BEACH , a word of unknown origin; probably an olddialect word meaning
See also:shingle, hence, by transference, the place covered by shingle . Beach sometimes denotes the material thrown up by the waves, sometimes the long resulting
See also:ridge, but. more frequently the
See also:area between high and low
See also:water, or even the area between
See also:land and
See also:sea covered with material thrown up by exceptional storms . The actual character of beach material depends upon the nature and structure of the rocks inshore, the strength and direction of currents, and the force of the waves . The
See also:shore of the Isle of
See also:Wight furnishes a
See also:good example . The
See also:island ends westward in the well-known " Needles," consisting of
See also:chalk with flints . The disintegration of this
See also:rock by
See also:action separates the finer chalk, which is carried seawards in suspension, from the hard
See also:flint, which is piled in rough shingle upon the shore . The currents sweep constantly eastward up channel, and the rough flint shingle is rolled along by wave action toward the
See also:Ventnor rampart, and ground finer and finer until it arrives as a very
See also:fine flinty
See also:gravel at Ventnor
See also:pier . The sweep of
See also:Bay follows, where the cliffs are composed for the most
See also:part of
See also:greensand, and here the beach at low water is sandy and smooth . The eastern end of the island is again composed of chalk with flints, and here the beach material as at the western end consists of very coarse flint shingle . In this, as in similar cases, the material has been dragged seawards from the land by
See also:constant action of the undertow that accompanies each retreating
See also:tide and each returning wave . The resulting accumulated ridge is battered by every
See also:storm, and thrown above ordinary high-water mark in a ridge such as the Chesil
See also:Bank or the long grass-grown
See also:mound that has blocked the old channel of the Yar and diverted its
See also:waters into Yaverland Bay . Sandown furnishes an instructive example of the power of the eastward currents carrying high-storm waves .
The groins built to preserve the
See also:foreshore are piled to the top with coarse shingle on the western side, while there is, a drop of over 8 ft. on to the sands east of the
See also:wall, many thousands of tons of shingle having been moved bodily by the waves and deposited against each
See also:groin . The force of the waves has been measured on the west
See also:coast of Scotland and found to be as much as 3 tons per square
See also:foot . Against these forces the preservation of the shore from the advance of the sea becomes an extremely difficult and often a hopeless undertaking, since blocks of rock over 10o tons in
See also:weight have been moved by the waves . The beach is therefore unstable in its position . It advances in front of the encroaching sea, burying former beaches under the sand and mud of the now deeper water, or it retreats when the sea is withdrawn from the land or the land rises locally, leaving the old shingle stranded in a " raised beach," but its formation is in all cases due to the
See also:form and structure of the shore, the sapping action of the waves, the backward
See also:drag of the undertow plastering the shore with material, which is in turn bombarded by waves and swept by currents that cover the finer debris of the undertow with a layer of coarse fragments that are re-sorted by the daily action of currents and tides .
BDELLIUM (0b XXwov, used by Pliny and Dioscorides a...
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