paris basin. Isle of Wight. Barton Sands 140-200 ft. Limestone of St Ouen. Barton Clay 162-255 ft. Bartonien Sands of Beauchamp (sables moyen). Fusus longaevus,Volutilithes luctatrix, Ostrea gigantea, Pectunculus (Glycimeris) deleta are characteristic fossils; fishes (Lamna, Arius, &c.) and a crocodile (Diplocynodon) are also found in the Barton Clay. The sands are very pure and are used in glass making. See " Geology of the Isle of Wight," Mem. Geol. Survey (2nd ed., 1889) ; and " The Geology of the Country around Southampton," Mem. Geol. Survey (1902). (J. A. H.) BARTON-UPON-HUMBER, a market town in the N. Lindsey or Brigg parliamentary division of Lincolnshire, England, the terminus of a branch of the Great Central railway, 44 M. N. by E. of Lincoln. Pop. of urban district (1901) 5671. It lies beneath low hills, on flat ground bordering the Humber, but the centre of the town is a mile from the river. The church of St Peter has a remarkable west tower of pre-Conquest workman-ship, excepting the early Norman top. storey. Against the western face is a low building of the date of the lower tower-storeys, measuring 15 ft. by 12, with rude, deeply-splayed windows. The tower itself is arcaded in the two lower storeys, having round arches in the lower and triangular in the upper, and there is a round-headed S. doorway and a triangular-headed N. doorway. The rest of the church is Decorated and Perpendicular. The church of St Mary is fine Early English with Perpendicular clerestory. Industries include brick-making, malting, and rope-making. Barton appears in Domesday, when the ferry over the Humber existed. As a port, moreover, it subsequently rose into some importance, for it was able to supply eight ships and men to the expedition of Edward III. to Brittany.
End of Article: BARTON BEDS
BARTOLUS (1314–1357)

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