See also:born in
See also:Aberdeen and educated at
See also:College . He maintained himself by acting as tutor to noblemen's sons . From 1741 to 1747 he lived with
See also:Lord Blantyre and Mr
See also:Hay of Drummelzier at Utrecht, and made excursions in
See also:Flanders, France and Germany . Returning to Scotland, he lived at Whittingehame, near
See also:Edinburgh, till his
See also:death in 1750 . At
See also:Spa he had met
See also:John Wilkes, then twenty years of age, and formed a lasting friendship with him . His chief
See also:work, An Inquiry into the Nature of the Human Soul (
See also:editions 1733, 1737 and 1745; with appendix added in 1750 in answer to an attack in Mac- laurin's Account of
See also:Sir I .
See also:Newton's Philosophical Discoveries, and dedication to John Wilkes), examines the properties of
See also:matter . The, one essential
See also:property of matter is its inactivity, vis inertiae (accepted later by Monboddo) . All
See also:movement in matter is, therefore, caused by some immaterial force, namely,
See also:God . But the movements of the
See also:body are not analogous to the movements of matter; they are caused by a
See also:special immaterial force, the soul . The soul, as being immaterial, is immortal, and its consciousness does not depend upon its connexion with the body . The
See also:argument is supported by an analysis of the phenomena of dreams, which are ascribed to
See also:direct spiritual influences .
See also:Baxter attempted to prove that matter is finite . His work is an attack on Toland's Letters to
See also:Serena (1704), which argued that motion is essential to matter, and on
See also:Locke and
See also:Berkeley . His
See also:criticism of Berkeley (in the second
See also:volume) is, however, based on the
See also:common misinterpretation of his theory (see BERKELEY) . Sir
See also:Stephen speaks of him as a curious example of " the effects of an exploded
See also:metaphysics on a feeble though ingenious intellect." Beside the Inquiry, Baxter wrote Matho sive Cosmotheoria Puerilis (an exposition in Latin of the elements of astronomy written for his pupils—editions in
See also:English 1740, 1745 and 1765, with one
See also:dialogue re-written); Evidence of Reason in
See also:Proof of the Immortality of the Soul (published posthumously from
See also:MSS . by Dr
See also:Duncan in 1779) . See
See also:life in Biographia Britannica; McCosh's Scottish Philosophy, PP . 42-49 .
BAWBEE (of very doubtful origin, the most plausible...
RICHARD BAXTER (1615-1691)
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