German theologianand historian, wasEnd of Article: BRUNO BAUER (1809-1882)
See also:born on the 6th of
See also:September 1809, the son of a painter in a
See also:porcelain factory, at
See also:Eisenberg in Saxe-
See also:Altenburg . He studied at Berlin, where he attached himself to the " Right " of the Hegelian school under P . Marheineke . In 1834 he began to teach in Berlin as a licentiate of
See also:theology, and in 1839 was transferred to
See also:Bonn . In 1838 he published his Kritische Darstellung der Religion
See also:Allen Testaments (2 vols.), which shows that at that date he was still faithful to the Hegelian Right . Soon afterwards his opinions underwent a
See also:change, and in two
See also:works, one on the
See also:Gospel, Kritik der evangelischen Geschichte des Johannes (184o), and the other on the Synoptics, Kritik der evangelischen Geschichte der Synoptiker (1841), as well as in his Herr Hengstenberg, kritische Briefe fiber den Gegensatz des Gesetzes
See also:rand des Evangeliums, he announced his
See also:complete rejection of his earlier orthodoxy . In 1842 the
See also:government revoked his license and he retired for the
See also:rest of his
See also:life to
See also:Rixdorf, near Berlin . Henceforward he took a deep
See also:interest in
See also:history and politics, as well as in theology, and published Geschichte der Politik, Kultur and Aufklarung des 18ten Jahrhunderts (4 vols . 1843-1845), Geschichte der franzosischen Revolution (3 vols . 1847), and Disraelis romantischer and Bismarcks socialistischerlmperialismus (1882) . Other critical works are: a
See also:criticism of the gospels and a history of their origin, Kritik der Evangelien and Geschichte ihres Ursprungs (1850-1852), a
See also:book on the Acts of the Apostles, Apostelgeschichte (1850), and a criticism of the Pauline epistles, Kritik der paulinischen Briefe (1850-1852) . He died at Rixdorf on the 13th of
See also:April 1882, His criticism of the New Testament was of a highly destructive type .
See also:David Strauss in his Life of Jesus had accounted for the Gospel narratives as
See also:half-conscious products of the mythic
See also:instinct in the early Christian communities .
See also:Bauer ridiculed Strauss's notion that a community could produce a connected narrative . His own contention, embodying a theory of C . G . Wilke (Der Urevangelist, 1838), was that the
See also:original narrative was the Gospel of Mark; that this was composed in the reign of
See also:Hadrian; and that after this the other narratives were modelled by other writers . He, however, " regarded Mark not only as the first narrator, but even as the creator of the gospel history, thus making the latter a fiction and
See also:Christianity the invention of a single original evangelist " (
See also:Pfleiderer) . On the same principle the four
See also:principal Pauline epistles were regarded as forgeries of the and century . He argued further for the preponderance of the Graeco-
See also:element, as opposed to the Jewish, in the Christian writings . The writer of Mark's gospel was " an
See also:Italian, at home both in Rome and Alexandria " ; that of
See also:Matthew's gospel " a Roman, nourished by the spirit of
See also:Seneca "; the Pauline epistles were written in the West in antagonism to the Paul of the Acts, and so on . Christianity is essentially " Stoicism triumphant in a Jewish garb." This
See also:line of criticism has found few supporters, mostly in the
See also:Netherlands . It certainly had its value in emphasizing the importance of studying the influence of environment in the formation of the Christian Scriptures . Bauer was a man of rest-less, impetuous activity and
See also:independent, if
See also:judgment, one who, as he himself perceived, was more in place as a
See also:lance of criticism than as an official teacher .
He came in the end to be regarded kindly even by opponents, and he was not afraid of taking a line displeasing to his liberalfriends on the Jewish question (Die Judenfrage, 1843) . His attitude towards the Jews is dealt with in the article in the Jewish Encyclopedia . See generally Herzog-Hauck, Realencyklopadie; and cf .
See also:Otto Pfleiderer, Development of Theology, p . 226; Carl Schwarz, Zur Geschichte der neuesten Theologie, pp . 142 ff . ; and F . Lichtenberger, History of German Theology in the 19th Century (1889), PP . 374-378 .
BAUDRY, or BALDERICH, OF BOURGUEIL (1046 or 1047-r ...
EDUARD VON BAUERNFELD (1802-1890)
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