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FREDERIC BASTIAT (18o1–185o)

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Originally appearing in Volume V03, Page 500 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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FREDERIC BASTIAT (18o1–185o), French economist, was the son of a merchant of Bayonne, and was born in that town on the 29th of June 18o1. Educated at the colleges of Saint-Sever and of Soreze, he entered in 1818 the counting-house of his uncle at Bayonne. The practical routine of mercantile life being distasteful to him, in 1825 he retired to a property at Mugron, of which he became the owner on the death of his grandfather. jure sanguinis, may succeed by destination, where he is specially called to the succession by entail or testament. In Scotland, as in England, a bastard can have no legal heirs except those of his own body; and hence, failing his lawful issue, the king succeeds to him as last heir. Formerly bastards in Scotland without issue of their own could not make a will, but this disability was removed by a statute of 1835. If bastards or other persons without kindred die intestate without wife or child, their effects go to the king as ultimus haeres; but a grant is usually made of them by letters patent, and the grantee becomes entitled to the administration. According to the common law, which is the law of England, a bastard cannot be divested of his state of illegitimacy, unless by the supreme power of an act of parliament. But in those countries which have followed the Roman or civil law, a bastard's status may be provisional, and he can be made legitimate by the subsequent marriage of his parents. (See LEGITIMACY AND LEGITIMATION; and, for statistics, ILLEGITIMACY.) AUTIIORITIEs.—Bacquet, Traite de la batardise (1608) ; Du Cange, Gloss. Lat., infra " Bastardus "; L. G. Koen-igswater, Histoire de l'organisation de la amille en France (1851), and Essai sur les enfants nis hors manage (1842) ; E. D. Glasson, Histoire des droits et des institutions de l'Angleterre (6 vols., 1882-1883), Histoire du droit et des institutions, de la France (1887) ; Pollock and Maitland, History of English Law (1898); Stephen's Commentaries: Nicholls and Mackay, History of the English Poor Law (3 vols., 1898).
End of Article: FREDERIC BASTIAT (18o1–185o)
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