BASE . (1) (Fr. bas,
See also:Lat. bassus, low; cf . Gr. f3aCbs) an adjective meaning low or deep, and so mean, worthless, or wicked . This sense of the word has sometimes affected the next, which is really distinct . (2) (Gr . Saves, strictly "stepping," and so a foundation or pedestal) a
See also:term for a foundation or starting point, used in various senses; in sports, e.g.
See also:hockey and baseball; in
See also:geometry, the
See also:line or
See also:face on which a figure or solid stands; in crystallography, e.g . " basal
See also:plane "; in
See also:surveying, in the " base line," an accurately measured distance between the points from which the survey is conducted; in
See also:heraldry, in the phrase " in base," applied to any figure or emblem placed in the lowest
See also:part of a
See also:shield . In chemistry the term denotes a substance which combines with an acid to
See also:form a
See also:salt . In inorganic chemistry such compounds are almost invariably oxides or hydroxides, and
See also:water is eliminated during the combination; but in organic chemistry many compounds exist, especially
See also:ammonia derivatives, which directly combine with acids . Chemical bases are consequently antithetical to acids; and an acid is neutralized by a base with the production of a salt . They
See also:reverse certain
See also:colour reactions of acids, e.g. turn red
See also:litmus blue; this is termed an " alkaline reaction." In architecture the " base " is the lowest member of a
See also:column or
See also:shaft . In
See also:Egyptian and Greek architecture it is the raised slab in
See also:stone or
See also:cement on which the
See also:timber column was placed, to keep it dry .
Afterwards it was always reproduced in
See also:Egypt, even although the column, being in stone, no longer required it; a
See also:custom probably retained because, being of a much larger circumference than the
See also:lower part of the column, it gave increased stability . In
See also:Assyrian architecture, where it served to carry wooden posts or columns, it took the form of a large
See also:torus moulding with enrichments . In Persian architecture the base was much higher than in any other
See also:style, and was elaborately carved . In primitive Greek
See also:work the base consisted of the stone plinth as found in Crete and
See also:Tiryns, and of three small steps at
See also:Mycenae . In archaic Greek work it has already disappeared in the Doric
See also:order, but in the Ionic and Corinthian orders it is more or less richly moulded, the most elaborate examples being those found in the
See also:temple of
See also:Apollo at Branchidae in Milesia . For the
See also:contour of the
See also:mouldings see ORDERS . The
See also:Roman orders all have the favourite design known as the
See also:Attic base . Romanesque bases were
See also:rude but vigorous copies of the old classic base, and were often decorated with projections or spurs (Fr. grijfes) at the angles of the square
See also:dies, thus connecting them with the square base . In the Early Englishstyle, these spurs followed the conventional design of the
See also:period, and about the same
See also:time the mouldings were deeply sunk and occasionally cut downwards, so that they would have held water if used externally . Later, the base becomes less bold in treatment, but much more complex in its contours, and in the 15th century is given an unusual height with two stages, the lower one constituting a kind of plinth, which is sometimes known as the ground table, or the base course . A Bast
See also:COURT (Fr. basse tour, i.e. the lower court), is the first open space within the
See also:gates of a
See also:castle . It was used for exercising
See also:cavalry, and keeping live stock during a
See also:siege .
See also:ENCEINTE) .
JOHN BASCOM (1827– )
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